Health

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Health is a measure of the overall status of an individual. Health is usually used to describe or measure a living being's life vitality (i.e. through Vital Signs, or, as an assessment of general disposition; for example, a person of weight X, height Y); but the term Health may also be used to describe the status of inanimate objects or concepts (i.e. the project is not so healthy, the code was buggy but now it's healthy, if that brand's health remains in question the company may discontinue it, that company used to be so healthy but now it's in financial trouble, healthy .vs. unhealhty relationships, healthy vs. toxic work environments, ergonomic .vs. unhealthy workspaces, healthy .vs. sick buildings, etc).

As an individual, there are a number of ways to maintain good health but the primary methods are through living a healthy lifestyle, which many define as the right balance between Work (jobs, to-do tasks, chores, errands, labour done to earn money/sustenance, etc) and Life (family/child-rearing, friends, self-improvement/learning, relaxation/downtime, hobbies/playtime, etc). Within the Life category, particularly under self-improvement, we find two critical lifestyle activities that have perhaps the largest effect on overall health, Exercise and Nutrition. Furthermore, under relaxation/downtime, we have an additional important activity by the name of Meditation, which can be used to enhance your mood and also positively impact your health.


Meditation

What you put into your mind over your lifetime can be defined as your Education, but what you put into your mind during relaxation can be defined as Meditation and can be used to enhance once's mental health, intelligence and overall well-being.


Nutrition

What you put into your body (Calorie/substance intake) in the run of a day can be defined as your Diet, but what your body obtains from the substances put into your body defines your Nutrition and greatly impacts your overall well-being.


Exercise

There are many forms of beneficial Exercise but virtually any form of physical activity can be either beneficial (if done correctly, in moderation, with respect to physical limitations) or harmful (if done recklessly, when the body or mind are tired, or when not respecting physical limitations). Movement of any kind burns a portion of the Calories taken in during your Diet, and Nutrition provides energy/nutrients to your anatomical structures/organs for performing said movements.



Meditation

Meditation is a practice in which an individual trains the mind or induces a mode of consciousness, either to realize some benefit (such as the known health benefits[1]) or merely as a form of hobby or activity. The term meditation refers to a broad variety of practices (much like the term "Sports") that includes techniques designed to promote relaxation, build internal energy or life force (qi, ki, prana, etc.) and develop compassion, love, patience, generosity and forgiveness. Likewise, Meditation may also involve generating an emotional state for the purpose of analyzing that or other states (not just positive but also negative), such as anger, hatred, envy, contempt, distrust, fear, etc; or cultivating a particular mental response to various phenomena, such as compassion while under stress or focus while under a timeline.

The term "Meditation" carries different meanings in different contexts and can refer to the state itself, as well as to practices or techniques employed to cultivate the state. Meditation has been practiced since antiquity as a component of numerous religious traditions and beliefs. Meditation often involves an internal effort to self-regulate the mind in some way. Meditation is often used to clear the mind and ease many health issues, such as high blood pressure, depression, and anxiety. It may be done sitting, or in an active way—for instance, Buddhist monks involve awareness in their day-to-day activities as a form of mind-training. Meditation may also involve repeating a mantra (saying or chant) and closing the eyes. The mantra is chosen based on its suitability to the individual meditator. Meditation has a calming effect and directs awareness inward until pure awareness is achieved, described as: "being awake inside without being aware of anything except awareness itself".

Transcendental Meditation A particularly ambitious form of meditation, Transcendental Meditation (TM) aims at effortlessly sustained single-pointed concentration meant to enable its practitioner to enjoy an indestructible sense of well-being and happiness while engaging in any life activity.

Creative Visualization Sports Psychologists, Self-Help Gurus and Meditation practitioners alike often emphasize various forms of "Creative Visualization" (also called Dynamic Visualization or Sports Visualization) to realize specific life goals or performance objectives. Such visualization is a form of Meditative practice which seeks to affect the outer world by changing one's thoughts and expectations. Techniques include making Mental Images of future or present events, as well as imagining Motor performance (Motor imagery) of a physical task or activity.

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[29] [30] [31] [32] [33] [34] [35] [36] [37] [38] [39] [40] [41] [42] (aka. sendep) [43] [44] [45] [46] [47] [48] [49] [50] [51] [52] [53] [54]

Qi Gong

Qi Gong (also called Chi Kung) is an ancient Chinese method of meditation which is used in the channeling of internal energy, typically for the purpose of summoning strength (or another physical characteristic), focusing the mind and/or tensing or training the muscles and breathing in general. Some of those who believe in internal energy theories may also attempt to utilize Qi Gong for healing (i.e. self-healing or directed-healing of others).

Meditative Breathing Meditative Breathing (also called "Deep-Breathing", "rhythmic breathing" or "belly breathing") can help for relaxation, harnessing energy/focus, optimizing oxygen distribution to muscles and controlling blood oxygen circulation by slowing or increasing heart rate as necesssary. It can be accomplished by consciously opening the diaphragm while breathing and pushing the incoming air all the way down to the lower dantian ("tandan" in Japanese, Chakra in Ayurvedic traditions).

DiaphragmBreathing.pngDantian.jpgReikiChakras.jpg

Circulation-Dantian.jpgCirculation-Chakras.jpg


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Nutrition

Nutrition is a measure of the daily consumption and expenditure of nutrients (literally organisms containing vitamins, minerals and other essential substances) for energy intake and sustenance. For more info, see Nutrition section.

FoodGuide.jpg

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You should of course adjust your diet based on your body type, which is typically one of the three (or a combination, such as ecto-meso or meso-endo):

BodyType.jpgFemaleBodyType.gif

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Nutrient TypeRecommended Daily Allowance (RDA)
Macronutrients
Protein112 g
Fiber33 g
Carbohydrates350 g
Fat90 g
Micronutrients
Biotin (B-complex)30 µg
Folate (B-complex)400 µg
Vitamin A600 µg
Vitamin B1 (thiamin)1.2 mg
Vitamin B2 (riboflavin)1.3 mg
Vitamin B3 (niacin)18 mg
Vitamin B5 (patothenic acid)6 mg
Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine)1.7 mg
Vitamin B12 (cobalamine)2.4 µg
Vitamin C (ascorbic acid)90 mg
Vitamin D (cholecalciferol)15 µg
Vitamin E15 mg
Vitamin K120 μg
Minerals
Boron< 20 mg
Calcium1300 mg
Choline550 mg
Chlorine (in Chloride form)2300 mg
Chromium35 µg
Copper900 μg
Fluorine3.5 mg
Iodine150 µg
Iron18 mg
Magnesium420 mg
Manganese2.3 mg
Molybdenum45 µg
Niacin16 mg
Nickel< 1 mg
Pantothene (pantothenic acid)5 mg
Phosphorus1250 mg
Potassium3500 mg
Selenium55 µg
Sodium2400 mg
Vanadium< 1.8 mg
Zinc11 mg

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th "Metabolic Exercise Pairings": http://www.menshealth.com/print/76451</ref>

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Sleep

Sleep is a form of energy conservation and is used as an anatomical process through which the body repairs itself.

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Calisthenics

Calisthenics are a form of exercise consisting of a variety of exercises, often rhythmical, movements, generally without using equipment or apparatus. They are intended to increase body strength and flexibility with movements such as bending, jumping, swinging, twisting or kicking, using only one's bodyweight for resistance. They are usually conducted in concert with stretches. Calisthenics when performed vigorously and with variety can benefit both muscular and cardiovascular fitness, in addition to improving psycho-motor skills such as balance, agility and coordination.

Calisthenics.png

Some of the most common forms of Calisthenics exercises are:

  • Jumping Jacks
  • Squats
  • Lunges
  • Split Squat
  • Sit-ups
  • Crunches
  • Push-ups
  • Pull-ups
  • Calf-raises
  • Dips
  • Flutter/Scissor kick
  • Plank

There are many modern exercise and weight-loss programs which simply combine age-old Calisthenics exercises with Yoga such as Pilates or the various P90X and Insanity-type HIIT & Cardio Fat Loss workout programmes.

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Plyometrics

Plyometrics (sometimes called jump training or ballistic movements; commonly abbreviated plyos) can be considered a subset of Calisthenics in that it is a category of exercises which use little to no equipment for mostly unloaded (own bodyweight) exercises in an explosive, dynamic or ballistic manner. For example, if you perform a static lunge from a stationary upright position going down and then smoothly returning to the upright position before performing the next rep, that's typical calisthenics; however, if you spring forward into a lunge then back to the starting position or if you add in a jumping movement at the top of the lunge, it becomes a Plyometrics exercise. It's the explosive movement that distinguishes Plyometrics from Calisthenics.

You can see from the following list how common Plyometrics differ from Calisthenics exercises:

  • Star Jumps (jumping jack motion performed in mid-air at the peak of a vertical jumping)
  • Jumping Squats (perform a regular squat but explode upwards jumping off the ground at the end of the regular squat movement)
  • Jumping Lunges (lunge performed where the legs switch in mid-air)
  • Jumping Split Squats (Split Squat performed with a high vertical jump and legs switched in mid-air)
  • Medicine Ball Toss Sit-ups (requires partner or appropriate bouncy surface to return ball)
  • Medicine Ball Crunches (hold the ball high above your head with arms straight)
  • Clap Push-ups
  • Throw/Catch Pull-ups (from hang throw entire bodyweight upwards dynamically and release the bar, catching it on the way back down; optionally, you can switch your grip each rep over/under or swing up to a higher bar and back down)
  • Calf Jumps (like jumping rope but each jump is higher and explosive, using only foot extension while legs stay straight)
  • Plyometric Dips (from bottom of dip position toss bodyweight upwards above parallel bar or handles and catch body weight on the way back down)
  • Resisted Flutter/Scissor kicks (a partner is required to dynamically push your legs back down as each raises up)
  • Plank Jacks (from Plank position jump legs out and back in)

Plyometrics.jpg

Some exercises which are unique to this subset of Calisthenics are the Plyometrics Box Exercises, which include:

  • Step-ups
  • Lateral Step-ups
  • Lunging Step-ups
  • Lateral Lunging Step-ups
  • Jumping Step-ups
  • Alternating Push-Offs
  • Lateral Alternating Push-Offs
  • Box Vaults[298]
  • Box Jumps
  • Single-leg Box Jumps
  • Lateral Box Jumps
  • Single-leg Lateral Box Jumps
  • Box Jump-Overs
  • Lateral Box Jump-Overs
  • Drop Jumps
  • Depth Jumps
  • Depth Jumps w/ 360-degree Turn

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HIIT

High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) is a form of "continuous interval training" where the repetitions, sets, weights used, and exercises performed are variable (based on one's capabilities), but the advised time intervals are fixed. In this sense, it can be considered an ideal form of "competing with oneself" to perform better each time (although some may still try to compete amongst others). It emphasizes cardiovascular exercise through alternation of short periods of intense anaerobic exercise with much less intense "active recovery periods, until the athelete or exerciser becomes too exhausted to continue. As can be seen in the following infographic, it has been found in some studies (when done correctly) to improve cardiovascular health, VO2 Max, strength, and even potentially endurance at a far better rate than simply doing "resistance training" with weights and/or "steady-state cardio" in isolation or separately.

HIIT-infographic.png

There are a number of different types of HITT and protocols including Tabata, Gibala, Zuniga, Vollaard, Peter Coe, some types of Crossfit workouts, various "Bootcamps"; according to some HIIT can even be done in Spinning/Cycling-type classes, Running on a track, Walking intensely, etc (this is still of course debated as to what exactly should and should not be considered HIIT or just regular interval training). Criticisms are that when taken to the extreme, it can potentially lead to overdoing one's exercise session, so some experience or supervision from a professional trainer is advised when getting familiar with these types of training protocols.

[323] [324] [325] [326] [327] [328] [329] [330] [331] [332] [333] [334]


Pilates

At the other end of the Calisthenics spectrum is Pilates, a primarly mat-based program started by Joseph Pilates in the 1940s (developing through to his death in 1967 and in some senses still to the present day) which focuses on isolated, static holds and controlled short-range movements rather than the jumps, leaps and other dynamic whole-body explosive movements of Plyometrics.

The primary types of Pilates exercises are:

Pilates Types.jpg

The 34 Pilates "Mat Exercises" in classical order are:

  1. Hundred
  2. Roll Up
  3. Roll Over
  4. One Leg Circle
  5. Rolling Back (rolling like a ball)
  6. One Leg Stretch
  7. Double Leg Stretch
  8. Spine Stretch
  9. Rocker with Open Legs
  10. Cork-Screw
  11. Saw
  12. Swan-Dive
  13. One Leg Kick
  14. Double Leg Kick
  15. Neck Pull
  16. Scissors
  17. Bicycle
  18. Shoulder Bridge
  19. Spine Twist
  20. Jack Knife
  21. Lying Side Kick
  22. Teaser
  23. Hip Twist
  24. Swim/Water Exercises
  25. Leg Pull - Front
  26. Leg Pull
  27. Kneeling Side Kick
  28. Side Bend
  29. Boomerang
  30. Seal
  31. Crab
  32. Rocking
  33. Control Balance
  34. Push Up

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Another innovative aspect of Pilates was its unique and extensive uses of the Swiss Ball (also called a Stability Ball). The main Swiss Ball exercises are listed in the following chart:

SwissBall CHART.jpg

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Weightlifting

Weightlifting (also known as weight training, lifting or colloquially as hitting the gym) is a form of strength and endurance training aimed at exercising the slow and fast titch muscle fibers in the six main muscle groups (back, shoulders, chest, arms, abs, legs). When exercises are performed correctly, they can also benefit the joints, ligaments, tendons, bones and minor muscle groups in the musculoskeletal system[349]. In weightlifting, there are reps (repetitions of a single exercise) and sets (series of synchronous performances of a single repetition) which are used to keep track of progress, performance and exertion. While many studies hae shown the benefits of Weightlifting[350][351][352][353][354][355], some negative and/or inconvenient side-effects exist such as potential for injury, Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness (DOMS)[356][357][358][359], Excess Post-exercise Oxygen Consumption (EPOC)[360], and the relatively high amount of total time dedication required to progress and earn the most benefits from this type of training (i.e. 1hr+ per session, multiplied by number of workouts per year can quickly use up a significant portion of one's free time, mind you a fair trade-off of sacrificing or spending several days in the gym per year can be some serious strength and overall fitness gains, when done correctly).

Weightlifting back.jpgWeightlifting shoulders.jpgWeightlifting chest.jpg Weightlifting biceps.jpgWeightlifting triceps.jpgWeightlifting legs.jpg 400

Traditional weightlifting routines involve the performance of a specific number (or goal "rep range") of repetitions (called "reps" for short), for a specified number (or goal "rep range") of sets (each individual performance of those number of repetitions). In Split Routines, days are split up such that individual muscle groups are worked out in isolation, with exercises that focus on a specific area. Split Routines also rely on a predictable rep range and set goal such as 4 sets of 8-12 reps (4x8-12). For example, the most common Split Routine workout schedule is roughly as follows:

MondayTuesdayWednesdayThursdayFridaySaturdaySunday
ChestBackAbsArmsLegsShouldersRest (or light Cardio)

Though there are countless variations and approaches, Weightlifting strategies can be divided into two primary schemes:

  1. Highly Intensive Training (HIT) - go as hard as you think/know you can all the time each set/rep at maximum capabilities, try to surpass them every workout (approaches include HIIT, MRT, Supersets, Dropsets, etc)
  2. Periodization - gradually work up in intensity each workout/set from a fraction of your capabilities to your maximum capabilities, try to surpass them in steps

Highly Intensive Training (HIT)[361] was always the most common method of structuring a workout and performing its exercises, of which there are two main types: Strength HIT training and Endurance HIT training. Strength HIT routines tend to utilize weights, machines and gym equipment whereas Endurance/Cardio HIT programs tend to emphasize own-bodyweight exercises and minimal equipment. 4x10 Splits, Drops, Supers and Hypertrophy Specific Training (HST)[362][363][364] are good examples of Strength HIT programs, while Metabollic Resistance Training (MRT), High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) or Tabata Training are examples of an Endurance/Cardio HIT program.[365][366][367][368][369] The common thread of all these Strength/Endurance HIT programs is exercises done to failure, performed at maximum intensity all the time, until a plateau is reached (i.e. 8 weeks on) at which time a break/rest period (i.e. 1-2 weeks off) typically ensues.

In Supersets (or "supers"), two or more exercises are performed sequentially without a break or rest period in between, and after completion of the last exercise in the superset, a rest or break period is then taken before completing the next regular set or another superset. Mixing supersets with traditional weightlifting (along with other mutually beneficial exercise vectors) has been shown to lead to bigger gains in performance, strength and overall fitness levels.[370][371][372][373][374][375][376][377][378][379][380]

Similar to "Supersets", in Dropsets (or "drops") the person performing the workout does exercises back-to-back, however they stick to the same exercise and vary the weight downwards (by any amount depending on routine, but typically 5-15% for tight drops and ~50% for wide drops) and do as many reps as possible until failure (or a set number that may increase or decrease as weights decrease, depending on routine). Dropsets are usually accomplished by performing as many reps as possible (to failure) of a given exercise with as high a weight as possible, and without a break (or with a break of very short duration such as 10-30 seconds, typically 15 seconds at most), immediately picks up a lower weight and does the exact same exercise again with as many reps as possible (to failure). Depending on the training regiment, after the desired number of sets are reached, the Dropset for that exercise is over. For example, if your maximum weight for a give exercise (say dumbbell flat bench press) were 100lbs, and you can perform 10 reps at that weight until muscle failure (or the point at which you can not raise the weight anymore without assistance from a spotter, activating support bands, taking short rest then resuming, etc), then your Dropset would be to reduce the weight by 10lbs down to 90lbs and immediately do as many reps as possible until next muscle failure, maybe getting 12 reps this time but maybe only completing 8 reps or fewer because they are tired; a Double-Dropset would be to reduce the weight from 100lbs to 80lbs then going for max reps until failure, and a Triple-Dropset would be to reduce the weight from 100lbs to 70lbs then going for max reps until failure. A typical training strategy for those new to Dropsets is to start with Triple-Dropsets, then move to Double-Dropsets and work one's way up to doing only single Dropsets.[381][382]

Metabolic Resistance Training (MRT) takes the concepts of no-break supersetting and dropsetting to a whole new level with targeted cardio-type exercises spread throughout a strength routine without breaks. Cardio and strength/weightlifting are two exercise types that have always been segregated to different days, workouts in a day, or at least performed separately with reasonably lengthy rests (if done within a single workout). In MRT the focus on working all of the major muscles in each training session, performing higher repetitions with lower (and less frequent) rest intervals, giving maximal effort, fast & explosive concentric phases of all lifts/movements, and slower eccentric phases of all lifts/movements. Higher reps with moderate weight combined with shorter less frequent rest periods will elevate the metabolic demand, and thus elevate fat burning. Furthermore, certain exercises in each MRT workout get basically re-dseigned or re-purposed in order to turn weightlifting into a cardio activity. [383] [384] [385] [386] [387] [388] [389] [390] [391] [392] [393] [394] [395]


In Periodization[396] schemes, workouts have the volume and/or the intensity of training varied over a period of time, but for the most part a traditional Split Routine is still typically used; however Periodization may also be used in conjunction with other types of training such as Grouped Routines such as DoggCrapp (DC)[397][398][399][400][401][402] aka. Rest/Pause) that incorporate a few more body parts and muscle groups, for instance on Chest days you also do Abs, on Arms days you also do Legs, on Back days you also do Shoulders. The aforementioned MRT routines could be done in a stepped Periodization manner where 60% to 65% of 1RM was more of a moving target from week-to-week, ala HardGains (HG) training[403][404]. Lastly, you could even look at recent "Compound Routines" and "Functional Routines" such as Stronglifts (5x5)[405][406] or Starting Strength 3x5 (SS)[407][408][409][410][411][412][413][414] as a form of Periodization for Powerlifting exercises. Periodization is said to be the "secret of the Russians" (along with illegal, then-cutting edge, performance enhancing drugs of course) during their period of dominance in the sports world under the banner of the USSR.[415][416][417][418][419] [420] [421]

A Periodization Workout Schedule typically looks as follows (Lower=Lower Body or Glutes/Legs/Abs/Lower-Back, Upper=Upper Body or Arms/Chest/Shoulders/Upper-Back, GPP=General Physical Preparedness[422] or Cardio/Endurance/Active-Recovery/Stabilizer-Muscles[423][424][425]):

MondayTuesdayWednesdayThursdayFridaySaturdaySunday
LowerUpperGPPLowerUpperGPPRest (or light Cardio)


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[530] [531] [532] [533] [534] [535] (best for maintenance and beginner gains) [536] (best for raw strength games) [537] [538] [539] [540] [541] [542] [543] [544] [545] [546] [547] [548] [549] [550] [551] [552] [553] [554]


Powerlifting

Powerlifting is a strength sport version of weightlifting that consists of three attempts at maximal weight on three lifts: Squat, Bench Press, and Deadlift.

Powerlifting bench.jpg Powerlifting deadlift.jpg Powerlifting squat.jpg

Other than the three staples above, sometimes (rarely) other lifts are included in Powerlifting competitions, but they are definitely used in training. The most common two lifts that might be seen in select Powerlifting competitons are Over-Head Press (OHP) and Bent-over Barbell Row.

Powerlifting press.jpg

Powerlifting row.jpg


There are several variations of the main Powerlifts which are not Powerlifts themselves but can significantly help in progressing in the core lifts, several of which will be listed below.

Squats:

  1. Front squats
  2. High/Low Bar Back squats (regardless of your preference, its common to perform one better than the other, so switch and try both)
  3. Overhead squats
  4. Zercher squats
  5. Hack squats
  6. Goblet squats
  7. Box squats
  8. Jump squats
  9. Single leg squats
  10. Bodyweight squats (great for cardio when done as Tabata/HIIT, but not great for overall strength)
  11. Pistol squats

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Deadlifts:

  1. ½ and ¾ deadlifts
  2. suitcase deadlifts
  3. dumbbell deadlifts
  4. kettlebell deadlifts
  5. one handed deadlifts
  6. sumo deadlifts (permitted technique in most Powerlifting competitions)
  7. Jefferson deadlifts
  8. Zercher deadlifts

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Overhead Press:

  1. Push press (also Thrusters, depending on how low you go)
  2. Split Jerk
  3. Push Jerk
  4. Seesaw press
  5. Bradford Press
  6. Behind-the-Head Press (not recommended due to prone neck/shoulder position commonly leading to injuries with higher weights)
  7. Arnold Press
  8. Dumbbell Overhead Press
  9. Seated dumbbell Overhead Press
  10. Barbell Overhead Press
  11. Javelin Press (i.e. "one-arm overhead press")


Bench Press:

  1. Barbell Floor Bench Press
  2. Dumbbell Floor Bench Press
  3. Barbell Incline Bench Press
  4. Barbell Decline Bench Press
  5. Dumbbell Incline Bench Press
  6. Dumbbell Decline Bench Press
  7. Let-Me-Ups (bodyweight or weighted Inverted Row)
  8. Elevated Let-Me-Ups (feet on a small stable platform such as bench/block, later less stable such as bosu then stability ball)
  9. Chest-centric Dips (using just bodyweight and/or weighted)
  10. Tricep-centric Dips (using just bodyweight and/or weighted)
  11. Dumbbell Pull-Overs (horizontal on a bench, pulling weight overhead)
  12. Pushups
  13. Wall/Declined Pushups
  14. Elevated Pushups
  15. Weighted Pushups
  16. Handstand Pushups

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Olympic Weightlifting

Olympic Weightlifting has also been argued to be a form of powerlifting, due to its focus on maximal weight performance in a single rep. The two olympic lifts are the Snatch, and the Clean & Jerk (separate exercises combined as one for competition), there was also previously a third left called the Press (Clean & Press) and a fourth lift called the One-Arm Lift (1-arm Snatch):

Powerlifting snatch.jpg Powerlifting clean.jpg Powerlifting jerk.jpg

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CrossFit

Cross-Fit or CrossFit (sometimes abbreviated CF or X-Fit) is a training regimen as well as athletic brand and affiliate-gym frandchising/marketing company that focuses on varied movements and whole-body exercises as opposed to static/stabilized movements and isolated muscle exercises (which is common with traditional Weightlifting and Powerlifting). In the words of CrossFit's founder Greg Glassman, CrossFit is: "constantly varied, high-intensity, functional movement".[685]

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KettlebellTraining Guide.jpg

Body weight exercises

  1. Air squat - Athlete moves from the standing position to a squatting position with the hips below the knees, and back to standing. One-legged air squats are referred to as pistols.
  2. Back extension - Using a GHD machine, the athlete moves from an L-shaped position with the head directly below the pelvis to an extended horizontal position.
  3. Box jump - From a standing position on the floor, the athlete jumps and lands with both feet on top of a box, and fully extends before returning to the floor. Typical box heights in inches are 15", 20", 24", and 30".
  4. Burpee - Beginning in a standing position, the athlete drops to the floor with the feet extending backward, contacts the floor with the chest, and then pulls the legs forward, landing in a squatting position before standing up, usually ending with a small jump.[686]
  5. Handstand push-up - Beginning in a handstand, with the arms straight and (usually) the heels gently resting against a wall, the athlete bends the arms until the head touches the ground, and then pushes back up into a handstand position.
  6. Jump rope - The most common variation in CrossFit is the "double under" in which the jump rope makes two revolutions for each jump.
  7. Knees-to-elbows - Hanging from a bar, starting in an extended position, the athlete raises the knees until they make contact with the elbows.
  8. L-sit - With the body supported on gymnastics rings or parallettes, the athlete holds the feet at or above the level of the hips with the legs straight.
  9. Lunge - Athlete takes a large step forward, bends the forward knee until the back knee makes contact with the ground, and rises.
  10. Muscle-up - Hanging from gymnastics rings or a bar, the athlete pulls up and over the rings or bar, ending with the arms straight and the hands below the hips.
  11. Ring dip - Starting with the body supported on the rings with straight vertical arms, the athlete bends the arms, lowering the body until the shoulder drops below the elbow, and then straightens the arms.
  12. Pull-up - Starting from a hanging position with straight arms, the athlete pulls up until the chin is over the bar. Variations include: strict, in which no swinging is allowed; kipping, in which momentum is used to help complete the movement; weighted, in which extra weight is hung from the athlete; chest-to-bar, in which the ending point of the movement is higher, and the chest makes contact with the bar; jumping, in which the legs are used to help propel the athlete upwards; assisted, in which an elastic band allows the movement to be completed with less than full body weight.
  13. Push-up - Starting in a plank position with the arms straight, the athlete lowers until the chest makes contact with the ground, keeping the body straight throughout, and pushes back up into the plank position. Variations include weighted push-ups and ring push-ups, in which the hands are supported just above the ground by gymnastics rings.
  14. Rope climb - Starting from the ground, the athlete climbs a rope and touches a point at a designated height, often 15 feet. Variations include no feet, and L-sit, in which the feet are held above the level of the hips during the climb.
  15. Sit-up - Athlete moves from a supine position, with the shoulders on the ground, to a sitting position with the shoulders over the hips. The feet are sometimes anchored. An "ab-mat" is sometimes placed under the lower back.
  16. Toes-to-bar - Hanging from a bar in an extended position, the athlete brings the feet upward until they make contact with the bar.

