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A Battery is any object used to store power (specifically, Electricity, i.e. a flow of electrons through a conductive path - called a circuit). Batteries have three parts, an anode (-), a cathode (+), and the electrolyte. The cathode and anode (the positive and negative sides at either end of a traditional battery) are hooked up to an electrical circuit.

A chemical reaction occurs inside the battery causing a build up of electrons at the anode, which then results in an electrical difference between the anode and the cathode (or, an unstable build-up of the electrons). The electrons wants to rearrange themselves to get rid of any difference, however as they do this, they repel each other and try to go to a place with fewer electrons. In a tightly sealed (and insulated) battery, the only place to go is to the cathode, however the electrolyte keeps the electrons from going straight from the anode to the cathode within the battery. When the circuit is closed, the wire connecting the cathode and the anode makes contact, and then the electrons will finally be able to get to the cathode. Electrical potential is thereby causing electrons to flow through the circuit and push electricity out to the device hosting the battery.

These electrochemical processes change the chemicals inside the anode and cathode to make them stop supplying electrons, resulting in a material limitation on the amount of power available within a battery. When you recharge a battery, you change the direction of the flow of electrons using another power source, such as solar panels or an electrical outlet-connected recharger unit. The electrochemical processes happen in reverse, and the anode and cathode are restored to their original state and can again store and provide full power.




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