Monostructural Movements

  1. Running - Typical distances range from 100 meters to 1 mile. Shuttle runs back and forth between marks 10 meters apart are also common.
  2. Rowing - Many workouts include rowing machine distances from 500 meters to 2000 meters, or rowing "for calories".
  3. Elyptical - For cardio, some Crossfits have incorporated "extreme" uses of the elyptical machine such as arms-only/legs-only and high intensity circuit-like workouts
  4. Biking - Mountain Biking is a good core/leg workout (especially uphill), or as a rest day activity for Crossfit[687]
  5. Spinning - High-speed endurance biking on a resistance bike with various speeds and resistance levels

Movements with weights

  1. Deadlift - Barbell is lifted from the ground until the athlete reaches an upright standing position.
  2. Clean - Barbell is (or dumbbells are) lifted from the ground to a "rack position" in front of the athlete's neck. Athlete ends in a standing position. In a squat clean the athlete receives the bar in a squatting position and stands to finish the lift. In a power clean, the athlete receives the bar in a partial squat.
  3. Kettlebell swing - A kettlebell is swung from between the legs to overhead.
  4. Press - Barbell is moved from the "rack position" to the overhead position. In a strict press, also called a shoulder press or military press, the lower body remains stationary. In a push press, the bar is "jumped" off the body using a "dip and drive" motion. A push jerk is like a push press, but with a re-bend of the knees to allow the athlete to drop under the bar and receive it with straight arms. A split jerk is like a push jerk, but one leg goes forward and the other backward when the athlete drops under the bar.
  5. Snatch - Barbell is raised from the floor to the overhead position in one motion. In a squat snatch the athlete receives the bar in a squatting position and stands to finish the lift. In a power snatch, the athlete receives the bar in a partial squat.
  6. Squat (back/front) - Barbell is supported on upper back (back squat), in the rack position (front squat), or in the overhead position (overhead squat). From a standing position with a wider-than-shoulder-width stance, the athlete bends the knees until the hips are below the knees, and then stands, keeping the heels on the floor.
  7. Sumo deadlift high pull - With a wide stance, a barbell or kettlebell is lifted from the ground to a position just under the chin.
  8. Thruster - A combination of a front squat and a push press: starting with the barbell in the rack position, the athlete squats (hips below knees) and then stands, driving the barbell overhead.
  9. Tire flip - A large bus/truck tire, lying on its side, is flipped over by lifting one edge.
  10. Wallball - Holding a medicine ball below the chin while facing a wall at arms length, the athlete squats (hips below knees) and stands, throwing the medicine ball in order to make contact with an overhead target on the wall.
  11. Sledgehammer - Swinging a sledgehammer in a controlled motion (as in over the head downwards, or from a down position to upwards) and potentially striking an object such as a tree or tire.
  12. Mace - Performing controlled, deliberate swinging and/or chopping motions with a heavy blunted battle axe or mace (or striking an object such as a tree).

[688]

The rules of crossfit are simple, and can be summarized as have fun, keep safe, be respectful:

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Workout Of the Day (abbreviated as WOD) is a daily exercise routine which most Cross-Fit gyms will follow for group classes. These are ideal for performing as part of a group, as the competition will increase intensity and effort and thus improve results, however most of the exercises can also be performed individually.

BarbaraChelseaMaryCindyAnnieNicoleAngieEvaHelenKellyKarenAmandaJackieDianeFranElizabethNancyLynneIsabelLindaGraceCrossfit workouts.png
About this image

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Urban Workouts

Urban Workouts are own-body-weight exercises that utilize the natural environment of a city and items commonly found around an urban center such as fences, walls, parks, railings, playgrounds, etc to perform functional exercises that comprise a complete whole-body workout.

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Convict Conditioning

Convict Conditioning is both a subset of Urban Workouts and a separate workout system for all body-weight workouts that don't require additional weights (such as dumbells or barbells), equipment (such as smith machines or cable pulleys) or props (such as overhead-bars or benches), many of which are popular in the Crossfit system but some of which are unique to Convict Conditioning.

ConvictConditioning.jpg

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Rowing

Rowing.jpg

Rowing is a popular aerobic, muscular, and cardiovascular activity that can be done both outdoors (in a rowboat, jig, canoe, kayak, or other boat) or indoors (on an Indoor Rower machine such as the industry-leading Concept2). Modern indoor rowing devices come coupled with an ergometer (ERG) which monitors a number of athletic rowing performance metrics including Pace (time per km and/or split time per 500m), Speed (km per hr or m/s), Stroke count (per minute, session, etc), Power (of pull in watts), Calories burned (in kcal), and potentially others.

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Swimming

OlympicSwimming.jpg

Swimming is using your arms and/or legs in combination to propel your body through a volume of water. It is an excellent form of exercise for the whole body (cardiovascular, musculo-skeletal and respiratory systems). It is also extremely low-impact and easy on the joints due to reduced impact of gravity thanks to the water's resistance. For this reason, it is one of the most commonly used forms of cross-training for professional athletes of all sports, and is also one of the most popular physical activities for people of all types.

SwimmingStrokes.jpg
SwimmingStroke turns.png

The following are the main Strokes[780] (methods of Swimming):

  1. wikipedia: Streamline (swimming) (Gliding)[781]
  2. Butterfly Stroke[782][783]
  3. Breast Stroke[784]
  4. Front Crawl[785]
  5. Back Crawl[786]
  6. Side Crawl[787]
  7. Combat Side Crawl[788][789][790][791]
  8. Trudgen[792]
  9. Dog Paddle[793]
  10. Frog Stroke (basically breast stoke performed underwater, legs may move slightly differently mimicking a frog, or, be identical to above-water breast stroke)
  11. Dolphin Stroke (easier with flippers)[794][795][796][797][798][799]
  12. Fish Kick[800][801][802][803]
  13. Mixed/Medley[804]
  14. Treading[805]
  15. Sculing[806][807]


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Biking

Biking.jpg

Biking (also called bicycling or cycling), is the use of bicycles (bikes) for transport, recreation, or for sport. Persons engaged in cycling are referred to as "cyclists", "bikers", or less commonly, as "bicyclists". Apart from two-wheeled bicycles, "cycling" also includes the riding of unicycles, tricycles, quadracycles, handcycles and similar human-powered vehicles (HPVs).

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Hiking

Hiking (sometimes also referred to as Backpacking) in the broadest sense is walking over, traversing and sometimes moderately climbing or scaling surfaces within any natural (non fabricated or non-manmade) geographical areas. It is up to the hiking purists to debate whether walking on a groomed trail (i.e. manmade) through the woods (i.e. natural area) qualifies as hiking or not. At the same token, some would say all hiking is done on trails, whereas all off-trail hiking is essentially a form of Mountaineering.

In general though, hiking is performed over a larger distance than a typical walk would be, and supplies are generally needed to be carried (typically in a backpack) to ensure survival and/or to maintain a basic level of comfort during the journey in the unfortunate case in which extenuating circumstances prevent one from getting home or to shelter before nightfall. Day Hikes may also be done, but for similar reasons a pack of basic survival gear is highly suggested due to possibility of getting stranded in the wilderness or in some remote area.

HikingGear.jpg

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Climbing

RockClimbing.png

Climbing is broadly any type of activity in which one prepels and/or repels oneself up and/or down a surface or object whether natural or fabricated. Rock Climbing and Mountain Climbing are the main types of Outdoor Climbing activities. Climbing-Wall Climbing and Training Apparatus climbing are the main types of Indoor Climbing activities.

ClimbingKnots.jpg

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Mountaineering

A more extreme form of hiking called Mountaineering (also called Mountain Hiking or Advanced Hiking) involves combining both Hiking and Climbing into a single advanced excursion, such as off-trail hiking or vertical mountain-face scaling. Often times, apart from the main skills of shooting, trapping and/or tracking, depending on the game being hunted, a hunter will often require at least basic to intermediate Mountaineering skills. For instance, hunting wild bore, buck or grizzly bears which have vast ranges that cover a variety of terrain.

WinterMountaineering.jpg

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Skiing

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Cross-Country

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Survivalism

Survivalism (its practitioners sometimes referred to derogatorily and/or affectionately as preppers) is a . Mountaineering is similar in concept to Survivalism, in terms of gear requirements and the importance placed on the development of the ability to survive in nature on little or no modern/technological resources. One must certainly have fairly high-level survival skills before even attempting a Mountaineering Excursion, and it typically involves Survival/Wilderness gear such as compasses, low-power consumption GPS sattelite navigation devices, oxygen tanks, pressurized air tanks, solar-power sources, fire-based cooking equipment, etc. One of the funer, more "day-trip type" of introductory-level activities of the Survivalism community is Geocaching (or caching) for short, which teaches navigation skills by getting practitioners to find remotely located hidden items (caches) using only a GPS which roughly maps their positions.


List of Survivalist Skills:

  1. Potable Water Procurement - whether via filtration/purification of stagnant water sources, discovery of streams/lakes, transpiration, knowledge of safe water sources, safety analysis/testing capabilities, smart usage/consumption and other related capabilities are the most important
  2. Hunting - Attainment/preparation of animal meat (as a protein source for sustenance) is seen as a critical skill in survivalist circles , second only to the attainment/preparation of clean drinking water, just slightly above tracking and foraging
  3. Tracking - its one thing to have the knowledge and be both willing and able to kill and gut or otherwise prepare an animal for safe consumption, its another thing entirely to be able to find some when it seems like none are around or when they are clearly avoiding your larger group (in addition, tracking can be used to follow vehicle tracks, navigate without compasses/equipment, find your way back to locations, monitor other people or group movements, etc)
  4. Foraging - identifying edible plants and other vegetation (i.e. knowing what is safe to eat and what is not) can definitely save your life, whether you're tasked with foraging for an entire group or just plain lost in the woods and want to get safely consume a nutrition sources while waiting for help or navigating to safety
  5. Shelter Construction - knowing how to build a temporary and/or permanent structure with minimal equipment that could shelter yourself and/or a group of people is a critical skill, as is the ability to discover natural settings that would lend themselves particularly well to setting up a base whether it be "for the night" or to ride out a longer period
  6. Fire-Starting - building a fire and keeping it roaring safely is an invaluable skill, especiallyas temperatures drop at night or more drastically with season changes in the fall/winter months (during a lack of technological equipment)
  7. First aid - medical and/or basic remedy knowledge can go a long way to ensuring your own surival, as well as prove indispensable to others
  8. Communications - knowledge of communications technologies both primitive and modern as well as experience in operating off-grid technological equipment can make the difference between uniting with a reliable group and ending up on your own in a tough situation
  9. Signaling - related to Communications is the ability to use analog communication means (and be able to recognize/understand them) such as "Smoke Signaling", "Animal Calling" and "Morse Code Signaling" via visual (i.e. flashlight shining or flagging) or audio (i.e. noise making or tapping) medium
  10. Leadership - not every Surivivalist need be a natural born leader, however, the ability to rise above the chaos that ensues in a difficult situatio and keep a calm head annd speak with conviction to organize a group of people to ensure they stay together rather than break down to in-fighting or dessertion and/or to mobilize people towards a common goal (i.e. Survival) can be essential
  11. Inspirational Speaking/Positivity - a positive attitude and the ability to motivate others in order to keep them from giving up, can help the group and thus yourself survive during difficult situations (a strong speaking voice can go along way here, as it can in the Leadership category)
  12. Knot Tying - knowing how to tie knots and ropes for binding things (i.e. to build rain basins, shelters, traps, detain unruly people, etc)
  13. Woodcraft/Artisanry - all forms of basketry and pot making as well as cutlery and tool improvisation can be an essential skill in a prolonged survival situation
  14. Marksmanship/Combat - in the worst case, the ability (i.e. good vision, aim, steady hand, strength, etc) being equipped (i.e. knife, gun, bow & arrow, crossbow, etc) and having willingness (i.e. "fight or flight" instinct, mettle, decisiveness, confidence, etc) to defend oneself and/or a group by any means necessary can make the difference between survival and being overtaken by another group of peokle or wild animal(s) for your survival resources (or perhaps for yourself as meat, or, just because you're "in their territory" in the case of some wild animals or tribal groups)
  15. Physical Fitness - it wasn't called "survival of the fittest" for nothing; your strength, speed, agility, mobility, versatility and endurance will have a major impact on your ability to survive a difficult situation
  16. Creativity - while hard to teach or learn, the ability to improvise and think quickly whle on-the-move can greatly improve your quality of life in a survival scenario

[1,051] [1,052] [1,053]



Survivalist Checklist

NUTRITION

1. Water (50 to 60 gallons = 30 days worth) & access to a Well or other fresh water source
2. MRE (Meal, Ready to Eat)'s - 72 meals per case (30 days worth) & 2+ months of canned food
3. Organic Seeds (essential fruits/vegetables)
4. Multi-vitamins (should have good vitamin A,B,C,D) 
5. High-energy/calorie Protein Bars

WEAPONS

1. Hunting Knife
2. Crossbow
3. Handgun & ammo
4. Hunting Rifle & ammo
5. Semi-automatic & ammo

TOOLS

1. Swiss Army Knife (with can-opener)
2. Walkie Talkie
3. Portable Radio(CB/Ham/Walkman)
4. Shovel
5. Saw / Drill / Hammer / Wrench / Pliers

EQUIPMENT

1. Thermal Tent & Metallic Sleeping Bags
2. Water Testing/Sterilization kits (Hand water filter/pump)
3. Propane stoves for cooking (and metallic barrel for fire-cooking)
4. Portable Photo-Voltaic Solar Panel / Generator
5. Geiger Counter / Atmospheric Radiation Monitor

SUPPLIES

1. Tissue/Toilet Paper and/or Lady's pads (can be used for first-aid as well)
2. First Aid kit / Disinfectant (Soap or alchohol) / Antiseptics (peroxide, potassium iodide)
3. Coleman Lanterns / Candles & Maglight / Batteries
4. Gas siphon / rubber tubing
5. Rope / String / Duct tape

TRANSPORTATION

1. Steel-toed Hiking/Combat Boots
2. Bicycle (for all members of family)
3. Car or Truck (with excellent mileage, 50+km/liter)
4. Trailer with hitch and towing cables (to pull additional food and gear)
5. Boat, Canoe or Inflatable Raft (mostly for stream navigation/crossings)


NOTES: - Its also good to have a staple of water and fireproof Clothing and Blankets - Keep food and unplanted seeds out of direct sunlight, so they last longer - Keep batteries out of electronics when not in use, some devices drain power even when off - Check here for a more complete Survival checklist: http://www.ultimatesurvivalskills.com/survival/general-survival/complete-survival-checklist.html [1,054]



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Running

Running is one of the oldest known forms of exercise and transportation for humans, and events such as the marathon and sprint date back to the ancient Greek Olympic games.

FootSize.jpgPostureTypes.pngRunningForm.jpg [1,091] [1,092] [1,093]

HumanRunningAdaptations.png


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Parkour

Parkour FreeRunning CrossCountry.jpg

Parkour (also known as Free Running, or, Extreme Cross-Country Running[1,147][1,148] which is really just running a longer distance than a marathon) is an open running movement founded by David Belle[1,149][1,150] and others that incorporates complex techniques and movements from martial arts and gymnastics, as well as other disciplines.[1,151] Parkour runners are capable of performing amazing feats that seem to defy gravity by using physics and angles to distribute force such as from a fall by rolling, or from the impact of jumping into a wall by pushing off/upwards. Someone who does Parkour is sometimes called a traceur or urban ninja.

Some practitioners choose to differentiate Parkour from Free Running by saying Parkour takes place primarily in an urban setting using manmade structures (such as buildings/rooftops, fences, walls, overhanging beams, etc) to perform the various jumps, leaps, climbs and tricks; while Free Running takes place primarily in a natural setting using organic/earthly structures (such as bodies of water, trees, rocks, moutain faces, peaks/valleys or drop-offs in terrain, etc) to perform the various jumps, leaps, climbs and tricks but usually has a particular emphasis on the "unbounded run through nature" philosophy itself, such as for fitness and challenge rather than focusing on the flashy techniques.

  1. Landing
  2. Land and Roll
  3. Diving Roll
  4. Balance
  5. Cat Balance
  6. Speed Vault
  7. Kong Vault
  8. Kong To Cat
  9. Kong To Precision
  10. Diving Kong Vault
  11. Double Kong Vault
  12. Lazy Vault
  13. Reverse Vault
  14. Turn Vault
  15. Dash Vault
  16. Kash Vault
  17. Precision 1 footed take off
  18. Precision 2 Footed take off
  19. Running Precision
  20. Cat Leap
  21. 180 Cat
  22. Level To Level Cat
  23. Running Cat
  24. 270 Cat
  25. 360 Cat
  26. Crane
  27. Crane Moon Step
  28. Wall Hop
  29. 360 Wall Hop
  30. Wall Run
  31. Tic Tac
  32. Tic Tac To Precision
  33. Tic Tac To Crane
  34. Tic Tac To Cat
  35. Underbar
  36. Palm Spin
  37. Wall Spin
  38. Lache
  39. Flag
  40. Handstand
  41. Dismount
  42. Backflip
  43. Sideflip
  44. Aerial

[1,152]


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Martial Arts

Martial Arts are one of the best methods of exercise because they are a form of training for the whole body, but at the same time they also have mental aspects forcing you to think (for example to remember complex sets or combinations) and some martial arts even have a spiritual component (such as meditation, relaxation, or breathing techniques) which helps to reduce stress and provide a holistic benefit to your health.

MMA-lineage.png

[1,165]

Depending on the Martial Art or Combat Sport contest, different equipment and rules will appply, for example:

  1. MMA = Gloves: 4-6oz (training 6-8oz)[1,166]
  2. Full Contact Karate = Gloves: 0-5oz (training: 0-8oz)[1,167][1,168]
  3. Olympic Tae Kwon Do = Gloves: (training: 8oz-10oz)[1,169]
  4. Muay Thai = Gloves: 8-10oz (training: 10-12oz)[1,170]
  5. Kickboxing = Gloves: 8-10oz (training: 12-14oz)[1,171]
  6. Boxing = Gloves: 8-10oz (HW & Training: 14-16oz)[1,172]


[1,173] [1,174] [1,175] [1,176] [1,177] [1,178] [1,179] [1,180] [1,181] [1,182] [1,183] [1,184]


Kalari

Kalaripayattu (commonly shortened to Kalari) is the name given to one of the better known traditional Indian Martial Arts[1,185] which have evolved into or indirectly influenced a large number (debatably most) of the modern martial arts practiced today including Chinese[1,186], Mongolian, Korean, Japanese, Thai, Filipino, Indonesian, American, Brazilian and more[1,187]. Originally just referring to a specific martial art from the Kochi-Kerala region in southern India, today, it is sometimes used as a catch-all term when referring to the Indian Martial Arts, which themselves are in fact quite broad in types and techniques, ranging from archery and weapons to wrestling and hand-to-hand striking arts.

The weapons of Kalari include:

  1. jaka (bladed disc/ring)
  2. gada (mace)
  3. vel (spear)
  4. val (sword)
  5. kedaham (shield)
  6. vil ambu (bow & arrow)
  7. otta (curved-baton/curved-stick)
  8. muchaan (short staff)
  9. kettukari/pandeeran (12-span stick/staff)

[1,188] [1,189] [1,190] [1,191]

The main hand-to-hand and disarmament techniques of Kalari are:

  1. kicks
  2. slaps
  3. palm-strikes
  4. punches
  5. elbows
  6. joint-locks (typically used to disarm an opponent or as a takedown, rarely used on the ground)
  7. throws

[1,192] [1,193] [1,194] [1,195] [1,196]


[1,197] [1,198] [1,199] [1,200] [1,201] [1,202] [1,203] [1,204] [1,205] [1,206] [1,207] [1,208] [1,209] [1,210] [1,211]

[1,212] [1,213] [1,214] [1,215] [1,216] [1,217] [1,218]


Yoga

Yoga is not really a martial art per se, but it is a modern way of referring to stretches and body exercises that were formative training tools of its parent martial art of Kalari that eventually developed into eastern martial arts.

The main four types of Yoga have been described by Sadghuru as one of the following (each of which being different paths towards achieving unity with existence):

  1. Karma - use of one's body to perform actions
  2. Gnana - use of intelligence, knowledge and/or will of the mind
  3. Bhakti - use of emotion and/or devotion
  4. Kriya - refining & expanding one's lifeforce and/or energies

[1,219] [1,220]

There are virtually infinite numbers of different styles of Yoga, but the mainstream or most popular (practiced and taught worldwide) are:

  1. Tantra - more of a religious ritual and meditation system than exercise form, with a focus on sexual reproduction and fertility (founding principle that lead to Yoga)[1,221]
  2. Hatha - slow-paced and gentle[1,222]
  3. Anusara - light-hearted blended class with a positive philosophy expressing the intrinsic goodness of all beings (founder had major scandal in 2012)[1,223]
  4. Vinyasa - sun salutations and continuous movement from one posture to next (aka Flow)[1,224]
  5. Asthanga - fast-paced, intense style set always performed in same sequence/order (aka Eight Limbs)[1,225][1,226]
  6. Power Yoga - a derivative of Asthanga that uses its poses but doesn't follow a set, focuses on long holds and high-pace for building stength[1,227]
  7. CorePower Yoga: hot yoga version of Power Yoga with a focus on the core abdominals/lower-back and sides (aka Core)
  8. Iyengar - most concerned with body alignment, long-holds & drawn-out poses, allows use of stretching aides & props[1,228]
  9. Kundalini - emphasis on breathing in conjunction with movements[1,229]
  10. Bikram - series of 26 poses, performed in a 95-100 degree room (aka Hot Yoga)[1,230]
  11. Viniyoga - individualized session for each student, suiting their unique stage of life, health, and needs[1,231]
  12. Jivamukti - Ashtana yoga, in combination with chanting, meditation, and spiritual teachings[1,232]
  13. Forrest - performance of vigorous asana sequences intended to strengthen & purify the body, release pent-up emotions & pain to encourage healing of physical/emotional wounds
  14. Kripalu - compassionate approach and emphasis on meditation, physical healing and spiritual transformation[1,233]
  15. Integral - gentle hatha style of yoga that attempts to integrate mind, body and spirit through meditation and chants[1,234]
  16. Moksha - 40 poses done in a heated room[1,235]
  17. Restorative - uses props to support the body as it relaxes into poses over the course of several minutes[1,236]
  18. Sivananda - based upon five principles, including the practices of asana, pranayama, and meditation[1,237]
  19. Yin - focused on stretching the body's connective tissue, particularly around the joints[1,238]
  20. Chair Yoga - accessible to people who have disabilities, trouble standing for long periods or sitting on the floor[1,239]
  21. Acroyoga - one person (called the base) supports a partner (called the flyer), by lying on back and holding the flyer up with their legs (aka Acrobatic Yoga)[1,240]
  22. Aerial Yoga - uses sling of fabric suspended from ceiling to support your body as you hang above the floor[1,241]
  23. Standup Paddle Yoga - done atop a paddle board while floating on a body of water, focus on balance (aka SUP Yoga)[1,242]

[1,243]

Yoga.jpg [1,244] [1,245] [1,246]

The following are the most popular Yoga stretches and exercises:

  1. Pranayama (cross-legged sit)[1,247]
  2. Namaste (salutation)
  3. Surya Namaskar (sun salutation)[1,248] [1,249]
  4. Forward Fold
  5. Tree
  6. Lotus
  7. Dog: Upward & Downward-Facing[1,250]
  8. Cat
  9. Butterfly[1,251]
  10. Pigeon[1,252]
  11. Child's Pose
  12. Bridge (pelvic lift)
  13. Crescent Lunge
  14. Chair
  15. Boat
  16. Arrow
  17. Bow
  18. Warrior I, II, III, Reverse & Humble[1,253]
  19. Warrior
  20. Hero[1,254]
  21. Seated Forward Bend
  22. Plank (pushup position)


Prayer poses

  1. Spinal roll
  2. Spinal rocking
  3. Rock the babay
  4. Leg raises
  5. Pelvic tilt
  6. Little boat pose
  7. Little boat twist
  8. Windmill pose
  9. Gate pose
  10. Pigeon pose
  11. Windmill pose


Seated poses

  1. Cow face pose
  2. Easy pose
  3. Half lotus pose
  4. Hero pose
  5. Lotus pose
  6. Seated boat pose
  7. Seated half spinal twist
  8. Seated side bend
  9. Simple twist
  10. Staff pose
  11. Thunderbolt pose

Seated forward bends

  1. Child’s pose
  2. Easy pose forward bend
  3. Head to knee pose
  4. Seated forward bend
  5. Seated wide forward bend
  6. Seated yoga mudra pose

Chair poses

  1. Chair forward bend
  2. Chair hip stretch
  3. Chair twist
  4. Seated knee to chest pose
  5. Seated mountain pose

Standing poses

  1. Chair pose
  2. Crescent moon pose
  3. Five star pointed pose
  4. Goddess pose
  5. Mountain pose
  6. Side angle pose
  7. Triangle pose
  8. Warrior 1 pose
  9. Warrior 2 pose

Standing/Balancing poses

  1. Dancer pose
  2. Eagle pose
  3. Half moon pose
  4. Standing hand to toe pose
  5. Stork pose
  6. Tree pose


Standing Forward-bends

  1. Pyramid pose
  2. Rag doll pose
  3. Right angle pose
  4. Side angle twist
  5. Standing forward bend
  6. Standing forward bend twist
  7. Standing wide forward bend
  8. Standing yoga mudra pose
  9. Triangle twist


Table poses

  1. Cat stretch
  2. Downward facing dog pose
  3. Eight point pose
  4. Extended cat stretch
  5. Lunge pose
  6. Plank pose
  7. Side cat stretch
  8. Table pose
  9. Table balancing pose
  10. Thread the needle pose


Back-bend poses

  1. Bow pose
  2. Bridge pose
  3. Camel pose
  4. Cobra pose
  5. Fish pose
  6. Front lying boat pose
  7. Half locust pose
  8. Inclined plane pose
  9. Locust pose
  10. Sphinx pose
  11. Standing back bend
  12. Upward facing dog pose


Inversion poses

  1. Half shoulder stand
  2. Legs up the wall pose
  3. Plow pose
  4. Shoulder stand pose


Reclined poses

  1. Knee down twist
  2. Reclined bound angle pose
  3. Reclined head to knee pose
  4. Reclined knee to chest pose
  5. Reclined leg stretch
  6. Reclined thigh over thigh twist


Relaxation & Restorative poses

  1. Crocodile pose
  2. Relaxation pose
  3. Supported reclining hero pose
  4. Corpse

[1,255] [1,256] [1,257] [1,258]


Yoga2.jpg


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Kung Fu

Kung Fu (commonly called Gung Fu and in modern China watered-down and renamed to Wushu, an acrobatic version of the internal Wudang[1,307] styles) is considered by many historians and researchers into human combatives arts and sciences to be the grandfather of most Martial Arts. In simple terms, Kung Fu roughly translates to either "hard work" or "earned skill", depending on the (Chinese) language, dialect and context in which it is used.[1,308][1,309] It combines exercises (stretching, isometric, static and dynamic weighted or body-weight resistance), patterns (repetitions of a single motor-reflex/movement), sets (combinations of 24-108 single motor-reflexes/movements), break-downs (practice and drilling of movements for practical application against a resisting opponent) and eventually combat (controlled 1/2-way attack & defense scenarios or free-form, with or without protective gear/rules) into a system or school. The Chinese term for set/form/kata is 套路 Tao4 Lu4 (Mandarin) or Tou3 Lou6 (Cantonese). Because of the cultural revolution[1,310] in which non-Maoist and pacifist/neutral martial artists were persecuted and either killed or forced to flee China as immigrants to whatever country would accept them (usually by hiding their identities and knowledge), today each Kung Fu school or system has its own unique sets, approaches and philosophies. This purge along with the secrecy and tradition of family lineages (i.e. only teaching close trusted family or disciples the best & most-effective techniques) has lead to both "dilution" and "fragmenting" of Kung Fu to the point that it is often erroneously not recognized as an effective fighting style. In addition, most modern martial arts borrow some or all of their own techniques directly from Kung Fu or from derivations of Kung Fu techniques, making this reputation both ironic and unfortunate at the same time.

[1,311]


Bing Hey (Weapons forms) of Kung Fu include:

  1. Do (Broad Sword)
  2. Cheung (Spear)
  3. Gim (Double Edge Sword)
  4. Qwun (Staff)

[1,312]

Proper Chinese forms of address to be used at a school and some important terms plus their English meaning:

  • Si Jo - The founder of the style or Kwoon; usually applied posthumously
  • Si Gung - Your teacher's teacher (Gung translates to Grandfather)
  • Sifu - Your teacher (Fu translates to Father)
  • Simo - Your teacher's wife (Mo translates to Mother)
  • Si Bak - Your Sifu's senior classmate (Bak translates to Elder Uncle)
  • Si Seuk - Your Sifu's junior classmate (Seuk translates to Younger Uncle)
  • Si Goo - Your Sifu's female classmate (Goo translates to Aunt)
  • Si Hing - Your upper classmate (Hing translates to Elder Brother)
  • Si Di - Your junior classmate (Di translates to Younger Brother)
  • Si Jair - Your upper female classmate (Jair translates to Elder Sister)
  • Si Meur - Your Junior female classmate (Meur translates to Younger Sister)
  • Kwoon - School, academy or place of training
  • Tao Lu - Froms or practice sets
  • Leitai - Challenge match

[1,313]

While there were many established primitive forms of fighting in China, no single form was nearly as potent, systemized, holistic and complete as the Chinese Martial Arts[1,314] (commonly abberviated CMA or referred to as chuan fa[1,315][1,316]) became in general after the influence of Boddhidharma (Da-Mo, Damo, Darmo, Darma, Daruma)[1,317][1,318], who introduced the Yi Jin Jing (I Chin Ching) exercises[1,319] to the Mt.Songshan monastery[1,320]. These exercises later evolved into Shaolin Kung Fu which itself influenced all the other CMA[1,321][1,322][1,323][1,324]:

YiJinJing.jpg

[1,325] [1,326] [1,327] [1,328] [1,329] [1,330] [1,331]

[1,333] [1,334] [1,335] [1,336] [1,337] [1,338] [1,339] [1,340] [1,341] [1,342] [1,343] [1,344] [1,345] [1,346] [1,347] [1,348] [1,349]

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Shaolin

Shaolin style Kung Fu evolved from Buddhist monks in China dating back to 446 AD[1,394]. It began as a set of simple exercises that Bodhidharma taught the monks to stay in good physical shape in order to better devote themselves to meditation as prior to that, they were only focusing on the mental and spiritual aspects of Buddhism and thus falling ill or having their bodies incapable of withstanding long sessions of meditation.

There are hundreds of alleged "Shaolin" forms but the most fight-applicable and accessible to most students (chosen by Wei Chin school for this purpose as one example) are:

  1. Sil Lum Say Lo (Shaolin Fourth Form)
  2. Sil Lum Look Lo (Shaolin Sixth Form)
  3. Cha Kuen Ng Lo (Cha Kuen Fifth Form)
  4. Wa Kuen Sam Lo (Wa Kuen Third Form)

[1,395] [1,396]


Below are listed the 27 major weapons of the Shaolin styles:

1. Staff - Guen
2. Spear - Chiang
3. Long, axe - Yueh
4. Crescent moon spear (lance) - Chi
5. Straight sword Scholar's Sword - Jin
6. Curved sword Broadsword (Military favorite) - Darn Dao
7. Tiger fork - San Ku Cha
8. Double hook swords - Lian Dao
9. Halberd (trident) - Ta Dao
10. Three sectional staff - San Jie Gun
11. Double swords - Cern Dao
12. Rope dart - Biao Zhang Bian
13. Cresnet moon spade - Yue Ya Chan
14. Old Mans Staff (cane)- Guai Zi, or Guai Zhang
15. Monk Spade - Chan Zhang
16. Double Hammers - Shuang Guai
17. Double Axe - Shuang Fu
18. Double Dagger - Juang Bi Sou
19. Eight Sutra Hammer - Ba Leng Chui
20. Shield Rattan & other materials - Shun
21. Double spade moon sword - Shuang Yue
22. Snake & Cresent Spear -
23. Middle Horse Cutter - Diajou
24. Big Horse Cutter - Kwon Dao
25. Small Horse Cutter - Shang Dao
26. Short Stick - Syau Guen
27. Secret weapons: Chan These are taught to Direct Inheritors Only.

[1,397] [1,398] [1,399] [1,400]

Unique Techniques:

  1. Tornado Kick
  2. Jumping Double Snap Kick
  3. Jumping Double Snap-to-Thrust Kick
  4. Jumping/Spinning Hook Kick (though variations like "Rolling Thunder" exist in Karate and/or an extended foot version in TKD)
  5. Jumping/Spinning Inward Crescent Kick
  6. Jumping/Spinning Outward Crescent Kick
  7. Butterfly Kick[1,401][1,402]
  8. Broom (sweep)
  9. Dragon Whips its Tail (sweep)
  10. Snake creeps through grass
  11. Headbutt & Spear
  12. Chi Kung (qi/chi breathing)
  13. Iron Shirt
  14. Iron Head
  15. Iron Crotch
  16. Iron Palm

[1,403] [1,404] [1,405] [1,406] [1,407] [1,408]


KungFu-Hands.png

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[1,443]


Northern Shaolin

"Northern Shaolin" refers to the styles of Kung Fu that originated and/or proliferated in the regions in and around the Songshan Temple below the Songshan mountains, located in Dengfeng county (nearest large city with connecting rail/bus/flights is Zhenzhou), in Henan province, central China. Northern Shaolin is sometimes also referred to as "Bak Sil Lum" in Cantonese, or "Buc Pai" for the mountain range in Guangzhi[1,444].

Its styles are characterized by high kicks and long-range fighting techniques adept to people of taller lankier frames (as most northern practitioners tended to have in comparison to those from the south of China during the time of its peak development). Northern styles also encourage very quick advances and retreats, fast footwork, wide stances, leaping techniques, whirling circular blocks, with an emphasis on quickness, agility, and aggressive attacks favoring kicking to punching or in-fighting. Many aspects of Northern Shaolin were used as the inspiration for modern day Wushu with its high-flying, fast-paced, dance choreography-like techniques.

Northern Shaolin reportedly had their own animal fighting system which incorporated the techniques of Southern Shaolin 5 Animal, but also expanded this style to include other common animals of the zodiac and observed in nature in China including Monkey, Praying Mantis, Eagle, Toad, Bear, Horse, Ox, Wild Bore, Dog and possibly more. The northern styles of kung-fu generally emphasize long range techniques, quick advances and retreats, wide stances, kicking and leaping techniques, whirling circular blocks, quickness, agility, and aggressive attacks.[1,445]


Taichi shaolin ji-ben-gong.gif [1,446] [1,447] [1,448] [1,449] [1,450] [1,451] [1,452]


Bak Sil Lum (in Cantonese, or Bei Shao Lin in Mandarin) has the following as its "core 10 taolu" (empty-hand sets/forms), and was taught primarily by Chinese immigrant/exhiled Grandmasters in foreign countries:

  1. Koy Moon (kai men - open the door)
  2. Leng Low (ling lu - the leader)
  3. Jow Mah (zuo ma - sitting horse stance)
  4. Chum Sam (chuan xin - strike the heart)
  5. Mo I (wu yi - martial arts)
  6. Tun Da (duan da - short strike)
  7. Moi Fah (mei hua - plum flower)
  8. Bot Bo (ba bu - shuffling step)
  9. Lien Wan (lan huan - continuation)
  10. Sik Fot (shi fa - skilled technique)

Later, after the revitalization of Songshan, 10 different traditional forms were recovered and taught within China after re-introduction of "approved Wushu forms/dances", and then the gradual loosening of restrictions on traditional fighting arts:

  1. Shi Er Lu
  2. Tan Tui
  3. Lian Bu Quan
  4. Duan Da
  5. Mei Hua
  6. Ba Bu
  7. Chuan Xin
  8. Wu Yi
  9. Kai Men
  10. Ling Lu
  11. Zuo Ma
  12. Lian Huan
  13. Shi Fa
  14. Shi Ba Shou Fa


There are a wide variety of famous Northern Kung Fu styles, many of which claim and/or have demonstrable ties back to the original Northern Shaolin styles, including:

[1,467]


NorthernShaolin.png

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Praying Mantis

Perhaps the closest relative from the Northern Animal additions to Shaolin 5 Animal, Praying Mantis (Tong-long in Cantonese; Wang-lang-quan in mandarin) is a style that emphasizes speed and precision of attacks over strength, and places special emphasis on attacking soft targets of the body and vital points such as the eyes, nose, throat, temples, armpits and backs of knees. There are also a few wrist locks and sweeps unique to Praying Mantis style. There are two main variations of the characteristic Mantis hand where the thumb and index fingers touch at the tips to create a sharp single point of attack against the soft targets, and the other three fingers either dangle loosely in a fanned fashion or tuck in tightly into the palm as in a half-fist, creating tension in the forearm.

The main forms of Praying Mantis are:

  1. Sub Bat Sou (Eighteen Ancestors)
  2. Bung Bo (Crush Step[1,507][1,508])
  3. Ling Bung Bo (Leading Crush Step; aka. 2-man mantis form[1,509][1,510])
  4. Say Lo Bun Da (Four Way Running Strike)[1,511][1,512][1,513][1,514][1,515]
  5. Line Jip (Block and Intercept)[1,516][1,517][1,518][1,519]

[1,520] BungBo.gif

Some of the most unique techniques of Praying Mantis include:

  1. San Chui (3 Strikes)
  2. Feng Shou (Sealing Hands)
  3. Gou Shou (Hooking Hands)
  4. Quan Chui (Circular Strikes)
  5. Gouzi JIao (Hooking Kicks)
  6. Mo Pan Shou (Rubbing over hands)
  7. Da Zhan Pai (Wings Patting)
  8. Deng Ta Bu (Pressing kick Steps)
  9. Feng Feng Dian Tou (Pheonix Pecking)
  10. Lianhuan Wu Chui (Continuous 5 Strikes)
  11. Heihu Touxin (Black Tiger Steals Heart)
  12. Gouloucai Shou (Hook, pass and pluck hands)
  13. Gua Pi (hanging Axe)
  14. Tou Shou (Stealing hands)
  15. Suo Hou hands (Locking Hands)
  16. Quan Jiao (Circular Legs)

[1,521] [1,522]

SupBatSao.jpg

[1,523] [1,524] [1,525]

BungBo.png

[1,526] [1,527] [1,528] [1,529] [1,530] [1,531] [1,532] [1,533] [1,534] [1,535]

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Southern Shaolin

Only recently (June 4th, 1993[1,548]) was the existence of a Southern Shaolin temple confirmed[1,549] in China's Fujian Province. Some critics view the announcement of "reconstruction" as nothing more than a money-grab as Kung Fu (particularly Shaolin) has become a multi-illion dollar industry related to tourism & teaching in China[1,550], however proponents cite the economic development that pilgrimmages and tourism around the Henan temple have brought to the poor rural areas surrounding those temples, and, point out historical documents that make the case for a Southern Shaolin Temple and thus take a "why not" approach towards encouraging the Chinese government to invest in the excavation and reconstruction of the Southern temple[1,551]. Furthermore, while there is agreement that the "Southern Shaolin Temple" was located in Fujian province, some debate still rages about which of the three identified temples (Quanzhou, Fuqing, Putian) primarly housed Shaolin warrior monks and served as Kung Fu training grounds. Some say all three at various points in time, as the Southern locations would have all been significantly more accessible than the remote Northern Shaolin location in the Songshan mountains, and thus, more likely to have been subject to repeated desecration and/or complete destruction by wayward warlords. While each temple only acknowledges itself as the single source of truth for Southern Shaolin, it is also possible (as fantasized in some Kung Fu films) that the locations overlapped in usage at various points in time or even shared knowledge as part of a network of Southern Shaolin schools.

What can be said regardless of location of a possible Southern temple is that distinctly "Southern" styles of Kung Fu certainly exist, preserved (in secret by locals, by Taiwanese "nationalists", and through proliferation of Chinese immigrants in many other countries) along with other cultural artifacts from a Chinese history prior to the Cultural Revolution[1,552] which banned martial arts outright. An old Chinese saying goes: "Southern fists, northern kicks"; which means that Southern Shaolin was well known for its boxing and open-hand techniques, while Northern Shaolin was known for its high-kicks and leg trips.[1,553] In general, Southern Shaolin style places less emphasis on kicks, especially of the jumping variety and has a distinct timing that floats between soft, whipping motions and sudden stops. The hands move constantly with sophisticated and unusual hand positions often requiring an "educated" wrist and strengthened fingers.

Prominent Southern Styles include:

SouthernShaolin.jpg

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Five Animals

Five Animals is a set of styles from the Southern Shaolin temples.

1. Leopard[1,592] / Monkey[1,593] (depending on lineage)
2. Tiger[1,594]
3. Crane[1,595]
4. Snake[1,596][1,597] / Monkey[1,598] (depending on lineage)
5. Dragon[1,599][1,600][1,601]

[1,602] [1,603] [1,604]


Shaolin-FiveAnimals.jpg

[1,605] [1,606] [1,607] [1,608]

[1,610] [1,611] [1,612] [1,613] [1,614] [1,615] [1,616] [1,617] [1,618]

Hung Gar

Hung Gar (Hung Kuen in cantonese) is a style inspired by Dragon, Tiger and Crane forms from Shaolin 5 Animal that focuses on low stances and straight attacks to the body, chin and a few circular sweeps to the legs and knees. There are few kicks in Hung Gar with the practitioner relying mostly on strong hands for attacking and forearms for blocking, as well as internal breathing techniques that help reduce the impact of any shots taken. There are also a few joint locks, sweeps and takedowns included in some sets which are unique to Hung Gar style.

HungGar 12-Bridges.jpg [1,619] [1,620] [1,621]

The following are the core Hung Gar forms:

  1. Fook Fu (Taming of the Tiger)
  2. Gung Ji (Hard Work)
  3. Fu Hou (Tiger Monkey)[1,622]
  4. Fu Hok Sheung Ying (Tiger Crane)[1,623][1,624][1,625][1,626][1,627][1,628]

[1,629] [1,630]

There are also advanced/specialized secondary sets such as:

  1. Ng Ying (Hung family "5 Animal" variation sometimes Monkey instead of Snake)[1,631][1,632][1,633][1,634]
  2. Gou Duk (Nine Unique)[1,635]# Sup Ying (Ten Patterns Form)[1,636][1,637]

[1,638][1,639][1,640][1,641][1,642][1,643][1,644]

  1. Tid Seen (Iron Wire)[1,645][1,646][1,647][1,648][1,649]

[1,650] [1,651]


Gung Ji / Fook Fu (Hard Work / Taming the Tiger) - Tiger & Leopard (w. intro to Crane/Snake/Monkey)

HungGar GungJi FookFu.jpg


Fu Hou (Tiger/Monkey double-set) - Tiger & Monkey (w. intro to Mantis)

1280px


Fu Hok Sheung Ying (Tiger/Crane double-set) - Tiger & Crane (w. intro to Dragon)

HungGar TigerCrane.jpg



Tid Seen (Iron Wire) - Tiger & Dragon (internal form)

HungGar IronWire.jpg

In order to progress into the advanced sets (particularly for effective use of Dragon hand techniques) a common practice is Iron Palm[1,652] training (one aspect of this is the application of "dit jow" medicine to the hands [1,653] after) dropping the hands with at first the natural acceleration of gravity and later punching or hitting with slowly progressing speed/power into hard objects (including beanbags, sandbags, sand, rice, stones, bricks, wood, steel) all of increasingly harder grades based on skill level and calcification/hardening already accomplished, in order to train the hand's bone-density, grip strength, etc. The same can also apply to other body parts (i.e. forearms, elbows, knees, shins, feet, etc)

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Choi Li Fut

Choi Li Fut (also spelled "Choy Lee Fut" or "Choy Li Fut"; pronounced "Cai-Li-Fo" in mandarin) is a style inspired by Monkey & Leopard forms from the Shaolin 5 Animal forms, as well as having some surface similarity to Eagle (minus the high-flying jumping techniques of most wushu variations), Praying Mantis (minus the eye pokes/gauges and finger-striking techniques) and Hung Gar (without the characteristic Tiger Claw or Bridge Hands). It is one of the most circular of the traditional styles of Kung Fu and features several unique joint-locks, sweeps, takedowns and low attacks such as to the groin and ankles. It is said that a Choi Li Fut master could carry out an entire fight from underneath a table, popping out only momentarily to strike their opponents. [1,689]

There are two main Choy Li Fut forms and many other associated forms and techniques. In addition there are at least 53 specific weapons styles[1,690] and 175 open-hand forms and sets[1,691] in the wider Choy Li Fut family of systems.

  1. Sup Jee (Word Ten)
  2. Kou Da (Retain and Strike)
  3. Ching Jong kuen (Choy Li Fut wooden dummy form)[1,692][1,693][1,694][1,695][1,696][1,697]

[1,698] [1,699] [1,700] [1,701] [1,702] [1,703] [1,704]


While there are many variations and types of forms, Sup Ji and Kau Da appear in each of the four primary styles/branches of Choy Li Fut, which are:

  1. Chan family (also referred to by founders' village of King Mui CLF)
  2. Hung Sing (also called Fut San city CLF for origial school location)
  3. Buk Sing (also called Jeong Yim after successor to CLF founder Chan Heung)
  4. Jiangmen (also called Kong Chow CLF for original school location, or "Plum Blossom" after successor Doc Fai-Wong's organization)

[1,705]

The "10 seeds" or main elements of Choy Lee Fut should be (or at least generally are) listed as follows:

  1. 盤 [ Poon] (coiling)
  2. 拿 [ La] (seizing)
  3. 掛 [ Gwa] (hanging)
  4. 掃 [ Sou] (sweeping)
  5. 插 [ Chaap] (piercing)
  6. 劈 [ Pek] (splitting)
  7. 撞 [ Jong] (clashing)
  8. 鞭 [ Bin] (whipping)
  9. 拋 [ Paau] (tossing)
  10. 冚 [ Kap] (stamping)

Other elements are sometimes listed in particular schools, such as:

  1. Kum (slapping/catching)
  2. Na (shooting/holding)
  3. Gwa (swinging/extending)
  4. Sau (sweeping)
  5. Chop (piercing)
  6. Pow (throwing upwards)
  7. Kup (stamping/receiving)
  8. Biu (marking/flagging)
  9. Ding (thrusting/peaking)
  10. Jong (thrusting upwards)

[1,706]


The following are some of the main unique defending techniques of Choy Li Fut:

  1. Siu Kau Da ("Small Trapping Strike")
  2. Sow Choi (roundhouse punch or "diagonal swinging punch", a long-range hook[1,707])
  3. Gok Choi (straight-armed "horizontal swinging hook punch", long-range version of boxing hook)
  4. Pak Choi (inward linear hammering block/strike with clenched-fist, palm/knuckles facing in towards own face)
  5. Gwa Sau (inward circular block with clenched-fist, palm/knuckles facing in towards own face)
  6. Chuen Kiu (outward circular Block with palm facing away towards oppoenent, think "wax-off" kinda thing with relaxed hand)
  7. Sam Sing ("three stars" block/strike, an outward and/or downard-facing open-palm combination of Pak Choi, Chuen Kiu, lower Gwa Sau)

[1,708]


The following are some of the main unique hand-attacking techniques of Choy Li Fut:

  1. [ Na] (shooting arm bridge)
  2. [ Kum] (slapping or pressing palm deflection)
  3. [ Pow] (upward and long extending backfist)
  4. [ Kwa] (downward and short-range back fist)
  5. [ Jong] (small upward power shot)
  6. [ Chaw] (claw)
  7. [ Bin] (swinging power shot)
  8. [ Pei] (chopping)
  9. [ Tsop] (yin/yang knuckle strike)
  10. [Lui Yin] (yin/yang fist)
  11. Chaap Choi (a Leopard Fist straight/stabbing punch where the fist rotates 270º)[1,709]
  12. Gerng Choi (ginger fist - swinging angled loose-then-tensed Leopard Paw OR Vertical Fist in shape of ginger root[1,710], typically aimed at a pressure point in head/neck)
  13. [ Kup Cheung] (cover and palm)
  14. [ Boi Gim] (block and reverse hammer fist)
  15. [ Cau Pek] (grab and hammer fist)


The following are some of the main unique leg-attacking techniques of Choy Li Fut:

  1. Chan (leg bracing)
  2. Ding (leg nailing/trapping)
  3. Liu Tat (straight kicking)
  4. So (leg/foot sweeping)
  5. Jet (leg/foot blocking)
  6. Au (leg hooking)
  7. Dan (springing)

[1,711] [1,712] [1,713]

ChoiLiFut-stances.gif [1,714] [1,715]



ChoyLiFut.jpg

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Wing Chun

Pak SauFook SauTie Sau (when arms fully extended), Huen Sau (when circling/trapping)Kan SauQuan Sau (kwan sao)Bong SauJut Sau (when wrist snaps up/down, vice-versa or side-to-side in small range)Lop SauTok Sau (when lifting), Jip Sau (when trapping/pulling)Gang SauGum Sau (when jamming/stopping/shoving inwards or downwards), Fut Sau (when circling outwards and rotating hand/palm outwards to deflect)Gaun Sau (when hooking/deflecting downwards & outwards), Tut Sau (when sliding/stabbing straight downwards along attacker's arm)Wu Sau (when moving hands inwards/upwards/downwards & angling wrist so fingertips point upwards)Po Pai Cheung (when rolling both hands into butterfly hands block/strike), Tok Sau (when lifting)Biu Sau (when blocking/striking straight out in stabbing motion), Jut Sau (when blocking/striking downwards)Lan Sau (when bracing distance between opponent or grabbing without clenched fist), Fak Sau (when blocking/striking straight across in chopping motion)Tan SauMan Sau (when thrusting one or both hands straight out to guard/attack center-line), Biu Sau (when blocking/striking straight out in stabbing motion)WingChun hands.jpg
About this image


Wing Chun was reportedly designed to be used by women and thus emphasizes simplicity and speed of movements through straight attacks along the center-line meridians. In particular, Wing Chun was popularized by Bruce Lee's fame as he was an avid practitioner and counted it as the basis of his Jeet Kune Do fighting style amongst all the other martial arts styles he learned and practiced. Bruce Lee[1,758] first introduced basic Wing Chun and Chinese Kung Fu principles on the Longstreet TV show in 1971[1,759][1,760] which brought it a large following, but it was his subsequent films (and the martial arts cinema of Hong Kong) which put Wing Chun and other Chinese Martial Arts into the collective consciousness/awareness of the world of martial arts. Up until that point in time, the western world was far more familiar with Japanese and Korean martial arts, and of course the Middle-Eastern/European martial arts centered around boxinng/kickboxing and wrestling.

The following are the four most taught Wing Chun forms and are considered the "fundamentals":

  1. Sil Nim Tao (Siu Lium Tao; Little Ideas)[1,761]
  2. Chum Kil (Chum Kiu; Searching the Bridge)[1,762][1,763]
  3. Bil Jee (Biu Ji; Spearing Fingers)[1,764][1,765]
  4. Mook Yun Chong (Muk Yan Jong; Wooden Dummy)

[1,766]

Hand Blocks (sau/sao)

  1. Tan sao
  2. Tin sao
  3. Bong sao
  4. Lap sao[1,767]
  5. Fuk sao
  6. Gaun sao
  7. Biu sao
  8. [ Chun sao]
  9. Gum sao
  10. Huen sao
  11. [ Larn sao]
  12. Pak sao[1,768][1,769]
  13. Jut sao
  14. [ Tut sao]
  15. Ding jarn
  16. Ju Chueng
  17. Chi sao ("Sticky Hands" exercise & attack/defense strategy)

[1,770] [1,771]

Double Hand Blocks (sau/sao)

  1. Man sao
  2. Wu sao
  3. Kan sao
  4. Kwan sao

[1,772] [1,773]

Punches/Elbows (sau/sao)

  1. [ Chung Kuen] (Straight Punch, with vertical fist)
  2. [ Lien Wan Choi] (Linked Chain Punching)
  3. [ Bien Kuen] (Whipping punch)
  4. [ Chair Kuen] (Pulling Vertical Punch)
  5. [ Chour Kuen] (Hammerfist)
  6. [ Au Kuen] (Hook Punch)
  7. [ Chaap Kuen] (Low Punch)
  8. [ Chao Choi] (Bouncing Punch)
  9. [ Charp Choi] (Piercing Punch Hammer)
  10. [ Charp Sau] (Piercing Hand)
  11. [ Che Chin Kuen] (Shooting arrow punch)
  12. [ Chin Choi] (Battle Punch)
  13. [ Chuen Geng Kuen] (Short Punch/1-inch Punch)
  14. [ Chung Choi] (Thrusting Punch)
  15. [ Doi Gok Kuen] (Diagonal punch from outside across the centerline )
  16. [ Do Lung Choi] (Single dragon Punch)
  17. [ Faan Kuen] (Circling Punch either inside or outside)
  18. [ Fan Cup Chui] (Flipping-cover Punch/Uppercut)
  19. [ Fung Ngan Kuen] (Phoenix-eye Punch)
  20. [ Gurng Gee Kuen] (Ginger-fist Punch)
  21. [ Hoi Faan Kuen] (Outside Whip Punch)
  22. [ Hoi Moon Kuen] (Outside gate diagonal Punch)
  23. [ Ngoi Faan Kuen] (Inside Whip Punch)
  24. [ Say-I Kuen] (Shooting Punch)
  25. [ Tai Kuen] (Rising Punch)
  26. [ Joong-Lo Kuen] (Drilling Punch)
  27. [ Yut Ge Chon Kuen] (Vertical Punch)
  28. [ Seung Kuen] (Double punch)
  29. [ Dip Jeung] (Double Butterfly Palm)
  30. [ Gaan Da] (Simultaneous low sweeping block with Straight Punch)
  31. [ Lan Da] (Horizontal Blocing arm with a Yat Jee Chung Kuen Punch)
  32. [ Pak Da] (Simultaneous pushing Palm Block and Punch)
  33. [ Tan Da] (Simultaneous upwards Palm Block and Punch)

[1,774]


Leg Blocks (gerk)

  1. Bong gerk (Wing Leg)
  2. Tan gerk (Outside Leg)[1,775]
  3. Lau gerk ()
  4. [ Lap gerk] ()
  5. [ Pak gerk] ()
  6. [ Jut Gerk] (Snapping Leg)
  7. [ Lon Gerk] (Barring Leg)
  8. [ Jeet Gerk] (Stopping Leg)
  9. [ Pak Gerk] (Pushing Leg)
  10. [ Wu Gerk] (Guarding Leg)
  11. [ Au Gerk] (Hooking Leg)
  12. [ Fok Sut] (Inside Knee)
  13. [ Taan Sut] (Outside Knee)
  14. [ Tor Sut] (Upward Knee)
  15. [ Gwai Sut] (Downward Knee)
  16. Yap gerk (not really a block, more of a "stepping-in leg insertion" to prevent kicks)

[1,776] [1,777] [1,778] [1,779]


Kicks/Knees (gerk/sut)

  1. [ Dai Jing Gerk] (Stomp/Low Front-Kick)
  2. [ Jing Gerk] (Thrust/Front-Kick)
  3. Waang Gerk (Side Thrust/Side-Kick)
  4. [ Dai Waang Gerk[ (Low Side-Kick)
  5. [ Gerk Booie] (Instep Kick)
  6. [ Gaan Gerk] (Outside Snap Kick)
  7. [ Hay Sut] (Upward Knee)
  8. Yaai Gerk (Scraping/Slant-Kick)

[1,780] [1,781] [1,782]


Sil Nim Tao

SilNimTao.gif [1,783]


Chum Kiu

WingChun ChumKiu.png


Biu Ji

WingChun BiuJi.png [1,784] [1,785] [1,786]


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Tai Chi

Tai Chi (sometimes referred to as Taiji Quan[1,851][1,852] or TaiChi Chuan[1,853]) is a term used to generalize all the slow-moving and/or internal Qi Gong forms and techniques in the “Neijia”[1,854] category of Kung Fu styles. While modern day Tai Chi is certainly not applicable to combat sports, when adapted and used at the appropriate speed and with the right timing to match your incoming opponent's height/weight/speed, Tai Chi techniques can in fact still be somewhat effective for self-defense purposes. Some styles have had their most practical movements removed during the Cultural Revolution and during standardization efforts by the Chinese government, however the concepts often remain. An important aspect of true Tai Chi is Qi Gong[1,855] (aligning breath, movement, and awareness for exercise, healing, and meditation to improve/harness life energy). There 5 main lineages of Tai Chi:

  1. Yang style[1,856] (most popular, standardized)
  2. Chen style[1,857]
  3. Sun style[1,858]
  4. Wu style[1,859]
  5. Hao style[1,860]

[1,861]


There are many variations and styles of Tai Chi as well, but Yang Gar Tai Chi (Yang Family Tai Chi) is one of the most famous styles with its 24-movements form which contains:

  1. Commencing (Qǐshì, 起势), Preparation, Beginning
  2. Part the Wild Horse's Mane (Zuoyou Yémǎ Fēnzōng, 左右野马分鬃), LEFT and RIGHT
  3. White Crane Spreads Its Wings (Báihè Lìangchì, 白鹤亮翅), Stork/Crane Cools Its Wings
  4. Brush Knee and Step Forward (Zuoyou Lōuxī Àobù, 左右搂膝拗步), Brush Knee and Twist Step, LEFT and RIGHT
  5. Playing the Lute (Shǒuhūi Pípā, 手挥琵琶), Strum the Lute, Play Guitar
  6. Reverse Reeling Forearm (Zuoyou Dào juǎn gōng, 左右倒卷肱), Step Back and Drive Monkey Away, LEFT and RIGHT
  7. Left Grasp Sparrow's Tail (Zuo Lǎn Què Wěi, 左揽雀尾), Grasp the Bird's Tail
    1. Ward Off (Peng 掤)
    2. Rollback (Lǚ 履)
    3. Press (Jǐ 擠)
    4. Push (Àn 按)
  8. Right Grasp Sparrow's Tail (You Lǎn què wěi, 右揽雀尾)
  9. Single Whip (Dān biān, 单鞭)
  10. Wave Hands Like Clouds (Yúnshǒu, 云手), Cloud Hands, Cloud Built Hands, Wave Hands in Clouds
  11. Single Whip (Danbian, 单鞭)
  12. High Pat on Horse (Gāo tàn mǎ, 高探马), Step Up to Examine Horse
  13. Right Heel Kick (Yòu dēng jiǎo, 右蹬脚), Separate Right Foot, Kick with Right Foot
  14. Strike to Ears with Both Fists (Shuāng fēng guàn ěr, 双峰贯耳)
  15. Turn Body and Left Heel Kick (Zhuǎnshēn zuǒ dēngjiǎo, 转身左蹬脚)
  16. Left Lower Body and Stand on One Leg (Zuo Xià shì dúlì, 左下势独立)
    1. Single Whip Squatting Down, Snake Creeps Down,
    2. Golden Rooster Stands on One Leg, Golden Bird Standing Alone
  17. Right Lower Body and Bird Stand on One Leg (You Xià shì dúlì, 右下势独立)
  18. Shuttle Back and Forth (Yòuzuǒ yùnǚ chuānsuō, 右左玉女穿梭), Fair Lady Works with Shuttles, (Walking Wood), Four Corners, RIGHT and LEFT
  19. Needle at Sea Bottom (Hǎidǐ zhēn, 海底针)
  20. Fan Through Back (Shǎn tōng bì, 闪通臂), Fan Penetrates Back
  21. Turn Body, Deflect, Parry, and Punch (Zhuǎnshēn Bānlánchuí, 转身搬拦捶)
  22. Appears Closed (Rúfēng shìbì, 如封似闭), Withdraw and Push, as if Closing a Door
  23. Cross Hands (Shizishou, 十字手)
  24. Closing (Shoushi, 收势)

[1,862] [1,863]

These movements are shown as follows:

TaiChi-24form.gif [1,864]

The next most common form is Chen style Tai Chi with its 38-form:

TaiChi-Chen-38form.gif


Apart from the solo forms, the main drill for practicing Tai Chi with a partner (apart from free-sparring) is Tui Shou (known as Pushing Hands).[1,865][1,866][1,867][1,868][1,869][1,870] The objective of Pushing Hands exercises (depending on school/style/partner/tournament) is either to off-balance your opponent, knock them down, take them down to the ground or to secure a #Chin Na lock/submission.[1,871][1,872] Da Lu () is a particular type of push hands exercise that incorporates 4-corner stepping (whereas basic push hands is from a static stationary position with no footwork allowed).[1,873][1,874][1,875]

TaiChi push-hands.jpg

You can also note the similarities (and differences) between early Shaolin and modern Tai Chi, mainly the movements have meen softened and made more "accessible" which some equate to being "watered down" or ineffective in fighting; still in these basic movements the developed martial artist can find hidden gems from the old days of Shaolin, and a practice and appreciation for the hard and the soft skills and techniques can make one a complete Kung Fu practitioner. Taichi.jpgTaichi2.jpgTaichi3.jpgTaichi4.jpg [1,876]

[1,881]

[1,883]

[1,884] [1,885] [1,886] [1,887] [1,888] [1,889] [1,890]

  • Taijiquan 24 Movement Form - Standard Simplified Orthodox Chinese National Version (1956): http://www.egreenway.com/taichichuan/short.htm#List (definitive translation of official Yang style T'ai Chi Ch'uan guide, approved by China's "State Physical Culture Administration")

[1,891] [1,892] [1,893]

[1,894] [1,895] [1,896] [1,897] [1,898] [1,899] [1,900] [1,901] [1,902] [1,903] [1,904] [1,905]

Kempo

Kempo is a localized (i.e. Okinawa, Korea, Japan, Hawaii, etc) derivative of Kung Fu which varies widely by region and school.

[1,906]


Kajukenbo

Ka-Ju-Kenbo (deriving from a combination of Karate, JuJitsu & Kempo) is a Hawaiian martial art that derives most of its influence from the Japanese Martial Arts, but also incorporates concepts from several other systems, most notably southern asian styles such as Eskrima and Silat as well as the Japanese derivative of Chinese Kung Fu commonly called Kempo or Kenbo.


Tae Kwon Do

OlympicTKD scoring.jpg

Tae Kwon Do (commonly abbreviated TKD) is quite possibly the most well-known Korean martial art. It focuses primarily on kicks and punches and is thus quite similar to American-style Kickboxing in its rule system.

TKD-rules.jpg

The following are the main techniques of Tae Kwon Do:

[1,912] [1,913] [1,914] [1,915] [1,916] [1,917] [1,918] [1,919]

TKD.gif

[1,920] [1,921] [1,922] [1,923] [1,924] [1,925] [1,926] [1,927] [1,928] [1,929] [1,930] [1,931] [1,932] [1,933] (clan of warriors from medieval Korea) [1,934] [1,935] [1,936]

[1,939] [1,940] [1,941] [1,942] [1,943] [1,944] [1,945] [1,946] [1,947] [1,948] [1,949] [1,950] [1,951] [1,952] [1,953] [1,954] [1,955] [1,956] [1,957]

[1,958] [1,959] (preserved the indigenous fighting style taught to him pre-WW II & Korean war) [1,960] (urged the various Kwans/schools to be merged under new Korean identity/banner) [1,961] [1,962] [1,963] [1,964] [1,965] [1,966] [1,967] [1,968] [1,969] [1,970] [1,971] [1,972] [1,973] [1,974] [1,975] [1,976] [1,977] [1,978] [1,979] [1,980] [1,981]

[1,982] [1,983] [1,984] [1,985] [1,986] [1,987] [1,988] [1,989]

WTF

The following are the 20 main Poomsae (forms) of WTF style Tae Kwon Do:

[1,990] [1,991] [1,992] [1,993] [1,994] [1,995] [1,996] [1,997] [1,998] [1,999] [2,000] [2,001] [2,002] [2,003] [2,004] [2,005] [2,006] [2,007] [2,008] [2,009] [2,010]

ITF

The following are the 25 main Poomsae (forms) of ITF style Taekwondo:

[2,011] [2,012] [2,013] [2,014]


Karate

Karate is a martial art developed in Okinawa, Japan. It was developed partially from the indigenous martial arts of Ryukyu Islands called Te and from Chinese Kung Fu, referred to in Japanese as Kenpo. Karate is primarily a stand-up focused striking art using punching, kicking, knee strikes, elbow strikes and open hand techniques such as knife-hands, spear-hands, and palm-heel strikes. In some styles there has been an addition of grappling, throws, joint locks, restraints, and vital point strikes from various martial arts, in particular influenced by Japanese Jiu-Jitsu. A karate practitioner is called a karateka.

GERI-WAZA.png

[[File:Karate_hand-elb2 56+6ow.jpg]]

In 1908, Ankō Itosu wrote the Ten Precepts of Karate, as follows:

   Ten Precepts of Karate
   Karate did not develop from Buddhism or Confucianism. In the past the Shorin-ryu school and the Shorei-ryu school were brought to Okinawa from China. Both of these schools have strong points, which I will now mention before there are too many changes:
   1. Karate is not merely practiced for your own benefit; it can be used to protect one's family or master. It is not intended to be used against a single assailant but instead as a way of avoiding a fight should one be confronted by a villain or ruffian.
   2. The purpose of karate is to make the muscles and bones hard as rock and to use the hands and legs as spears. If children were to begin training in Tang Te[1] while in elementary school, then they will be well suited for military service. Remember the words attributed to the Duke of Wellington after he defeated Napoleon: "The Battle of Waterloo was won on the playing fields of Eton."
   3. Karate cannot be quickly learned. Like a slow moving bull, it eventually travels a thousand miles. If one trains diligently every day, then in three or four years one will come to understand karate. Those who train in this fashion will discover karate.
   4. In karate, training of the hands and feet are important, so one must be thoroughly trained on the makiwara.[2] In order to do this, drop your shoulders, open your lungs, take hold of your strength, grip the floor with your feet, and sink your energy into your lower abdomen. Practice using each arm one to two hundred times each day.
   5. When one practices the stances of Tang Te, be sure to keep your back straight, lower your shoulders, put strength in your legs, stand firmly, and drop your energy into your lower abdomen.
   6. Practice each of the techniques of karate repeatedly, the use of which is passed by word of mouth. Learn the explanations well, and decide when and in what manner to apply them when needed. Enter, counter, release is the rule of releasing hand (torite).
   7. You must decide if karate is for your health or to aid your duty.
   8. When you train, do so as if on the battlefield. Your eyes should glare, shoulders drop, and body harden. You should always train with intensity and spirit, and in this way you will naturally be ready.
   9. One must not overtrain; this will cause you to lose the energy in your lower abdomen and will be harmful to your body. Your face and eyes will turn red. Train wisely.
   10. In the past, masters of karate have enjoyed long lives. Karate aids in developing the bones and muscles. It helps the digestion as well as the circulation. If karate should be introduced beginning in the elementary schools, then we will produce many men each capable of defeating ten assailants. I further believe this can be done by having all students at the Okinawa Teachers' College practice karate. In this way, after graduation, they can teach at the elementary schools at which they have been taught. I believe this will be a great benefit to our nation and our military. It is my hope you will seriously consider my suggestion.
   Anko Itosu, October 1908 

[2,015] [2,016] [2,017]

Weapons of Karate include:

  1. Tonfa[2,018] (nightstick/baton/billy-club)
  2. Tanto[2,019] (short sword)
  3. Katana (samurai sword)
  4. Tekko (horseshoe/stirrup)
  5. Sai (small pitchfork)
  6. Nunchukus (small chained staff)
  7. Bo (staff)
  8. Eiku (boat oar)
  9. Kuwa (hoe)
  10. Yari (spear)
  11. Su Yari (large pitchfork)
  12. Kama (sickle)
  13. Surujin (2-end weighted rope with stone/mace)

[2,020] [2,021]


Karate Kihon Kata (main forms)[2,022]:

[2,023] [2,024] [2,025] [2,026] [2,027] [2,028] [2,029]

[2,034] [2,035] [2,036] [2,037] [2,038] [2,039] [2,040] [2,041] [2,042] [2,043] [2,044] [2,045] [2,046]

[2,047] [2,048] [2,049] [2,050] [2,051] [2,052] [2,053] [2,054] [2,055] [2,056] [2,057] [2,058] [2,059] [2,060][2,061] [2,062] [2,063] [2,064] [2,065] [2,066] [2,067] [2,068] [2,069]


Shotokan

Shotokan is a style of Karate, developed from various martial arts by Gichin Funakoshi (1868–1957) and his son Gigo (Yoshitaka) Funakoshi (1906–1945). Gichin was born in Okinawa and is widely credited with popularizing "Karate-Do" through a series of public demonstrations, and by promoting the development of university karate clubs.[2,070]


Stances (Tachi Waza)

  1. fudo dachi (rooted stance)
  2. hachiji dachi (natural stance)
  3. hangetsu dachi (half-moon stance)
  4. heisoku dachi (informal attention stance)
  5. musubi dachi (both toe joint together and front feet 45. Osu)
  6. kiba dachi (horse stance / side stance)
  7. kokutsu dachi (back stance)
  8. kosa dachi (cross-legged stance[2,071])
  9. neko ashi dachi (cat stance)
  10. renoji dachi (L-stance; e.g. in the kata Heian godan)
  11. sanchin dachi (hourglass stance)
  12. katashi dachi (crane-like stance; e.g. in the kata Enpi)
  13. tsuru ashi dachi (crane stance; e.g. in the kata Gankaku)
  14. zenkutsu dachi (front stance)
  15. yoi dachi (basic stance)

Preparatory Positions

  1. koshi gamae (hip preparatory position)
  2. manji gamae ("manji (卍)" -shaped preparatory position, one arm raised above and behind the head with the other arm blocking low in front of the body; e.g., in the kata, Heian godan)
  3. manji uke ("manji (卍)"-shaped block)
  4. ryoken koshi gamae (double hip preparatory position; e.g. in the kata, Heian sandan)
  5. morote koko gamae (double handed preparatory position; e.g. in the kata, Enpi)

Blocking Techniques (Uke-waza) - Using the Arms

  1. age-uke (rising block)
  2. empi uke (elbow block; e.g. in the kata, Heian sandan)
  3. gedan barai (sweeping low block)
  4. gedan morote barai (double sweeping low block; usually while going into kiba dachi)
  5. haiwan uke (square side block; e.g. in the kata, Heian nidan)
  6. juji uke (x block)
  7. kaisho age uke (open-palm rising block)
  8. kaisho haiwan uke (knife-hand square side block; e.g. in the kata, Heian yondan)
  9. kaisho juji uke (open-palm x block; e.g. in the kata, Heian godan)
  10. kakiwake uke (floating x block; e.g. in the kata, Heian yondan)
  11. morote uke (double forearm block; e.g. in the kata, Heian sandan)
  12. nagashi uke (rising palm sweep block; e.g. in the kata, Tekki shodan)
  13. osae uke (palm block)
  14. otoshi uke (dropping forearm block)
  15. shuto age uke (rising knife-hand block)
  16. shuto gedan barai (knife-hand sweeping low block)
  17. shuto uke (knife hand block)
  18. shuto mawashi uke (roundhouse block with knife-hand)
  19. soto uke (outside forearm block)
  20. sukui uke (scooping block)
  21. tate shuto uke (half knife-hand block)
  22. te osae uke (dropping palm block)
  23. uchi ude uke (inside forearm block)
  24. uchi uke (outside mid-level block)
  25. gyako uchi uke (reverse outside mid-level; e.g. in the kata, Heian nidan)
  26. ude barai (reverse sweeping forearm block)
  27. kami tsukami (hair grab; e.g. in the kata, Enpi)
  28. usiro gedan barai (back low sweeping block; e.g. in the kata, Enpi)

Blocking Techniques (Uke-waza) - Using the Legs

  1. ashikubi kake uke (hooking ankle block)
  2. mika zuki geri uke (crescent kick block; e.g. in the kata, Heian godan)
  3. nami ashi, a.k.a. nami gaeshi (leg snapping wave block; e.g. in the kata, Tekki shodan)
  4. sokutei osae uke (pressing sole block)
  5. sokuto osae uke (pressing footedge block)

Striking Techniques (Uchi-waza)

  1. Age empi (Rising elbow strike)
  2. Age Tsuki (Rising Punch)
  3. Choku zuki (Straight punch)
  4. chudan juki(originally,"tsuki") (mid-level punch)
  5. Empi uchi (Elbow strike)
  6. Gyaku zuki (Reverse punch)
  7. Haishu uchi (Back hand strike)
  8. Haito uchi (Ridge hand strike)
  9. Hisami zuki (Scissor strike)
  10. Jun Zuki (front hand 'jab' punch, differing from Kizami Zuki in that shoulders are square)
  11. Kagi zuki (Hook punch)
  12. Kizami zuki (jabbing punch; like a 'jab' in boxing but faster retreat of hand)
  13. Mae mawashi empi uchi (Augmented side elbow strike; e.g. in the kata, Heian yondan)
  14. Mawashi empi (Hook elbow strike)
  15. Morote zuki (Double punch; e.g. in the kata, Tekki shodan)
  16. Nakadaka Ippon Ken (one knuckle fist)
  17. Nukite (Spear-hand strike)
  18. Oi zuki (Stepping punch)
  19. Sanbon zuki (Triple punch; age zuki, gyaku zuki, choku zuki)
  20. Shuto uchi (Knifehand strike)
  21. Shuto yoko ganmen uchi (knife-hand strike to head)
  22. Shuto sakotsu uchikomi (driving knife-hand to sternum)
  23. Shuto sakotsu uchi (knife-hand strike to clavicle)
  24. Shuto hizo uchi (knife-hand strike to spleen)
  25. Shuto jodan uchi uchi (inside knife-hand to neck)
  26. Sokumen empi uchi (Augmented elbow strike; e.g. in the kata, Tekki shodan)
  27. Tate zuki (Half reverse punch, with a vertical fist)
  28. Teisho furi uchi (Sideways palm-heel strike)
  29. Teisho uchi (Palm-heel strike)


  1. Tettsui (Hammer-fist strike)
  2. Tettsui hasami uchi (Hammer-fist scissor strike)
  3. Tettsui yoko uchi (bottom fist strike to side)
  4. Uraken uchi (Backfist strike)
  5. Uraken mawashi uchi (backfist circular strike to the head)
  6. Uraken sayu ganmen uchi (backfist strike to side)
  7. Uraken hizo uchi (backfist strike to spleen)
  8. Ushiro empi ate (backwards elbow strike)
  9. Ura zuki (Close short punch, with inverted fist, similar in nature to an 'uppercut')
  10. Ushiro empi (Back elbow strike)
  11. Yama zuki ("mountain punch" - Wide double fisted strike; e.g. in the kata, Bassai dai and Wankan)
  12. Awase zuke (Narrow double fisted strike)
  13. Yoko empi (Side elbow strike)
  14. Yoko tettsui (Sideways hammer-fist strike; e.g. in the kata, Heian Nidan)
  15. Gyaku age zuki (Rising reverse punch; e.g. in the kata, Enpi)

Kicking Techniques (Geri-waza):

  1. Ashi barai (Foot sweep)
  2. Fumikomi (Stomp kick)
  3. Hiza geri (Knee strike)
  4. Kin geri (Kick in the groin, performed like front kick but with the feet)
  5. Mae-ashi mae geri, a.k.a. choku geri (Front kick with front leg)
  6. Mae-ashi mawashi geri (Front roundhouse kick with front leg)
  7. Mae geri (Front kick)
  8. Mae Hiza geri (Front knee kick)
  9. Mae-ren geri (Double front kick; double mae geri)
  10. Mae tobi geri (Front flying kick)
  11. Mawashi geri (Roundhouse kick)
  12. Mawashi hiza geri (Circular knee kick)
  13. Mikazuki geri (Crescent kick)
  14. Nidan tobi geri (Double jump front kick)
  15. Tatsumaki senpuukyaku (Tornado hurricane kick)
  16. Tobi geri (Jump kick)
  17. Tobi hiza geri (Jumping knee kick)
  18. Tobi ushiro mawashi geri (Jumping reverse roundhouse kick)
  19. Ura mawashi geri (Upper inside roundhouse kick, a.k.a. hook kick)
  20. Ushiro geri (Back kick)
  21. Ushiro mawashi geri (Reverse roundhouse kick)
  22. Ushiro kekomi (Back side thrust kick)
  23. Otoshi Mawashi Geri (Circular falling kick)
  24. Yoko geri keage (Side snap kick)
  25. Yoko geri kekomi (Side thrust kick)
  26. Yoko tobi geri (Jumping side kick

[2,072]


Shotokan.jpg [2,073] [2,074] [2,075]

[2,076]


Goju-Ryu

Gōjū-Ryū (Japanese for "hard-soft style")[2,077] founded by Chojun Miyagi[2,078] (whom the Mr. Miyagi character of the "Karate Kid" franchise was based on) is one of the more modern of the Okinawan styles of Karate, featuring a combination of hard and soft techniques. Both principles - hard & soft - come from the famous martial arts book Bubishi[2,079] (Chinese: wu bei ji), used by Okinawan masters during the 19th and 20th centuries to develop the various Karate-Do. Go (which means hard), refers to closed hand techniques or straight linear attacks; Ju (which means soft), refers to open hand techniques and circular movements. While most Karate styles are linear, direct and hard, the "tai sabake" (circular evasion) movements of Goju-Ryu set it apart from many of the other linear Karate styles.[2,080]

Uechi-Ryu

Uechi-ryu is a traditional style of Okinawan karate founded by Kanbun Uechi (1877–1948), an Okinawan who went to Fuzhou in Fujian Province, China to study martial arts when he was 20 years old. Uechi-ryū literally means "Style of Uechi" or "School of Uechi" and is thus his unique Japanese approach to re-integrating Chinese Kung Fu techniques with the divergence it was experiencing in Okinawa (as Kenpo) and mainland Japan (as Karate).

The junbi undo exercises are:

  1. Ashi saki o ageru undo (heel pivot)
  2. Kakato o ageru undo (heel lift)
  3. Ashikubi o mawasu undo (foot and ankle twist)
  4. Hiza o mawasu undo (knee circular bend)
  5. Ashi o mae yoko ni nobasu undo (leg lift and turn)
  6. Ashi o mae uchi naname no ageru undo (straight leg lift)
  7. Tai o mae ni taosu undo (waist scoop)
  8. Koshi no nenten (trunk stretch)
  9. Ude o mae yoko shita nobasu undo (double arm strike)
  10. Kubi o mawasu undo (neck exercise)

The hojo undo exercises are:

  1. Sokuto geri (Side kick)
  2. Shomen geri (Front kick)
  3. Mawashi tsuki (Hook Punch)
  4. Hajiki uke hiraken tsuki (Tiger paw blocks and strike)
  5. Seiken tsuki (Closed Fist Block and Punch)
  6. Wauke shuto uraken shoken tsuki/Shuto Uchi-Ura Uchi-Shoken Tsuki (Chop, Backfist, One-knuckle punch)
  7. Hiji tsuki (Elbow strikes)
  8. Tenshin zensoku geri (Turn-Block-Front Kick-Forward Leg)
  9. Tenshin kosoku geri (Turn-Block-Front Kick-Back Leg)
  10. Tenshin shoken tsuki (Turn-Block-One Knuckle Punch)
  11. Shomen hajiki (fingertip strikes)
  12. Koi no shippo uchi, tate uchi (wrist blocks in four directions)
  13. Koi no shippo yoko uchi (Fish-tail wrist blocks)
  14. Shin Kokyu (Deep breathing)


Kyokushin

Kyokushin kaikan is a style of stand-up only, full-contact karate, founded in 1964 by Korean-Japanese karate master, Sosai Masutatsu Oyama who was born under his Korean name Choi Young-Eui. Kyokushinkai is Japanese for "the society of the ultimate truth". Kyokushin is rooted in a philosophy of self-improvement, discipline and hard training. It differentiates itself primarily in the emphasis on competition in point-fighting, knockdown or freestyle tournaments.

Karate-Kyokushin.jpg

[2,083] [2,084]

Taikiken

[2,085] [2,086] [2,087]

Wado Ryu

In 1939, Hironori Otsuka established Wado-ryu, which translates to “the way of harmony” in Japanese. There is a strong emphasis on harmony and peacefulness of mind. Whereas most styles of Karate focus on powerful attacks, Wado practitioners seek to evade blows. Students learn to shift their bodies to avoid or reduce the impact of blows and strikes are incorporated as a counter-attack. Unlike most other Karate styles, Wado also incorporates Jujitsu-style techniques such as joint locks and throws. The stances are mostly natural and students learn 15 kata.

[2,088]

Others

The other minor styles include:

  1. Ashihara
  2. Budokan
  3. Chidokwon
  4. Chito-Ryu
  5. Enshin
  6. Gensei-Ryu
  7. Go Kan Ryu
  8. Gosoku-Ryu
  9. Isshin-Ryu
  10. KishimotoDi
  11. Matsubayashi-Ryu
  12. Motobu-Ryu
  13. Ryuei-Ryu
  14. Ryukyukan
  15. Seido Juku
  16. Shidokan
  17. Shindo Jinen-Ryu
  18. Shito-Ryu
  19. Shorei-Ryu
  20. Shorin-Ryu
  21. Shorinji-Ryu Kenkokan
  22. Shudokan
  23. Shukokai Ryu
  24. Shuri-ryu
  25. Tenshinkan
  26. Toon-Ryu
  27. Yoshukai

[2,089]


Budo/Bujutsu

Kendo rules.png

Bujutsu (also spelled Bujitsu, sometimes referred to as Aiki-Jitsu) is defined as "military science".

Budo is defined as the "martial way". [2,090][2,091]

Bujutsu and Budo are sometimes differentiated in that Bujutsu includes weapons but Budo includes unarmed combat only, however in Aikido weapons are commonly used in practice/training so this differentiation does not cover all cases.

In general Budo/Bujutsu were the martial arts that Samurai studied in feudal Japan for armed and unarmed combat. They included Kyudo (archery), Kendo (sword fighting practice with wooden swords called "shinai"), Iaido (drawing & cutting with a real sword called a "katana" that is either blunted "iaito" or sharpened "shinken"), and many unarmed techniques that went on to form modern day Aikido (wrist locks/takedowns & weapons disarmament), Judo (throwing/sweeping/takedowns & pinning) and Jiu-jitsu (breaking bones/joints & choking to death/unconsciousness). [2,092][2,093][2,094]

Kendo.png

[2,098] [2,099] [2,100]

[2,101] [2,102] [2,103] [2,104] [2,105] [2,106] [2,107] [2,108]

[2,109] [2,110] [2,111] [2,112] (introduced Shinkage-ryu to Tokugawa clan) [2,113] (student of Musashi?, his line in next seven entries introduced and preserved Musashi's style in Tokugawa clan) [2,114] [2,115] [2,116] [2,117] [2,118] [2,119] [2,120]


[2,121] [2,122] [2,123] [2,124] [2,125] [2,126] [2,127] [2,128] [2,129] [2,130] [2,131] [2,132] [2,133]


Aikido

Aikido is a Japanese martial art which developed from traditional Jiu-Jitsu, particularly the Aiki-jitsu sections on unarmed resistance (defensive & offensive techniques both) to an armed attacker, who at the time of its inception, would have be wielding one of the many traditional Japanese weapons ranging from Samurai Katana, to , to Jo/Bo staff, to Today, there are four main branches/styles of Aikido (and several other derivative or related styles):

  1. Aikikai
  2. Yoshinkan
  3. Yoseikan (aka. Seifukai)
  4. Shodokan (aka. Tomiki)


| Ikkyo| Nikkyo| Sankyo| Gokyo| Yonkyo| Irimi-Nage| Shiho-Nage| Kote-Gaeshi| Sumi-Otoshi| Aiki-Otoshi| Koshi-Nage| Ude-Kime-Nage| Juji-Garami| Kaiten-Nage| Tenchi-Nage| Aiki-Nage| Kokyu-NageAikido.jpg
About this image

[2,134] [2,135]

The following are the official techniques of Aikikai Aikido:

  1. Ikkyo (inner wrist-lock)
  2. Nikkyo (inner upward wrist-lock)
  3. Sankkyo (twisting wrist-lock)
  4. Yonkkyo (straight-back wrist-lock)
  5. Gokkyo (finger locks)
  6. Kote Gaeshi (outer wrist-lock)
  7. Kaiten Nage & Tenchi Nage (head & neck cranks/rotations to takedown)
  8. Irimi Nage (shoulder & torso rotations)
  9. Irimi Tenkan (wrist/arm/shoulder control using uke/opponent to block multiple attackers)
  10. Koshi Nage, Aiki Nage & Aiki Otoshi (hip & knee rotations)
  11. Hiza Osae (leg pins/locks)
  12. Ashi Osae (ankle pins/locks)
  13. additional techniques may vary by organization & instructor

[2,136] [2,137] [2,138] [2,139] [2,140]


Meanwhile, Seifukai Aikido incorporates a broader array of techniques in contrast to Aikikai's gradual "narrowing of techniques". These include Attacks, Throws, Joint-Locks and

Attacks (Aikikai/Yoshinkan/Shodokan equivalent technique terminology if any)

  1. [Jun katate dori]: Normal single hand grip (gyaku hanmi katate dori)
  2. Dosoku katate dori: Opposite side, single hand (cross) grip (ai hanmi katate dori or kosa dori)
  3. Gyaku katate dori: Reverse single hand grip (none)
  4. Ushiro kubi jime katate dori: rear neck strangle and wrist grab (same)
  5. Ushiro watte kumi tsuki: Rear over arm bear hug (none)
  6. Ushiro shitate kumi tsuki: Rear under arm bear hug (none)
  7. Mae ryote ippon dori: Front two hand on one grasp (morote dori)
  8. Mae ryote dori: Front two hand grasp (ryote dori)
  9. Ushiro ryote dori: Rear two hand grasp (same)
  10. Sode dori: Sleeve grasp (same)
  11. Eri dori: Lapel grasp (mune dori)
  12. Kata dori: Shoulder grasp (same)
  13. Ushiro hiji dori: Rear two on two sleeve grasp (ushiro ryo sode dori)
  14. Ushiro kata dori: Rear two on two shoulder (ushiro ryo kata dori)
  15. Ushiro eri dori: Rear collar grasp (same)
  16. Hadaka jime: Naked strangle (ushiro kubi shime)
  17. Mae kumi tsuki: Tackle (none)
  18. Eri dori yokomen uchi: Lapel hold side strike
  19. Eri dori sukiage: lapel hold upper cut
  20. Mae kubi tsukami shime: front neck strangle (none)
  21. Mae eri shimeage: Front both hand lapel grab (mune dori)
  22. Mae kami dori: Front hair grab (none)
  23. Tsukami kakari: attempted strangle (none)

Joint Locks (Aikikai/Yoshinkan/Shodokan terminology)

  1. Robuse Taoshi: Arm Rowing Takedown (Ikkyo, Ikkajo, Oshi Taoshi)
  2. Hiji Kudaki: Elbow Smash (Rokkyo, Hiji Shime, Waki Gatame)
  3. Kote Kudaki: Wrist Smash (Nikyo, Nikajo, Kote Mawashi)
  4. Yuki Chigai: Under Arm Twist (Sankyo, Sankajo, Kote Hineri)
  5. Shita Ude Garami: Lower Arm Entanglement (Kata Gatame, -, Ude Hineri)
  6. Kata Ha Gaeshi: Single Wing Turnover (Kata Gatame, -, Ude Hineri)
  7. Waki Gatame Hiki Tate: Arm Pit Control ( -, Sankajo Rengyo Ho, - )
  8. Kannuki Hiki Tate: Bolt Lock Control ( -, Hiki Kime, - )

Throws (Aikikai/Yoshinkan/Shodokan terminology)

  1. Kote Gaeshi: Wrist Turnover (same)
  2. Tenbin Nage: Yoke Throw ( -, Hiji Ate Kokyu Nage, Mae Otoshi)
  3. Shiho Nage: Four Corner Throw (same)
  4. Ue Ude Garami: Upper Arm Entanglement ( -, Ude Garami, Ude Gaeshi)
  5. Gyaku Kote Gaeshi: Reverse Wrist Turnover (same)
  6. Mukae Daoshi: Meeting Takedown (Irimi Nage, Shomen Irimi Nage, - )
  7. Do Gaeshi: Body Overturning (Sayu Nage, Sokumen Irimi Nage, Gyaku Gamae Ate and Gedan Ate)
  8. Ushiro Kata otoshi: Rear Shoulder Drop (Ushiro Udoroshi, -, Ushiro Ate)
  9. Ushiro Sumi Otoshi: Rear Corner Drop (Sumi Otoshi, -, Sumi Otoshi)
  10. Kata Garuma: Shoulder Wheel (Maki Otoshi, -, - )

More techniques may exist in Aikido oeverall; the ones listed are known to have equivalent techniques across schools. The Aikikai and Yoshinkan refer to a lot of techniques as Kokyu Nage, a term which is not used in Yoseikan Aikido since all techniques have separate names. Within Kokyu Nage, aAt higher levels the term Aiki Nage is often used to describe throws which utilize/require perfect timing. Below is a list of the technical elements which make up Yoseikan (Seifukai) Aikido:

  • Ukemi: Falling and rolling; forward, backward & both sides
  • Atemi: Striking methods (karate basics)
  • Taisabaki: Body movements (Irimi, etc.)
  • Wan Ryoku Yosei: Cultivating energy
  • Tehodoki: Hand escapes
  • Nigiri Gaeshi: Grip reversals


  • Te Waza: Hand techniques
  1. Uchi Neji Ho: Inward twisting methods (Robuse, Kote Kudaki, Yuki Chigai, etc.)
  2. Soto Neji Ho: Outer twisting methods (Kote Gaeshi, Shiho Nage, etc.)
  3. Chokutai Ho: Straight line body methods (Mukae Daoshi, Do Gaeshi, etc.)
  4. Ude Dori Ho: Arm grabbing methods (Seoi Nage, Ushiro Sumi Otoshi, etc.)
  5. Ashi Dori Ho: Leg seizing methods (using the hand to grab the leg, e.g. kicking techniques)


  • Ashi Waza: Foot techniques (sweeps and reaps from Judo)
  • Koshi Waza: Hip techniques (from Judo)


  • Sutemi Waza: Sacrifice techniques
  1. Han Sutemi Waza: Half sacrifice techniques (tori kneels)
  2. Yoko Sutemi Waza: Side sacrifice techniques (tori lies on side)
  3. Ma Sutemi Waza: Flat sacrifice techniques (tori lies on back)


  • Kime Waza: Restraining Techniques
  1. Osae Komi: Ground work (from judo)
  2. Shime Waza: Choking techniques
  3. Kansetsu Waza: Joint locks/pins


  • Kaeshi Waza: Counter techniques
  • Renzoku Waza: Combinations and continuation Techniques
  • Emono Dori: Weapon taking
  1. Tanto Dori: Knife taking
  2. Tachi Dori: Sword taking
  3. Bo Dori: Staff taking
  • Randori:
  1. Shite Randori: Fixed combat (two attackers, set attack and defence)
  2. Jyu Randori: Free combat (two attackers, any attack and defence)
  3. Chigara Randori: Power combat (knife and stick fighting)
  • Suwari Waza: Seated techniques
  1. Han Suwari Waza: Half seated techniques
  2. Ninin Dori Sanin Dori: 2 person & 3 person grab
  • Kenjutsu: Sword Work
  1. Suburi: Practice cuts
  2. Kumitachi: Paired sword forms
  3. Kenjutsu Kata: Sword forms
  4. Tachi Iai: Standing sword drawing
  5. Suwari Iai: Kneeling sword drawing
  • Kata: Solo (striking) and paired (techniques) forms

Aikido Jo.jpg

[2,148] [2,149] [2,150] [2,151] [2,152] [2,153] [2,154]


[2,155] [2,156] [2,157] [2,158] [2,159] [2,160] [2,161] [2,162] [2,163] [2,164] [2,165]

[2,166] [2,167] [2,168] [2,169] [2,170] [2,171] [2,172] [2,173]


[2,174] [2,175] [2,176][2,177][2,178] (Seifukai is the name of the organization, Yoseikan is the name of the dojo and style; hard/street Aikido designed to hurt or incapactate an opponent)

[2,183] [2,184] [2,185] [2,186] [2,187] [2,188] [2,189] [2,190] [2,191] [2,192] [2,193] [2,194] [2,195] [2,196] [2,197] [2,198] [2,199] [2,200] [2,201] [2,202] [2,203] [2,204] [2,205] [2,206] [2,207]


Judo

OlympicJudo-rules.jpg

Judo, which means "The Gentle Way", is a Japanese martial art based upon the ancient Samurai techniques of Jiu-Jitsu (jujitsu), designed specifically for the battlefield. Jigoro Kano, President of the University of Education in Tokyo, developed Judo as a safer, more sportive alternative to traditional jujitsu in 1882. Dr. Kano, who had studied jujitsu in his youth, incorporated the most effective, spectacular, yet safest of these ancient techniques into the new art of modern Judo. Dr. Kano subsequently founded the Kodokan as a world headquarters for the sport of Judo in Tokyo, Japan and codified the selected techniques into the Gokyo, in order to effectively teach his new art as a coherent system. Sportive Judo soon focused on the Tachi Waza (standing techniques) of the Gokyo almost exclusively, as they were perceived as the most effective ways to score Ippon (match point). Meanwhile, another stream of Judo practitioners became known as Kosen Judo as they maintained the Ne Waza (ground techniques) of traditional jujitsu.

OlympicJudo scoring.jpg

An essential concept of Judo are four stages of a successful (potentially Ippon-worthy) throw:

  1. 崩し (Kuzushi - level-change, pull down, destroy or demolish; i.e. controlling an opponent’s balance, movement and body position using Tsuri-Te & Hiki-Te via footwork, leverage and/or power)
  2. 作り (Tsukuri - fitting or entering; i.e. attacker fits their body into position to throw their opponent)
  3. 掛け (Kake - execution of the throw; i.e. the mechanical movements resulting in taking an off-balanced opponent to the ground)
  4. 極 (Kime - the decisiveness to follow through or finish the throw; always maintain your grips unless in training where you need to release one of Ukeès hands so they can perform a breakfall)

[2,208] [2,209] [2,210] [2,211] [2,212] [2,213] [2,214] [2,215] [2,216]

Judo Kuzushi.jpg

The following are the official throws of (Kodokan) Judo:

Dai Ikkyo (1st group)

1. Deashi Harai
2. Hiza Guruma
3. Sasae Tsurikomi Ashi
4. Uki Goshi
5. Osoto Gari
6. O-Goshi
7. Ouchi Gari
8. Seoi Nage[2,217]

Dai Nikyo (2nd group)

1. Kosoto Gari
2. Kouchi Gari
3. Koshi Guruma
4. Tsurikomi Goshi
5. Okuriashi Harai
6. Tai Otoshi
7. Harai Goshi
8. Uchi Mata

Dai Sankyo (3rd group)

1. Kosoto Gake
2. Tsuri Goshi
3. Yoko Otoshi
4. Ashi Guruma
5. Hane Goshi
6. Harai Tsurikomi Ashi
7. Tomoe Nage
8. Kata Guruma  

Dai Yonkyo (4th group)

1. Sumi Gaeshi Drawing, Animation-1, Animation-2, Photo
2. Tani Otoshi
3. Hane Makikomi Drawing, Animation
4. Sukui Nage
5. Utsuri Gosh 
6. O Guruma
7. Soto Makikomi
8. Uki Otoshi

Dai Gokyo (5th group)

1. Osoto Guruma
2. Uki Waza
3. Yoko Wakare
4. Yoko Guruma
5. Ushiro Goshi
6. Ura Nage
7. Sumi Otoshi
8. Yoko Gake

Habukareta Waza (preserved techniques from 1895 gokyo)

1. Obi Otoshi
2. Seoi Otoshi
3. Yama Arashi[2,218]
4. Osoto Otoshi
5. Daki Wakare
6. Hikikomi Gaeshi
7. Tawara Gaeshi
8. Uchi Makikomi

[2,219]


Shinmeisho No Waza (newly accepted techniques)

  1. Morote Gari[2,220]
  2. Kuchiki Taoshi[2,221]
  3. Daki Age
  4. Kubi Nage
  5. Kibisu Gaeshi
  6. Tsubame Gaeshi
  7. Kouchi Gaeshi[2,222]
  8. Ouchi Gaeshi
  9. Osoto Gaeshi
  10. Hane Goshi Gaeshi
  11. Harai Goshi Gaeshi
  12. Uchi Mata Gaeshi
  13. Uchi Mata Sukashi[2,223]
  14. Osoto Makikomi
  15. Harai Makikomi
  16. Uchi Mata Makikomi
  17. Sode Tsurikomi Goshi
  18. (Drop) Ippon Seoinage[2,224][2,225][2,226]
  19. (Drop) Morote Seoi-Nage
  20. Kouchi Gake

Unconventional Techniques

  1. Sode Seoi Nage (aka. Choi Min Ho's Sode Seoi Nage)
  2. Eri Seoi Nage ("2-on-1 lapel Seoi Nage" from inside)
  3. Ura Morote Seoi Nage (aka. Reverse Seoi Nage, or, Korean Seoi Nage)[2,227][2,228]
  4. Ura Morote Eri Sode Seoi Nage (aka. Drop Reverse Seoi Nage, or, Drop Korean Seoi Nage)[2,229][2,230]
  5. Gyaku Ura Nage (aka. Modified Front Suplex, or, "Khabareli" throw)[2,231][2,232]
  6. Ura Kata Guruma (aka. lifting/suplex Kata Guruma)
  7. Gyaku Kata Guruma (aka. Reverse Kata Guruma, also known as both "Koga Guruma" & "Mollaei Kata Guruma")[2,233]
  8. Kata Guruma Makikomi (aka. Flying Kata Guruma)
  9. Gyaku Kata Guruma Makikomi (aka. "Cuban Windmill")



(# [ Ashi Hasami Jime] (locking the head, face or neck directly with legs without an arm in is always considered illegal)[2,234][2,235][2,236][2,237]

  1. Gyaku Hasami Jime (version #2 is like a "Reverse Gogoplata" and may possibly still be permitted in some Judo circles/tournaments, can also be done with only the arms as in version #1)[2,238]
  2. Ryote Hasami Jime[2,239]
  3. Yoko Hasami Jime[2,240][2,241]
  4. Wakare Jime (likely to pass in most Judo circles but a potential disqualification if Uke's head/neck is lifted upward or manipulated too much by the leg pressure coming from behind the head)
  5. Ashi-Kubi Kansetsu Waza (all toe holds)
  6. Ashi Kansetsu Waza (all leg locks)
  7. Fukurahagikin Kansetsu Waza (all calf slicers)
  8. Koshi Kansetsu Waza (all hip locks)
  9. Sekitsui Kansetsu Waza (all spine cranks)
  10. Kubi Kansetsu Waza (all neck cranks)
  11. Nitokin Kansetsu Waza (all bicep slicers)


[2,242] [2,243] [2,244] [2,245] [2,246] [2,247] [2,248] [2,249] [2,250] [2,251] [2,252] [2,253] [2,254] [2,255] [2,256] [2,257] [2,258] [2,259]

De-Ashi-HaraiHiza-GurumaSasae-Tsuri-Komi-AshiO-GoshiOsoto-GariUki-GoshiOuchi-GariSeoi-NageKosoto-GariKouchi-GariKoshi-GurumaTsuri-Komi-GoshiOkuri-Ashi-HaraiTai-OtoshiHarai-GoshiUchi-MataKosoto-GakeTsuri-GoshiYoko-OtoshiAshi-GurumaHane-GoshiHarai-Tsuri-Komi-AshiTomoe-NageKata-GurumaSumi-GaeshiTani-OtoshiHane-Maki-KomiSukui-NageUtsuri-GoshiO-GurumaSoto-Maki-KomiUki-OtoshiOsoto-GurumaUki-WazaYoko-WakareYoko-GurumaUshiro-GoshiUra-NageSumi-OtoshiYoko-GakeJudoGokyo.gif
About this image

[2,260]

Another way of breaking down the same throws are by their type, as follows:

ASHISUTEMIKATATEKOSHI
De Ashi BaraiTani OtoshiSeoi NageTai OtoshiKubi Nage
Okuri Ashi BaraiYoko GakeIppon Seoi NageTai Otoshi GurumaKoshi Guruma
Sasae Tsurikomi AshiKata Hiza Tai OtoshiKoshi Makikomi
Harai Tsurikomi AshiYoko OtoshiMorote Seoi Nage
Kuzure Yoko OtoshiSumi OtoshiO Goshi
Osoto GariEri Seoi NageUki OtoshiUki Goshi
Osoto GakeUki WazaMorote Eri Seoi Nage
Osoto MakikomiAshi Oshi TaoshiTsuri Goshi
Osoto OtoshiSumi GaeshiSeoi AgeKushiki Taoshi
Kibisu GaeshiTsurikomi Goshi
Kosoto GariTawara GaeshiSode Seoi NageSode Tsurikomi Goshi
Kosoto GakeMorote Sode Seoi NageKata Eri Sode Tsuri Komi Goshi
Ushiro GakeHikikomi GaeshiUra Morote Eri Sode Seoi Nage[2,261]Morote GariKata Sode Ashi Tsuri Komi Goshi[2,262]
Kuzure Hikikomi GaeshiMorote Gake
Ouchi GariSeoi OtoshiSoto Makikomi
Ouchi GakeObi Tori GaeshiTe Guruma
Uchi MakikomiKata Hiza Seoi OtoshiMa Te GurumaHane Goshi
Tomoe NageUshiro Te GurumaHane Makikomi
Kouchi GariYoko Tomoe NageSoto Mata Seoi Otoshi
Kouchi GakeKuzure Yoko Tomoe NageSukui NageHarai Goshi
Kouchi MakikomiRyo Ashi Tomoe NageRyo Hiza Seoi OtoshiObi OtoshiHarai Makikomi
Waki Otoshi
Hiza GurumaYoko GurumaKata GurumaUtsuri Goshi
Ashi GurumaRyo Hiza Kata Guruma[2,263]Ashi Yoko Gake
O GurumaUra NageYoko Kata GurumaTe Ashi GakeUshiro Goshi
Osoto GurumaMae Hiza Ura NageYoko Kata Guruma Otoshi
Ushiro Hiza Ura NageUchi Mata Sukashi
Uchi Mata
Uchi Mata MakikomiKawazu Gake*Yama Arashi
Kani Basami*

[2,264] [2,265] [2,266] [2,267] [2,268] [2,269] [2,270] [2,271]


[2,278] [2,279] [2,280] [2,281] [2,282] [2,283] [2,284] [2,285]

[2,286] [2,287] [2,288] [2,289] [2,290] [2,291] [2,292] [2,293] [2,294] [2,295] [2,296] [2,297] [2,298] [2,299] [2,300] [2,301] [2,302] [2,303] [2,304] [2,305] [2,306] [2,307] [2,308] [2,309] [2,310]


[2,311]

Four Guardians of the Kōdōkan (also known as the "Four Kings" of Judo) [2,312] [2,313] [2,314] [2,315]

[2,316] [2,317] [2,318] [2,319] [2,320] (#1 student of Kimura) [2,321] (#2 student of Kimura) [2,322] (#3 student of Kimura, Canadian) [2,323] [2,324] [2,325] [2,326] [2,327] [2,328] [2,329] [2,330] [2,331] [2,332] [2,333] [2,334] [2,335] [2,336] [2,337] [2,338] [2,339]


[2,340] [2,341] [2,342] [2,343] [2,344] [2,345] [2,346] [2,347] [2,348] [2,349] [2,350] [2,351] [2,352] [2,353] [2,354] [2,355] [2,356] [2,357] [2,358] [2,359] [2,360] [2,361] [2,362] [2,363] [2,364] [2,365] [2,366] [2,367] [2,368] [2,369] [2,370] [2,371] [2,372] [2,373] [2,374] [2,375] [2,376] [2,377] [2,378] [2,379] [2,380] [2,381] [2,382] [2,383] [2,384] [2,385] [2,386] [2,387] [2,388] [2,389] [2,390] [2,391] [2,392] [2,393]


Jiu-Jitsu

JiuJitsu rules.png

Jiu-Jitsu (sometimes referred to as Japanese Jiu-Jitsu or traditional Jiu-Jitsu) is actually a predecessor to the sport of Judo which focuses not on scoring points using technical throws and takedowns, but on finishing a fight using a combination of throws and takedowns (essentially the full group of throws and takedowns from Judo and Aikido both, plus a few techniques restricted from those arts) along with a follow-up ne waza choke or joint-lock technique to incapacitate or potentially (in battle) injure an opponent. It takes its approach directly from the Aiki-Jutsu practiced by the Samurai and thus includes many disarmament techniques for use against an opponent wielding a long sword, short sword, spear, bow or knife. In one sentence: "Jiu-Jitsu is Judo for a real fight, Judo is Jiu-Jitsu for gentlemanly competitive combat".

JiuJitsu.jpg

The following are the main pins and ground positions of Judo & Jiu-Jitsu:

  1. Tate Shiho Gatame (Mount, both shoulders pinned)
  2. Kuzure Tate Shiho Gatame (Mount, single-arm trapped)
  3. Yoko Shiho Gatame (North-South)
  4. Kami Shiho Gatame (North-South, both underhooks; aka. Top four-corner hold)
  5. Kuzure Kami Shiho Gatame (North-South, single-arm trapped, single-arm underhook)
  6. Mune Gatame -- Kuzure Yoko Shiho Gatame (Side-Mount - sprawled, both arms across body)
  7. Kata Gatame (Side-Mount, single-arm/shoulder trapped)
  8. Kesa Gatame (Scarfhold)
  9. Kuzure Kesa Gatame (Scarfhold, single-arm trapped, bottom leg fully extended)
  10. Makura Kesa Gatame (Scarfhold, chin-to-chin & grabbing own knee)
  11. Ushiro Kesa Gatame (Scarfhold, North-south/Reverse position)[2,394]
  12. Ushiro Gatame (Rear-mount)
  13. Ushiro Gatame Eri Jime (PROHIBITED IN JUDO; Anaconda Body Lock/hold-down)
  14. Do-Osae (Guard)
  15. Sasae (50/50)

[2,395] [2,396] [2,397]

The following are the Kansetsu Waza (joint locks/pins) of Jiu-Jitsu & Judo Newaza:

  1. Juji Gata-me (Arm-bar)
  2. Ude Garami (Americana/keylock)
  3. Gyaku Ude Garami (Kimura/reverse-keylock/reverse-armlock/DWL=DoubleWristLock/figure-4 armlock/chicken wing)[2,398][2,399][2,400][2,401][2,402][2,403][2,404][2,405][2,406][2,407][2,408][2,409]
  4. Ashi-gatame
  5. De-ashi-gatame
  6. Hara-gatame
  7. Ude-hishigi-ashi-gatame
  8. Ude-hishigi-hiza-gatame
  9. Ude-hishigi-juji-gatame
  10. Ude-hishigi-ude-gatame
  11. Ude-hishigi-sankaku-gatame
  12. Ude-hishigi-waki-gatame
  13. Te-gatame
  14. Waki-gatame
  15. Ude-garami
  16. Ashi Garami (PROHIBITED; leg entanglement)
  17. Ashi Sankaku Garami (Omoplata/legs-to-shoulder-lock, also possibly referred literally as "ashi gyaku ude garami")[2,410]

The following are the Shime Waza (chokes/strangles) of Jiu-Jitsu & Judo Newaza:

  1. Do Jime (PROHIBITED; body scissors, basically guard position squeezing legs together as tightly as possible; can also be applied elsewhere as a ligament crush/choke)
  2. Sankaku Jime (Triangle choke)[2,411][2,412][2,413][2,414][2,415][2,416]
  3. Hadaka Jime (Mata Leon/Rear naked choke)[2,417][2,418]
  4. Kata Ha Jime (Sleeve wheel strangle; also Head & Arm Choke from back, under, mount or sidemount)
  5. Sode Guruma Jime (Scarf Hold choke)
  6. Okuri Eri Jime (Collar choke)
  7. Koshi Jime (Clock choke)[2,419]
  8. Ushiro Jime (Rear-naked forearm choke)
  9. Sode guruma jime[2,420]
  10. Nami Juji Jime (Cross-choke/single-handed choke)
  11. Ryote Jime (Cross-choke/double-handed choke)
  12. Morote Jime[2,421]
  13. Kata Te Jime (sliding forearm strangle)
  14. Kata Juji Jime (palms facing-each other choke)
  15. Gyaku Juji Jjime (thumbs outside, fingers inside, weight pressing down choke)
  16. Jigoku Jime (Crucifix cross-collar choke/Salaverry/Beatdown)
  17. Tsukomi Jime (push choke)[2,422][2,423][2,424][2,425]
  18. Tomoe Jime (collar encircling strangle)

[2,426] [2,427] [2,428] [2,429] [2,430] [2,431] [2,432] [2,433]

JiuJitsu.gif [2,434]


[2,435]

[2,436] [2,437] [2,438] [2,439] [2,440] [2,441]


[2,442] [2,443] [2,444] [2,445] [2,446] [2,447] [2,448] [2,449] [2,450] [2,451] [2,452] [2,453] [2,454] [2,455] [2,456] [2,457] [2,458] [2,459] [2,460] [2,461] [2,462] [2,463] [2,464] [2,465] [2,466] [2,467] [2,468] [2,469] [2,470][2,471] [2,472]


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[2,495] [2,496] [2,497] [2,498] [2,499] [2,500] [2,501] [2,502] [2,503] [2,504]


Brazilian Jiu Jitsu

Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu (commonly abbreviated BJJ) basically takes the ne waza (ground techniques) from Kosen Judo (which predates Kodokan reforms) and self-defense techniques from earlier Japanese Jiu-Jitsu designed for the battle field. For this reason, some Judoka use the tongue-in-cheek expansion of the BJJ acronym to "Basically Just Judo". In modern times it has combined these core techniques with some additional wrestling positioning and holds (virtually any proven to be effective in competition) in order to create a new derivative of the traditional Japanese grappling martial arts, optimized for ground-based combat. It was pervaded largely by the Gracie family (who learned traditional Bujutsu from Mitsuyo Maeda, aka. Count Koma in Brazil). Through the prominence of the Gracie family in open challenge competitions and "no holds barred" matches, BJJ has earned a widespread acclaim and loyal following as an effective combat system. It focuses primarily on ground fighting and how to keep an opponent on the ground rather than standing or in a loose position on top where they could strike you and do damage.

The primary two ways that BJJ practitioners aim to finish a fight is through a joint-lock/break or a choke, with many variations of these. For this reason, the mantra "tap, snap or nap" was created, emphasizing that if an opponent didn't tap out to signal their inability to continue fighting, they would have a limb or joint snapped, or be choked unconscious. Like most grappling arts, BJJ enjoys an advantage over striking arts in that it can be practiced at full speed/strength (as long as restraint is showed on final submissions holds) without either practitioner suffering any injury, and thus training to experience a full resistance, realistic fighting situation.[2,505] In the striking arts, even with padding and protective gear, sparring sessions routinely end in injury (soft-tissue damage, internal/external bruises, ligament/tendon damage, joint distress, damaged cartilage such as in the nose, or broken bones) thus can not be done with the frequency and intensity that grappling sessions can. That said, grappling itself does have some common minor injuries and ailments, such as lower back pain, shoulder/elbow-joint pain, sprained fingers, muscle soreness[2,506][2,507], cauliflower ear (which is the engulfing of the ear cartilage with blood/fluid due to a blow, repetitive strain or violent twisting/stretching in an unnatural position)[2,508] and "grappler's neck" which is stiffness due to attacks such as chokes and neck cranks and/or defensive techniques performed incorrectly such as rolls, bridges or lifts.[2,509][2,510][2,511]

Kesa Gatame (scarf hold)Tate shiho gatame (mount)Do Osae / Do Jime (guard/body-scissors)Ryote Jime (two-hand collar choke)Katate Jime (sliding collar choke)Kakae Jime (one-hand collar strangle)Nami-juji Jime (Normal cross-collar choke, from top)Nami-juji Jime (Normal cross-collar choke, from bottom)Ude-Hishigi Ude-Gatame (kneeling chest/head-trapped arm lock)Ude-hishigi Hara-Gatame (kneeling stomach-trapped arm lock)Ude-hishigi Hara-Gatame (pinning stomach-trapped arm lock)Hiza Gatame (side arm-lock)Kannuki Gatame (standing entangled arm lock)Kuzure Kesa Gatame (modified scarf hold)Ude Hishigi Sankaku Gatame (triangular arm lock)Sankaku Jime (triangle from guard/mount)Yoko Sankaku Jime (inverted or reverse triangle from side/back-mount/north-south)Hadaka Jime (rear naked choke from side/back-mount)Shita Hadaka Jime (rear naked choke from back-mount on back)Gyaku Juji Jime (reverse cross-collar choke from mount)Shita Gyaku Juji Jime (reverse cross-collar choke from guard)Ude Hishigi Juji Gatame (cross arm lock; aka. arm bar)Shitamuki Ude Hishigi Juji Gatame (belly facing downwards cross arm lock; aka. russian armbar)Ude Hishigi Hiza Gatame (knee--entrapped arm lock; aka. scarf hold armbar)Koshi Katate Jime (single-arm reverse collar choke; aka. clock choke)Katate Jime (both-arm reverse collar choke; aka. seatbelt clock choke)Gyaku Hishigi (neck dislocation by elongation choke; aka. guillotine choke)Yoko Shiho Gatame (side control position)Uki Gatame (knee-on-belly and/or knee-on-belly gift-wrap position)Kata Gatame Jime (head & arm choke from mount/side)Shita Kata Gatame Jime (head & arm choke from the bottom)Kataha Jime (single wing choke, kneeling rear-mount)Kataha Jime (single wing choke, back-entangled rear-mount)Tsukkomi Jime (thrusting strangle)Shita Tsukkomi Jime (thrusting strangle)Gyaku Ude Garami (kimura)Shita Gyaku Ude Garami (kimura from the bottom)Ude Garami (americana from side/mount/half-guard)Shita Ude Garami (americana from bottom/under-side/under-half-guard)Sankaku Garami (omoplata)Osae Hishigi (neck dislocation by immobilization; aka. belt guillotine choke)Kami Shiho Gatame (north-south position)Kuzure Kami Shiho Gatame (modified north-south position)Okuri Eri Jime (modified side-collar choke; aka. bow & arrow choke)Eri Jime (breadcutter choke)Morote Jime (entangled collar scarf hold choke; aka. samurai choke)Yoko Morote Jime (modified north-south entangled collar choke; aka. baseball bat choke)Yoko Okuri Eri Jime (leg-up collar choke from back-mount; aka baseball bat choke)Ude Shibori Jime (single collar-grip, forearm choke; aka. paper cutter choke)Sode Guruma Jime (sleeve wheel strangle from mount/side; aka. ezekiel choke)Sode Guruma Jime (sleeve wheel strangle from bottom/under-sidemount; aka. ezekiel choke)Yoko Kata Gatame Jime (aka. Brabo/Anaconda/D'arce Choke)Hadaka Jime (front naked choke; aka. ninja choke)Shita Ude Hishigu Garami (entangled shoulder lock from bottom; aka. mir lock)Shita Juji Gatame (bottom/accordion armbar)Koshi Hiza Gatame (knee bar)Ashi Garami (entangled leg lock, aka. heel hook)Ude Hishigi Te Gatame (modified scarf hold arm lock, aka. inverse omoplata)Ude Hishigi Ashi Gatame (reverse crucifix straight arm lock)Jime (gogoplata/locoplata)Tomoe Hishigi (circular/stacking neck dislocation)Kata Ashi Hishigi (achilles/straight-ankle lock)Hiza Hishigi (knee/calf crush dislocation)Ashi Dori Garami (toe hold)Tate Shiho Hiza Hishigi (grapevine/hip-crank)Kata Ashi Hishigi (achilles/straight-ankle lock)Hiza Tori Garami (body triangle overhook knee crank)Ashi Kannuki (transversal leg block/lift)Sankaku Ashi Kannuki (triangled calf/knee crush from under mount/half-mount)Nejiru Ashi Garami (rolling/twisting heel hook)Shita Gyaku Ashi Garami (x-guard, de la riva & berimbolo)Kani Garami (crab entanglement, aka. inverted heel hook)Ashi Makikomi (inward leg-winding, aka. calf crank/slicer)Tate Hishigi (standing guillotine)Kesa Gatame Kubi Hishigi (scarf hold neck crank)Twister (wrestler's guillotine)Juji Gatame (straight arm lock)Kron Choke (rubber guard)Te Gatame  (wrist lock)Kubi Hishigi (dislocation of neck)BJJ.png
About this image

Submissions (in MMA/BJJ/Submission-Grappling):

  1. Everything in Jiu-Jitsu/Judo Ne Waza (practically any other submission from any other art eventually gets adopted/absorbed)
  2. Armbar[2,512] (from many different positions than basic Judo juji-gatame)
  3. Flying Armbar
  4. Triangle (from many different positions than basic Judo [ sankaku-jime])[2,513]
  5. Flying Triangle
  6. Americana (from many different positions than basic Judo ude-garami)
  7. Kimura (from many different positions than basic Judo ude-garami)[2,514][2,515][2,516]
  8. Omoplata[2,517][2,518][2,519][2,520]
  9. [http://www.grapplearts.com/Blog/2012/04/step-by-step-reverse-omoplata/ Reverse
  10. Barataplata
  11. Tarikoplata[2,521][2,522]
  12. Bicep-slicer armlock
  13. Guillotine Choke
  14. Brabo Choke
  15. Darce Choke
  16. Anaconda Choke[2,523]
  17. Mata Leon (Rear-Naked Choke)
  18. Ninja Choke (Front-Naked Choke)
  19. Pace Choke (Front-Naked Triangle Choke)[2,524]
  20. Bow & Arrow Choke
  21. Baseball Bat Choke
  22. Gogoplata (crazy-legs/rubberguard-choke)[2,525]
  23. Flying Gogoplata
  24. Locoplata (gogoplata variation with top leg instead pushing into gogoplata)
  25. Peruvian Necktie[2,526]
  26. Double Peruvian Necktie (typically done from a Back Mount)
  27. Anaconda Body-Lock

[2,527] [2,528] [2,529]

Cross-ChokeTop-Hand-ChokePaper-Cutter-ChokeTriangleTriangle ArmbarOmoplataAmericanaEzekiel-Choke-mountedBaseball-Bat-ChokeBreadcutterHigh-Arm-LockTwisting-FootlockStraight-Ankle-LockKneebarArm-Lock-mountedTop-Hand-Choke-sidemountBrabo-chokeArmlock-halfguardAmericana-bottomMir-LockStraight-Armlock-bottomLockdown-Top-Hand-Choke-bottomKimuraArm-Lock-bottomKimura-sidemountStraight-Arm-Lock-sidemountWrist-Lock-sidemountArmbar-rollingScarf-ChokeScarf-Ezekiel-ChokeArm-In-Ezekiel-Choke-backmountEzekielArmbar-backmountCollar-Choke-backmountBow-And-Arrow-Choke-backmountKron-ChokeReverse-Arm-Lock-50/50Accordion-Arm-LockBJJ.jpg
About this image

[2,530]


Ground Positions (in MMA/BJJ/Submission-Grappling):

  1. Guard (bottom; opponent in guard)
  2. In-Guard (top; in opponent's guard)
  3. Mount (top position)
  4. Mounted (under an opponent in top position)
  5. Quarter-Mount (pinching legs together to prevent opponent from closing guard, but not trying to pass to side or full mount)
  6. Quarter-Mounted (opponent controlling your open guard but not immediately trying to pass to side or full mount; for example to ground & pound)
  7. Side-Mount (on top with legs and body to the side of an opponent[2,531])
  8. Under-Side (under an opponent who has gotten past both of your legs[2,532])
  9. Half-Guard[2,533] (under a guard-passing opponent, having one of opponent's legs wrapped and possibly additional head/arm control)
  10. Half-Guarded (on top of an opponent who has one of your legs wrapped with possible head, shoulder and/or arm control via over or underhooks[2,534])
  11. knee-on-belly (also referred to as "knee-ride"[2,535])
  12. [ Single-hook Rear Mount] (forward-facing on top of opponent's back, with one hook in)
  13. [ Single-hook Rear Mounted] (opponent on your back, with just one hook in)
  14. Rear Mount (forward-facing on top of an opponents back, with hooks in)
  15. [ Rear Mounted] (opponent on your back)
  16. [ Headlock] (both arms around your opponent's head)
  17. [ Headlocked (opponent has both arms around your head)
  18. [ Scarf Hold] (on top of opponent in side control with legs spread to side and/or one to the side & one splayed out beyond opponent's head, control head, try to control opposite shoulder/arm)
  19. [Scarf Held] (opponent on top with a scarf hold)
  20. [North-South] (opponent on top with legs above your head, head down facing your chest/abdomen or possibly even lower near your groin)
  21. [Most Uncomfortable Position in the World] (being under an opponent holding you with a strong North-South hold down)

[2,536] [2,537] [2,538] [2,539] [2,540] [2,541] [2,542] [2,543] [2,544] [2,545] [2,546] [2,547] [2,548] [2,549]

Guard Positions (each position may have many shoulder/arm/head/hip/leg-position variations):

  1. Open guard
  2. [ Body Lock guard] (seated, kneeling or standing with both arms around opponent's body)
  3. Closed guard
  4. [ Buckshot/Knees-Up guard] (both knees planted firmly in opponent's mid-section/ribs/groin, with possible wrist/arm/head control)
  5. Butterfly guard
  6. Cross guard
  7. 93 guard
  8. Worm guard[2,550]
  9. Squid gaurd
  10. Turtle guard[2,551]
  11. Koala guard
  12. Octopus guard[2,552]
  13. Donkey guard
  14. Curu Curu guard[2,553]
  15. 93 guard[2,554]
  16. Spider guard[2,555]
  17. Galaxy guard[2,556]
  18. Rat guard (part of Rubber Guard, similar to Williams Guard by Shawn Williams but in this case with locked legs and optional arm wrap position)
  19. Anaconda guard
  20. Clam guard (started as a joke guard, but actually has a technique from Catch Wrestling/Old Judo Ne Waza that utilizes same movements)
  21. Pistachio guard (pretty much a joke guard, but as far as unorthodox positions go could be used)
  22. Rubber guard (including all setups and intermediary positions such as Mission Control, Manhattan, etc)[2,557]
  23. De La Riva guard[2,558]
  24. Reverse De La Riva guard
  25. Spiral guard[2,559]
  26. Williams guard (like a loose/wide-angle Mission Control, innovated by Shawn Williams)
  27. X guard [2,560]
  28. Y guard (aka. "1-leg trapped X Guard")
  29. Z guard (aka. Z half-guard)[2,561]
  30. Hip-clamp Guard (aka. modified/tight/closed Z half-guard)[2,562][2,563][2,564][2,565][2,566]
  31. Krab guard (like a "reverse Hip Clamp guard")[2,567]
  32. Tornado guard
  33. Inverted Guard[2,568][2,569]
  34. Half-guard
  35. Deep Half-Guard[2,570][2,571][2,572]
  36. Half-Butterfly guard
  37. Double Triangle Half-guard (Lockdown) (also named the "Lockdown" position by Eddie Bravo)[2,573][2,574]
  38. Leg-Hook guard (like Shawn Williams' guard with whole leg hooked, not just shoulder)
  39. Instep Half-guard
  40. Sitting Half-guard (aka. "50/50 guard")[2,575][2,576][2,577]
  41. Sitting guard (similar to Koala Guard with no attempt to roll under/towards opponent)[2,578]

[2,579][2,580][2,581][2,582][2,583] [2,584] [2,585]


Guard Passes:

  1. Simple guard pass (posture up, hips forward, straigh alignment, 2 control points shoulder/chest/arm/hip/knee, then suddenly extend one leg 45 degrees, slide opponent's guard leg down your 45-degree extended leg using palm, fist, gripped pants, elbow, etc)
  2. Elbow-in-Knee pressure pass (similar to above but relies heavily on pain-compliance use of elbow digging/driving into knee cartiledge and/or soft points between inner-shin & knee or inner-thigh & knee)
  3. Guitar Hero pass (standing knee-on-belly, with centered weight, hip-thrust forward & wide movement of arm same side as leg doing the knee-on-belly, around the guard, constant downward pressure)
  4. Knee-in-butt guard pass (posture down, 2 control points again, knee comes up the center into opponent's tailbone pressing until knee either enters the guard or forces it open, protect neck/collar throughout)
  5. Knee-slide guard pass (one knee enters through the middle of the guard any manner possible, then dives/slides/cuts through to a specific side until the knee touches the ground next the opponent's hip... from there next leg comes through to establish base, reverse directions, or stay in half-guard and word a half-huard pass)
  6. Knee sneak-through guard pass (like the "knee-slide pass" but both knees go in and the expected pass direction gets reversed)
  7. Near-Knee guard pass
  8. Pancake guard pass
  9. Z Guard Pass
  10. Top-Ankle removal guard pass (aka. Reach-back pass)
  11. Stacking guard pass
  12. Can-opener guard pass
  13. Neck-crank guard pass
  1. Leg-drag series of guard passes
  2. Leg-lace series of guard passes
  3. Ashi garami to guard pass
  4. Ankle lock to guard pass
  5. Knee bar to guard pass
  1. Forward-roll guard pass
  2. Cartwheel guard pass
  3. Front-Handspring guard pass
  4. Back-Handspring guard pass
  5. Front-Flip guard pass
  6. Back-Flip guard pass
  7. Homeplate-slide guard pass
  8. Swinging guard pass
  9. Spinning guard pass (aka. Dance pass)
  10. Grasshoper guard pass[2,586][2,587]
  1. Slamming guard pass (aka. Daki Age)
  2. Knife/ridge-hand (strike or leaning pressure on throat to pass)
  3. Pound-to-pass guard pass (MMA-only ground&pound)

[2,588] [2,589] [2,590]


Escapes

  1. Shrimp Escape (single)
  2. Shrimp Escape (double)
  3. Reverse Shrimp Escape (single)
  4. Reverse Shrimp Escape (double, from back control)
  5. Scarf Hold (Kesa Gatame) escape [2,591]
  6. Modified Scarf Hold (Kuzure Kesa Gatame) escape[2,592]
  7. Reverse Scarf Hold escape[2,593]
  8. North-South escape [2,594][2,595]
  9. Modified North-South escape[2,596][2,597]
  10. Escape from Back Mount[2,598][2,599][2,600]
  11. Running Escape
  12. Crucifix escape
  13. Rear-Mount Crucifix escape
  14. Mounted Crucifix escape [2,601]
  15. Side-Mount escape[2,602][2,603]
  16. Modified Side-Mount escape[2,604][2,605][2,606]
  17. Mount escape[2,607]
  18. Grapevine Mount escape[2,608][2,609]
  19. Body Triangle escape
  20. Triangle escape[2,610][2,611][2,612]
  21. Armbar escape[2,613][2,614][2,615][2,616][2,617][2,618][2,619]
  22. Omoplata escape
  23. Gogoplata escape[2,620][2,621]
  24. Head & Arm Choke escape [2,622][2,623][2,624][2,625]
  25. Lapel Choke escape
  26. Rear Lapel Choke escape
  27. Ezekiel Choke escape
  28. North-South Choke escape


Sweeps

  1. Hip Bump Sweep
  2. Flower Sweep
  3. Helicopter Sweep
  4. Twist Sweep
  5. Tornado Sweep
  6. The Rocker
  7. Rocking Chair Sweep[2,626]
  8. Electric Chair sweep
  9. Elevator sweep
  10. Push sweep
  11. Helicopter sweep
  12. Tornado sweep
  13. Bicycle sweep
  14. Scissor sweep
  15. Moguri sweep
  16. Murphy Roll sweep (from Turtle guard)
  17. Excissor sweep (open legs and arms in outward motion, typically if attempted Scissor Sweep failed because opponent put weight down on top/sweeping leg)
  18. Pendulum sweep
  19. Flower sweep[2,627]
  20. Butterfly sweep
  21. Sitting 1-leg Butterfly sweep
  22. Dump sweep
  23. Scoop sweep
  24. Sit-Out sweep (from back control)
  25. Sit-Up sweep (from guard)[2,628]
  26. Sit-Down sweep (from guard, opponent standing)
  27. Standing sweep
  28. Oompaloompa sweep
  29. Upa sweep
  30. Gringo Roll
  31. Balloom sweep
  32. De La Riva sweep
  33. Berimbolo sweep[2,629][2,630]
  34. Take-Out-The-Garbage sweep
  35. Back Door (can be done with feet in armpits or elbows + wrist control)
  36. Bridge (simply lifting your pelvic area can create problems for someone trying to keep mount who lacks fundamental positioning/base/balance[2,631])
  37. Bridge & Roll (bridging up and rolling upwards)


Reversals

  1. Buck-up (lift your hips straight up explosively, throwing opponent off if they are not in a good position, or at least weakening their control)
  2. Buck-up & Bridge (from half-guard; fast explosive movement with hands and legs coordinated to throw opponent directly/straight over your head)
  3. Buck-up & Back Door (go through your opponent's legs)
  4. Side Control Back Door
  5. Side Control Bridge & Roll
  6. Back Mount - Buck, Slide & Roll
  7. Arm Trap & Bridge (trap opponent's arm on one side by controlling at elbow, forearm, wrist or hand/fingers, push controlled arm across your body and bridge to that side)
  8. Answer-the-Phone & Bridge (trap leg/wrap arm on same-side, then bridge and roll towards that side - directly across or horizontally behind your head from undermount)
  9. Arm-Drag
  10. Switch
  11. Granby Roll
  12. Elbow Push[2,632][2,633][2,634][2,635]

[2,636] [2,637]

Transitions & New-Jitsu Positions/Submissions


[2,659] [2,660] [2,661] [2,662] [2,663] [2,664] [2,665] [2,666] [2,667] [2,668] [2,669] [2,670]


[2,671] [2,672] [2,673] [2,674] [2,675] [2,676] [2,677] [2,678] [2,679] [2,680] [2,681] [2,682] [2,683] [2,684] [2,685] [2,686] [2,687] [2,688] [2,689] [2,690] [2,691] [2,692] [2,693] [2,694] [2,695] [2,696] [2,697] [2,698] [2,699] [2,700] [2,701] [2,702] [2,703] [2,704] [2,705] [2,706] [2,707] [2,708] [2,709] [2,710] [2,711] [2,712]


[2,713] [2,714] [2,715] [2,716] [2,717] [2,718] [2,719] [2,720] [2,721] [2,722] [2,723] [2,724] [2,725] [2,726] [2,727] [2,728] [2,729] [2,730] [2,731] [2,732] [2,733] [2,734] [2,735] [2,736] [2,737] [2,738] [2,739] [2,740] [2,741] [2,742] [2,743] [2,744] [2,745] [2,746] [2,747] [2,748] [2,749] [2,750] [2,751] [2,752] [2,753] [2,754] [2,755] [2,756] [2,757] [2,758] [2,759] [2,760] [2,761] [2,762] [2,763] [2,764] [2,765] [2,766] [2,767] [2,768] [2,769] [2,770] [2,771] [2,772] [2,773] [2,774] [2,775] [2,776] [2,777] [2,778] [2,779] [2,780] [2,781] [2,782] [2,783] [2,784] [2,785] [2,786] [2,787] [2,788] [2,789] [2,790] [2,791] [2,792] [2,793] [2,794] [2,795] [2,796] [2,797] [2,798] [2,799] [2,800] [2,801] [2,802] [2,803] [2,804] [2,805]

Ninjitsu

Ninjistu (also referred to as Ninjutsu, Ninja or the Deadly Art) is a martial art focused on real combat and how to effectively kill or severely maim an opponent. For that reason, it is not well adjusted to sportive combat or application in rules-based fighting competitions. It focuses primarily on the use of weapons for accomplishing its intended purpose, but also has several unique hand-to-hand techniques with a particular emphasis on evasion techniques such as rolling, jumping, pushing and standing joint-break techniques.[2,806]

The 18 disciplines of Ninjutsu are:

  1. Seishinteki kyōyō (spiritual refinement)
  2. Taijutsu (unarmed combat)
  3. Kenjutsu (sword techniques)
  4. Bōjutsu (stick and staff techniques)
  5. Sōjutsu (spear techniques)
  6. Naginatajutsu (naginata techniques)
  7. Kusarigamajutsu (kusarigama techniques)
  8. Shurikenjutsu (throwing weapons techniques)
  9. Kayakujutsu (pyrotechnics)
  10. Hensōjutsu (disguise and impersonation)
  11. Shinobi-iri (stealth and entering methods)
  12. Bajutsu (horsemanship)
  13. Sui-ren (water training)
  14. Bōryaku (tactics)
  15. Chōhō (espionage)
  16. Intonjutsu (escaping and concealment)
  17. Tenmon (meteorology)
  18. Chi-mon (geography)

[2,807] [2,808] [2,809] [2,810]


Weapons of Ninjitsu include:

  1. Shuriken (ninja stars)
  2. Darts (many variations, including blow darts)
  3. Straight Katana (modified version of Samurai katana)
  4. Straight Dagger
  5. Grappling Hook
  6. Bladed Fans (and various other concealed weapons)
  7. Smoke grenades
  8. Tear gas
  9. Hazardous chemical gases (designed to cause respiratory distress or death)
  10. Choke chain
  11. Poison string
  12. Rope
  13. Assorted Booby traps (such as ropes tied to blades to make swinging blades, concealed spikes, concealed holes/drops, and many others)

[2,811] [2,812]

Ninjitsu.jpg

Techniques of Ninjutsu (unique variations or those not already found in traditional Budo/Karate, especially banned or long-forgotten Jiu-Jitsu/Judo/Aikido throws or rougher "jitsu" versions of the safer "do" variations of accepted/common throws):

  1. Sutemi Kata Guruma[2,813][2,814][2,815]
  2. Kani Basami[2,816][2,817][2,818][2,819][2,820][2,821]
  3. Kawazu Gake[2,822][2,823][2,824][2,825]
  4. Ashi Garami[2,826][2,827][2,828]
  5. Flying Head Scissor[2,829][2,830]
  6. Koshi Nage
  7. Sode Tsurikomi Gaeshi (intentionally trap the arms in Ninjutsu so they can not break fall or tap)
  8. Sukui Nage[2,831]
  9. Kubi Nage
  10. Kubi Kyukei Nage[2,832]
  11. Seoe (2-on-1 throw/takedown/elbow-joint-break)[2,833][2,834]
  12. Gan Seki Otoshi
  13. Obi Otoshi
  14. Kibisu Gaeshi (opposite hand ankle-pick/single-leg with head and/or body drive)
  15. Ude Gaeshi[2,835][2,836]

[2,837] [2,838] [2,839]

Ninjitsu hands.jpg Ninjitsu shuriken.gif

[2,840] [2,841] [2,842] [2,843] [2,844] [2,845] [2,846] [2,847]


[2,848] [2,849] [2,850] [2,851] [2,852] [2,853] [2,854] [2,855]


[2,856] [2,857] [2,858] [2,859] [2,860] [2,861] [2,862] [2,863] [2,864] [2,865] [2,866] [2,867] [2,868] [2,869] [2,870] [2,871] [2,872] [2,873] [2,874] [2,875] [2,876] [2,877] [2,878] [2,879] [2,880] [2,881] [2,882] [2,883] [2,884] [2,885] [2,886]


Pencak Silat

Pencak Silat (commonly shortened to Silat[2,887], pronounced Penchak Silat[2,888]) are the traditional martial arts of Indonesia and Malaysia. This style emphasizes fighting with short-range weapons and close-combat fighting scenarios, and although there are hundreds of different styles, they tend to focus either on bladed weaponry, strikes, joint manipulation, throws in varying combinations and methods. It differs from Eskrima in that it emphasizes bladed weapons and empty-hand combat and does not include stick fighting techniques.

The primary weapons of Silat are:

  • Dagger
  • Knife
  • Twin Knives (similar to Chinese Butterfly swords but much smaller and thinner)
  • Throwing Knives
  • Spring-loaded (Shooting) Knife
  • Axe

[2,889]

Techniques include: [2,890]

[2,892] [2,893] [2,894]


Eskrima

Eskrima (referred to as Arnis-north, Escrima-central and Kali-south Filipino islands)[2,895] are the traditional martial arts of the Philippines. This style emphasizes fighting with weapons including sticks, knives and other bladed weapons, as well as encouraging improvised weapons with several examples as part of the core teachings such as breaking the legs off of a chair to use as fighting sticks. It also includes hand-to-hand combat and weapons disarming techniques.[2,896] It differs from Silat in that although it includes bladed weapons, the focus is on stick fighting techniques and empty-hand combat.

The main weapons of Eskrima are:

  1. Kali Sticks
  2. Dagger
  3. Knife
  4. Short Sword

[2,897]

Eskrima and the Filipino Martial Arts (FMA) in general, center around 12 points/angles of attack. They are, the opponent's:

  1. left temple
  2. right temple
  3. left shoulder
  4. right shoulder
  5. stomach
  6. left chest
  7. right chest
  8. left knee
  9. right knee
  10. left eye
  11. right eye
  12. head

[2,898]

[2,901] [2,902] [2,903] [2,904] [2,905] [2,906] [2,907] [2,908] [2,909]


Boxing

Boxing (previously referred to as pugilism, sometimes also called prize fighting or the sweet science) is a combat sport in which two people engage in a contest of strength, speed, reflexes, endurance, and will by using punching techniques against one another until either of the combatants is Knocked-Out (KO), either of the combatants falls from a legal punch a given number of times in a single round which is called a Technical Knock-Out (TKO), either fighter can not continue for medical (TKO-doctor stoppage) or personal reasons (TKO-failure to answer bell), or a time limit is elapsed in which case a draw is declared or it goes to a judge's sdecision based on a pre-set scoring system. In modern Boxing, combatants must compete with gloved hands, however in the past boxers used anything from bareknucles to brassknuckles or even wrapped hands dipped in sharp objects (in bloodsports or underground boxing).

The main attacking techniques of Boxing (can be delivered to the head or body but not below the belt, with either the lead-hand or rear-hand):

  1. Jab
  2. Cross
  3. Hook
  4. Uppercut
  5. Overhand

[2,910] [2,911] [2,912]

Secondary punches/attacks of boxing are:

  1. Shovel (diagonal uppercut to body)
  2. Swivel (read-hand overhand rotating/stepping body shot)[2,913]
  3. Dig (straight-fist side-body hook)
  4. Loop (hailmary-uppercutwith with dropdown & big upwards windup/follow-through or or haymaker-style hook with exaggerated rotation)
  5. Push-off (make contact with opponent then push backwards, forwards, to either side or downwards; may be illegal depending on rules)[2,914]
  6. Snap

[2,915] [2,916] [2,917] [2,918] [2,919] [2,920] [2,921] [2,922] [2,923] [2,924]

EgyptianBoxing.jpg

The main defensive techniques of Boxing are:

  1. Guard
  2. Block
  3. Perry
  4. Lean
  5. Side-step
  6. Slip
  7. Head-slip
  8. Juke
  9. Roll
  10. Roll-under
  11. Ducking
  12. Bob
  13. Weave
  14. Pivot (aka. Stick & Move)
  15. Spin off
  16. Clinch

[2,925] [2,926] [2,927] [2,928] [2,929] [2,930]


The primary Boxing Guards (hand/head/body positioning) are:

  1. Standard (both fists held at mid-height guarding chin; best overall guard against all strikes, not perfect for any, i.e. requires parry, slip or block/catch)[2,931][2,932]
  2. Bareknuckle (extended lead guard with slight lean)[2,933]
  3. Peek-A-Boo (both gloves up in front of face; blocks jabs/straights, pads uppercuts, vulnerable to very low body shots and low hooks)
  4. Bob & Weave (Peek-a-Boo with gloves down low to guard mid/high shots; same as Peek-A-Boo except more vulnerable to head shots and high hooks)
  5. Mexican (tilted body positioning with high/low guards; vulnerable to high hooks against low hand side or body shots of any kind against high hand guard)
  6. Cross-Arm ()[2,934]
  7. Crab Shell (setup as in Cross-Arm guard with one hand high in front of face rather than completely crossed; blocks low strikes well, blocks hook to high hand side, vulnerable to high hooks to low hand side)[2,935][2,936]
  8. Philly Shell (rounded/power version of Crab Shell)[2,937]
  9. Brawl (both hands low to the sies, no regard for defense just intent on throwing power shots; can only effectively block low body hooks to either side)[2,938]

[2,939] [2,940] [2,941] [2,942] [2,943] [2,944] [2,945]


Boxing.jpg


Olympic Boxing differs from Professional Boxing (i.e. prize-fighting) in that no money is on the line (except for potential sponsorships/noteriety and Olympic medals), and also in both the equipment used and rules, in particular Olympic Boxing as at the highest Amateur level and professional boxers may not compete (although that may be poised to change as most other sports start to allow professional athletes[2,946]). Each combatant must wear a head-protector and standard uniform (both not worn in Pro Boxing) and scoring is slightly different.


OlympicBoxing.png


[2,952][2,953][2,954][2,955][2,956] [2,957] [2,958]

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Kickboxing

Kickboxing is any form of competitive or points-based (primarily standing) competition and is derived from the striking (punching, elbowing, kicking, kneeing) techniques of several other classical Martial Arts.


Muay Thai

The oldest form of competitive kickboxing and one of the oldest martial arts, Muay Thai[3,012] (sometimes abbreviated as MT or simply called Thai Boxing) has become a staple of many K-1 fighters and kickboxers in general worldwide. While traditional Muay Thai Boran (which includes weapons) is a much broader martial art than is displayed in limited rules kickboxing matches for safety reasons, Muay Thai in its sport form has enjoyed a massive surge in mainstream popularity after being promoted as the main stand-up style of Mixed Martial Arts via organizations like the UFC (which also promotes Freestyle Wrestling as the dominant grappling style and Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu as the main successful ground-fighting style and wrongly attributes as the source of all submissions techniques performed). This has lead to the perception of MT/Wrestling/BJJ as being the only way to succeed in MMA competition.

One unique aspect of Muay Thai is the "Wai Kru" or "Wai-Khru" (respects to the teacher) which is a type of form/dance performed as part of each traditional Muay Thai kickboxing bout. Sometimes the Wai Kru are brief and basic, but other times they may be eloquent performances that draw praise and applause from the crowd. It is said that those who see well can determine who will win the fight by watching two fighters perform their Wai Kru. In the past, Thai boxers who danced the same style wouldn't box each other since they realize that they have the same master. Furthermore, Wai Kru is also a way to warm up before a fight, it helps relax the mind, relieve stress and to prepare the body for battle. [3,013]

MuayThai2.jpg

Muay Thai techniques center around eight points of contact in the human body, for this reason it is referred to the as the "Art of Eight Limbs" or the "Science of Eight Limbs", which include both left and right variations of the following 4 major points of contact:

  1. Chok (Punches, using fist/knuckles/wrist)
  2. Tee sok (Elbows, using point of elbow and forearm)
  3. Tae (Kicks, using shin/in-step/foot)
  4. Tae kao (Knees, using point of knee and femur)

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Punching (Chok):

  1. Jab (Mud Trong)
  2. Cross
  3. Hook (Mud Wiang San)
  4. Uppercut (Mud Seuy)
  5. Hammer Fist
  6. Overhand (differs from boxing in that both lead & power overhands are trained, faster less wind-up)

Elbows (Tee sok) - all elbows are disallowed in both unified boxing & kickboxing rules:

  1. Elbow Slash/Slicing Elbow (Sok Tee)
  2. Horizontal Elbow (Sok Tud)
  3. Rising/Uppercut Elbow (Sok Ngud)
  4. Forward Elbow Thrust (Sok Poong)
  5. Reverse Horizontal Elbow (Sok WIang Glub)
  6. Spinning Elbow (Sok Glub)
  7. Elbow Chop/Cutting Elbow (Sok Sub)
  8. Double Elbow Chop Mid-Air Elbow Strike (Sok Glub Koo)
  9. Vertical/Spiking Elbow

Kicks (Tae) - all kicks can be aimed to legs (lead/rear; inside/outside), body, or head:

  1. Teep (toe-pointed, pushing front kick; used to create space then follow-up with)
  2. Straight Kick (Tae Trong)
  3. Roundhouse Kick (Tae Tud)
  4. Diagonal Kick (Tae Chiang)
  5. Spinning Heel Kick (Tae Glub Lang)
  6. Axe Heel Kick (Tae Khao)
  7. Jump Kick (Gra-dode Tae)

Knees (Tae kao) - all knees can be aimed to legs (lead/rear; inside/outside), body, or head:

  1. Kao Trong (Straight Knee Strike)
  2. Kao Chiang (Diagonal Knee Strike)
  3. Kao Kong (Curving Knee Strike)
  4. Kao Tud (Horizontal Knee Strike)
  5. Kao Tob (Knee Slap)
  6. Kao Kratai (Rabbit knee)
  7. Kao Youwn (Knee Bomb)
  8. Kao Yiep (Step-Up Knee Strike)
  9. Kao Loi (Jumping Knee, lead-leg or rear-leg)
  10. Hanuman Thayarn (Flying Knee, rear-leg)

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Positions:

  1. Plum (head controlled tightly by hands/arms, elbows tucked/squeezing in making it difficult for opponent to escape)
  2. Body Lock (full-control, opponents' arms trapped in or out, can throw or trip)
  3. Clinch (50/50 or under/over, can throw minor elbows/knees, limited mobility)
  4. Close-range (able to knee, elbow or grab/trap)
  5. Standing at range (able to kick or punch, or step-in to use close-range attacks)
  6. Standing out of range (need a 1st-step to enter kicking range)

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Kon Kae Mad 29 Kon - BLOCKS & COUNTERS:

  1. SALAB FAN PLA (double block)
  2. PAKSA WAEG RANG (block with rear hand, punch with lead-hand)
  3. CHAWA SAD HOK (step/circle outside of opponent's rear-hand punch, with rear-arm elbow)
  4. I-NAO THANG GRIT (block with rear forearm, horizontal elbow to ribs)
  5. YO KHAO PRASUMARU (duck/slip to lead leg side, punch with rear-hand)
  6. TA THEN KHAM FAK (rear forearm high block, lead-hand strike)
  7. MON YAN LAK (both hands guard face, throw lead-leg front kick/teep)
  8. KHUN SUEK TEE THUAN (counter opponent's lead-hand punch with step/circle to outside, lead kick)
  9. DAB CHAWALA (grab/trap opponent's lead-hand punch downward, step/circle to outside and throw lead punch)
  10. NOO TAI RAO (counter opponent's rear-hand punch by trapping arm above wrist and at elbow, following up with rear knee)
  11. ERAWAN SUEY NGA (counter opponent's rear-hand punch with lead forearm vertical block, guide to your outside, step out and throw rear-hand uppercut)
  12. HANUMAN THAWAIWAEN (counter opponent's lead-hand punch by stepping inside, following up with double-uppercut)
  13. HONG PEEK HAK (counter opponent's rear-hand punch with high lead-hand trap stepping outward but inside punch with rear-arm elbow)
  14. SAK PHUANG MALAI (counter opponent's rear-hand punch with lead-hand trap/block and rear-arm uppercut-elbow)
  15. FAN LOOK BUAB (counter opponent's lead-hand punch with read-hand trap/block and lead-arm uppercut-elbow)
  16. PID POK CHOK DUAYSOK (counter opponent's rear-hand punch with read-hand trap/block and lead-arm uppercut-elbow)
  17. SUAN THUAN (MAIN MOVEMENT OF MUAY THAI; counter opponent's rear-hand punch with rear-hand punch inside to face/body/shoulder neutralize, you can then counter with any kick/knee/elbow/punch)
  18. KLUERN GRATHOB FANG (counter opponent's rear-hand punch with duck-under and lead-arm spinning elbow)
  19. BATHA LOOB PAK (counter opponent's lead-arm punch with lead-arm block/trap, follow-up with lead-leg front-kick/teep)
  20. KHUN YAK PA NANG (counter opponent's lead-leg front-kick/teep by side-stepping oustide, counter by grabbing opponent around waist with lead-arm, throwing with hip toss)
  21. PRARAMA JONG TANON (counter opponent's lazy lead-arm punch with simultaneous "over-the-top" lead-hand punch and lead-leg kick)
  22. NARAI BAN SEAN (counter opponent's rear-hand punch with lead-hand hook + rear-hand straight combo)
  23. LOOK KANG JABMAD (counter opponent's rear-hand punch by stepping inside, allowing it to glance by your head turning head towards direction of punch, then strike/trap outside of opponent's elbow with rear-hand)
  24. RAKRAE HAK KHAN (counter opponent's rear-hand punch by stepping inside, blocking with lead-hand and pushing opponent's wrist underneath your rear-armpit, encircle the arm and push upwards on elbow with rear-hand)
  25. SOK THAY THOY (counter opponent's rear-hand punch by stepping outside, maintaining front-leg and arm guard position, drop lead-arm elbow down on opponent's spine)
  26. NARAI KWANG JAK (counter opponent's rear-hand punch by stepping inside, blocking with lead-and and throwing a rear-arm hook)
  27. LOM KHUN THUAN (counter opponent's lead-arm punch by stepping inside, blocking with rear-arm and kicking with rear-leg front-kick/teep)
  28. HANUMAN HAK DAN (counter opponent's lead-arm punch by stepping outside and close to opponent, throwing simultaneous lead-arm elbow and lead-leg knee)
  29. JARAKHEFAD HANG (counter opponent's lead-arm punch or lead-leg front-kick/teep by spinning to inside and throwing a spinning hook kick)

Kon Kae Khao 3 Kon - COUNTER KNEES:

  1. PLIG PAN DIN (counter opponent's rear-leg knee by stepping to outside, hooking opponent's attacking leg with rear-arm & countering with lead-hand punch)
  2. KANGHAN TONG LOM (counter opponent's rear-leg flying knee by stepping to outside, hooking opponent's attacking leg with rear-arm & countering with lead-hand push to chest, neck or chin)
  3. BENSUMERU (counter opponent's rear-leg knee by stepping to inside and blocking downwards to opponent's attacking leg thigh, delivering rear-arm elbow)

Kon Kae Sok 4 Kon - BLOCKS:

  1. PRARAMA NAO SORN (defend opponent's rear-arm and/or lead-arm downward spiking elbows by ducking down and using horizontal high-block & countering with lead-hand punch)
  2. PRARAMA HAK SORN (lean/shuffle back to avoid opponent's spinning or backwards/thrusting lead-arm elbow, block then trap wrist with lead-hand, push/break at elbow to torque shoulder)
  3. PRARAMA FAD SORN (strike/block opponent's elbow-joint/forearm to stop an uppercut)
  4. PRARAMA YAN SORN (counter opponent's rear-arm elbow by stepping in and slightly away from attacking arm, pushing with lead-hand palm on attacking arm at shoulder, following up with lead/rear-arm elbow or lead/rear-leg knee)

Kon JuJom 23 Kon - KNEES/KICKS:

  1. HAK KOR AIYARA (counter opponent's lead-hand punch with Thai plum and rear knee)
  2. KHUNYAK JAB LING (counter opponent's lead-hand punch w. elbow/arm block and slight side-stepping inside & away, side-stepping any follow-up kick/knee, counter with rear-hand punch to body, block any follow-up elbow/punch with lead-arm)
  3. KWANG LIEW LANG (rear-leg spinning side-kick with heel to counter opponent closing distance)
  4. TALOB KHUEN (attack opponent with a lead-leg knee by grabbing inside lead/rear guard hands with both hands, pushing-out/pulling inside of arms towards yourself)
  5. I GA CHEAK RANG (attack opponent with lead-leg jumping knee, opening opponent's lead/rear-arm guards by pushing outwards with both hands)
  6. TALOB LONG (attack opponent with a lead-leg knee by grabbing lead/rear guard hands with both hands, pressing-down/pulling outside of arms towards yourself)
  7. HANUMAN WAEK FONG (attack opponent with a lead-leg knee, grabbing/pressing-down on opponent's guard with both hands just below the wrist or on forearm)
  8. NUK KHUM KAO RANG (attack opponent with simultaneous double jumping-knee strike and double punch to chine and/or double elbows to chest)
  9. RUESEE MUD SRA (DANGEROUS... jumping headbutt by spreading opponents guard outwards and throwing entire body into air, striking with top of head-hardest part of body)
  10. HANUMAN TAYAN (MASTER TECHNIQUE... throw rear-leg high power roundhouse kick, when blocked or missed, spin around and crouch down to avoid a counter, then complete rotation with flying rear-leg knee)
  11. HAK KOR ERAWAN(counter opponent's approach by stepping on their lead-leg thigh with your lead-leg, jumping up to deliver a simultaneous rear-leg knee & double spiking downward elbows to forehead just below/in-front of crown)
  12. TAPIEN FANG TOR (counter opponent's rear-hand punch by stepping outside with lead-leg, throw simultaneous rear-arm elbow to face and rear-leg knee to body)
  13. JARAKAE FAD HANG (counter opponent's lead-hand punch with rear-leg hook-kick to neck or head)
  14. YAN ERAWAN (counter opponent's rear-hand punch by stepping outside and throwing body weight downwards as kneeing with rear-leg knee for extra-high knee-strike to opponent's chest, neck or head)
  15. THEN KWAD LAN (counter opponent's rear-leg roundhouse or jumping kick with an aggressive step in, kicking with rear-leg and ducking head with the direction of the kick to avoid absorbing much of the blow)
  16. PRARAMA TEE TAB (counter opponent's rear-hand punch by jumping to the outside and simultaneously throwing the rear-arm punch to the face and the rear-arm kick to the body)
  17. PRARAMA SAKOD TAB (counter opponent's rear-hand punch by jumping upwards with front-leg knee bent/raised and delivering a lead-leg front-kick to head or knee if opponent moves in too quickly)
  18. BANSEAN THODSAKAN (jump up to deliver both knees to the chin and strike both elbows to the middle of the crown of the head)
  19. KWANG CHAKNARAI (counter opponent's rear-arm punch/knee by stepping outside and doing a spinning straight/horizontal backfist with rear-arm, with rear-leg raised up on guard)
  20. PRARAMA YEAB LONGKA (counter opponent's advances with lead leg kick/step-up to opponent's shin or knee and push upwards to deliver aerial rear-leg high roundhouse kick)
  21. RAMASOON KWANG KWAN (jump up and simultaneously grab both wrists/forearms of opponent's guard hands, pressing-down with lead-arm and throwing a rear-arm elbow to the forehead)
  22. HANUMAN KHAM LONGKA (counter opponent's rear-leg mid/low roundhouse by jumping over attacking leg, throwing rear-leg knee & pressing down opponent's hands, as follow-through, push opponent down on the shoulder with both hands after breaking guard)
  23. NARAI KHAM SAMUD (counter opponent's rear-leg mid-to-low roundhouse by jumping over attacking leg and throwing an aerial rear-leg high roundhouse)

Kon Kae Thao 23 Kon - KNEES:

  1. PAK LOOK THOY (counter opponent's rear-leg high kick with double-forearm block, steppinng slightly away from kick then rotating trunk into/against the kick)
  2. NAKA BID HANG (counter opponent's lead-leg kick by leaning back into power-knee w. rear-leg under opponent's attacking leg to the calf, catch tip of opponent's foot at toes w. rear-hand, control heel, twist opponent's knee as your knee strike lands)
  3. HAK NGUANG AIYARA (counter opponent's rear-leg mid kick by stepping in towards attacking leg, rotating body at trunk into kick, catching it w. lead-hand & absorbing force w. arm/chest before it reaches apex, dropping spiking rear-arm elbow to leg)
  4. VIROON HOK GLAB (counter opponent's rear or lead-leg roundhouse kick with a front-kick/teep to opponent's hip, inner-thigh or lower abdomen... turn slightly to face direction of opponent's attacking leg)
  5. GRAISORN KHAM HUAI (same as Viroon Hok Glab except counter counter opponent's high rear or lead-leg roundhouse kick with a teep/push kick to knock them over, rather than a counter strike to hurt)
  6. HIRAN MUAN PREN DIN (counter opponent's rear or lead-leg mid or high roundhouse kick with a double-forearm block, twist at the waist into kick and spin to counter with a spinning back elbow)
  7. NAK MOOD BADAN (counter opponent's rear/lead-leg mid/high roundhouse kick by ducking/slipping kick leaning into it, taking note of height of leg during attack to ensure you avoid taking damage, return teep/push kick to opponent's balancing leg)
  8. THAYAE KHAMSAO (counter opponent's rear or lead-leg mid or high roundhouse kick or teep by ducking/slipping kick without leaning but instead using a horizontal/upwards-lifting forearm block, taking special note of height of the leg during their attack to ensure you avoid contact or taking damage, return a lead-leg thrust kick to the opponent's balancing leg)
  9. RUESEE HERN (counter opponent's rear or lead-leg roundhouse kick with a fully aerial/diving version of superman-punch, blocking at opponent's attacking leg thigh or just above knee with lead-hand/arm and striking with rear/power-hand)
  10. PRARAMA DEAN DONG (counter opponent's rear-leg mid roundhouse kick by jumping up and with your lead-leg pushing off opponent's lead-leg hamstring, upper-thigh or hip-bone using it as a springboard to deliver the rear-leg knee to opponent's chest or chin)
  11. BANPOD THALOM (counter opponent's rear-leg mid roundhouse kick by dropping entire body downwards as if dead-weight, with lead-hand raised in a simultaneous block/spiking-elbow attack, aimed just above the knee to cause damage to femur bone or thigh muscles)
  12. NANG MONTHO NUNG THAEN (counter opponent's rear or lead-leg kick or lead-arm punch by side-stepping inside, turning around backwards to face same direction as opponent and jumping violently into opponent's chest or chin with hip bone; kind of like an illegal flying hip check in hockey)
  13. RAD NGUANG ERAWAN (counter opponent's mid/high rear or lead-leg roundhouse or straight kick by stepping away from it to lessen the force of any impact, use your lead-arm to absorb the remaining force of the kick and trap the leg at the calf or heel, then step through with a rear-hand straight power punch)
  14. YAN ROOKAMOON (counter opponent's high lead-leg roundhouse or straight kick by stepping back and ducking underneath with a rear-arm, now lead-arm, horizontal forearm block and walking forward/pushing upwards to off-balance opponent then striking with a rear-arm - previously lead-arm - straight punch to the body or head)
  15. KHON ROOKKAMOON (counter opponent's high rear-leg roundhouse or straight kick by stepping forward/into the kick and ducking extremely lowly underneath the knee/hip to avoid contact, then dropping to rear-leg knee and reaching in and pulling opponent's supporting leg out from under them)
  16. NANG MONTHO NUNG TAK (counter opponent's low/mid rear-leg roundhouse or straight kick by spinning and jumping in the air coming down with a sitting motion onto the opponent's attacking leg above the knee in the thigh area, using the momentum of their leg to carry your body lead by your lead-arm with an elbow into their face)
  17. HAK LAK PECH (counter opponent's mid/high rear-leg roundhouse or straight kick by stepping and/or jumping backwards as in a hip-attack, but landing exactly on the knee joint and pulling upwards to break opponent's attaching leg, careful not to catch a shin or knee in the genitals, using tail-boe/buttox to shield)
  18. HANUMAN FAD KUMPAKAN (counter opponent's mid/high lead-leg straight kick or snap-kick by stepping back and catching coot at the toes/heel with both hands, simultaneously moving forwards & turning backwards, lifting opponent's attacking leg over lead-shoulder and ducking forward to throw)
  19. LING PREW (counter opponent's high rear-leg roundhouse by stepping back and ducking underneath the kick with both hands up on guard, then jumping forward full-speed with a double-knee strike to opponent's back as they over-rotate past upon missing the kick)
  20. YUAN THOD HAE (counter opponent's mid lead-leg straight kick or snap-kick by stepping back to the outside of kick, catching/trapping opponent's attacking leg at the ankle and delivering your own rear-leg power kick to the opponent's attacking/trapped leg knee joint)
  21. KHUN SUEK TEE THAUN (counter opponent's lead-arm straight punch by leaning back and high-blocking with lead-arm forearm, then delivering a lead-leg mid roundhouse kick to opponent's ribs)
  22. KWAD MAN (counter opponent's high rear-leg roundhouse or straight kick by stepping forward/into the kick, sliding to the side, rotating body into kick and simultaneously blocking with both forearms, delivering the rear-arm elbow or punch to the thigh at the same time - in the street the groin would be open here instead of thigh, quickly bring hand back up to block any re-counter punches)
  23. HANUMAN BAG KHAENG (counter opponent's high rear-leg straight kick by ducking low under, stepping forward and popping up with shoulder under opponent's attacking leg knee joint or at calf, off-balancing opponent while also throwing a rear-hand uppercut to opponent's chin)

Cherng Thao 15 Cherng - COUNTER KICKS:

  1. LONG DAN PRATOO (counter opponent's advances with a high guard, step to the side and throw hard high rear-leg roundhouse kick with foot/in-step to opponent's head)
  2. KRATOO KHUA TA (counter opponent's advances with a high guard, step forward and throw a high teep lead-leg push kick to chest or chin)
  3. YOTHA SINTHOP (counter opponent's advances with a high guard, step forward and throw a mid teep lead-leg kick but do not push or strike opponent backwards, instead use the contact of your leg on their abdomen to push yourself upwards as you jump up and throw a high rear-leg roundhouse)
  4. MANOP LEN KHA (counter opponent's advances with a high guard, step in and throw a mid or high lead-leg roundhouse)
  5. MATCHA LEN HANG (counter opponent's advances with a low rear-leg roundhouse kick to opponent's lead leg, if opponent re-counters by lifting lead leg, step in with "flick kick" to jaw or teep to chest)
  6. KWANG LEN PONG (3-kick combo using mid/low rear-leg roundhouse, mid/high lead-leg teep, jump off of rear-leg and use it to throw a high trust or snap kick to chin/face of opponent)
  7. NARONG PAYUHABATH (2-kick combo using high lead-leg teep followed by mid/low rear-leg roundhouse)
  8. JARAKAE FAD HANG (counter opponent's lead-arm jab with mid/high rear-leg hook kick)
  9. GINNAREE LEN NAM (counter opponent's shot or takedown/throwing attempt when they place head near your body or under your lead arm by forcing their head downwards and throwing up rear-leg backwards up-kick)
  10. TAM DUAY KHANG (counter opponent's advances with a high guard, step to the side and throw hard high rear-leg roundhouse kick with shin to opponent's head)
  11. PLANG INSEE (counter opponent's advances with a high guard, step in and simultaneously throw a distracting mid lead-leg roundhouse and high rear-hand power punch to opponent's chin)
  12. PASHEE SABAT YANG (2-kick combo with a high lead-leg roundhouse followed immediately by a high rear-leg roundhouse to opponent's head)
  13. NANG SALAB BAT (2-kick combo with a mid lead-leg roundhouse followed immediately by a high rear-leg roundhouse to opponent's head)
  14. KWAD TORANEE (counter opponent's advances with a high guard, throwing rear-leg low kick to just above the opponent's knee - attacking the knee-joint or thigh muscle - or, directly on the calf to the back of opponent's leg if they attempt to side-step or check kick)

Cherng Khao 11 Cherng - :

  1. KUMPAN PUNG HOK ()
  2. YOK NANG ()
  3. CHUEY KHANG ()
  4. PRANG SATTROO ()
  5. NGOO LAI TOOKKAE ()
  6. TAKAE TEE CHUD ()
  7. YUD YOTHA ()
  8. POOPA SATAN ()
  9. HAK KOR CHANG ERAWAN ()
  10. DAN POORA ()
  11. SILA KRATHOB ()

Cherng Sok 24 Cherng - :

  1. POONG HOK ()
  2. SOK FAN NAH ()
  3. PRA YAIKAE ()
  4. NGAE LOOK KANG ()
  5. THANG PA ()
  6. FA LAN ()
  7. YAN PAYAK ()
  8. JAK NARAI ()
  9. SAI LUEW LANG ()
  10. KWANG SABAD NA ()
  11. KHACHA TOKMAN ()
  12. PASUTHA SATAN ()
  13. YAN YOTHEE ()
  14. AKKEE SONG SANG ()
  15. KAMPANG POOPA ()
  16. NAKA KAB HANG ()
  17. CHANG PRASAN NGA ()
  18. SU DAN NAKA ()
  19. YOTHA KLUEN TAP ()
  20. YAN SONG KORN ()
  21. KON TEE THANG ()
  22. KWANG PASUTHA ()
  23. RUESEE BOD YA ()
  24. NAKA KLUEN GAI ()

Cherng Mad 15 Cherng - :

  1. KA JIG KHAI ()
  2. PRAPAI LOM SINGKORN ()
  3. WANORN HAK DAN ()
  4. PRAKAN PERD LOK ()
  5. KHOK NASA ()
  6. INTRA KWANG JAK ()
  7. PRALAK HAM PON ()
  8. PAJON CHANG SAN ()
  9. HANUMAN THAWAI WAEN ()
  10. LUANG DAN HERA ()
  11. NAKA PON FAI KAN ()
  12. HAK DAN LOM KROD ()
  13. ONGKOT KUANG PRAKAN ()
  14. RUESEE LUEM YAN ()
  15. HANUMAN JONG TANON ()

MAE MAI MUAYTHAI - :

  1. SALAB FAN PLA ()
  2. PAKSA WAEG RANG ()
  3. CHAWA SAD HOK ()
  4. I NAO THANG GRIT ()
  5. YO KHAO PRASUMERU ()
  6. TA THEN KAM FAK ()
  7. MON YAN LAK ()
  8. PAK LOOK THOY ()
  9. JARAKHE FAD HANG ()
  10. HAK NGUANG AIYARA ()
  11. NAKA BID HANG ()
  12. VIROON HOK GLAB ()
  13. DAB CHAWALA ()
  14. KHUN YAK JUB LING ()
  15. HAK KOR ERAWAN ()

Look Mai Muaythai 15 mai - :

  1. ERAWAN SUEY NGA ()
  2. BATHA LOOB PAK ()
  3. KHUNYAK PA NANG ()
  4. PRARAMA NOW SORN ()
  5. GRAI SORN KHAM HUAI ()
  6. KWANG LIEW LANG ()
  7. HIRAN MUAN PAEN DIN ()
  8. NAK MOOD BADAN ()
  9. HANUMAN THAWAI WAEN ()
  10. YUAN THOD HAE ()
  11. THAYAE KHAM SAO ()
  12. HONG PEEK HAK ()
  13. SAK PUANG MALAI ()
  14. THEN KWAD LAN ()
  15. FAN LOOK BUAB ()

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Savate

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Savate is a Historical European Martial Art[3,067] (sometimes abbreviated HEMA). It is essentially the French version of Kickboxing which uses leaning kicks and punches (but no elbows or knees) to deliver an attack to one's opponent while simultaneously avoiding contact or being within attacking range of said opponent. Savate practitioners fight wearing shoes and are allowed to kick only with the toes, in-steps or heels of the feet, not the shin, knee or heel. While many cite the origins of Savate as being sailors resolving disputes on ships and at port through gentlemanly combat and thus introducing the concept of "leaning attacks" as they needed to hold something so as to not lose balance or go overboard as they strike (using kicks or slaps to the face)[3,068], several techniques from the style loosely resemble Muay Thai and Kung Fu techniques (particularly the kicks). These sailors had most likely travelled to Southeast Asia as the sport evolved during the French empire's days of colonial rule in Indo-China (as it was then called)[3,069], and thus were highly influenced by the locals' fighting styles which used kicks which were considered unsportsmanlike or barbaric in the British colonies who instead developed the Marquis de Queensbury rules for bare-knuckle/fists-only Boxing. Always looking to get an upperhand on the British the French likely realized the potential of using kicks in hand-to-hand combat and gladly adopted some of the most effective techniques and further adapted them to suit their own needs. Today, Savate is a highly technical, physically demanding, uniquely french sport version of Kickboxing that is practiced all over the world.



Fencing

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Savate borrows heavily from the footwork and movement concepts of fencing, with a particular emphasis on making strikes and attacks in an angled/reaching manner, such that your opponent would have more difficulty to reach you for a counterattack. Fencing is the martial art of fighting with bladed weaponry. The most common version of fencing today, also called olympic fencing or competitive fencing, is divided into three weapon categories of similar straight-bladed weapons: foil, sabre (spelled saber in the United States) and épée. Classical fencing uses the same three weapons, but approaches fencing as a martial art for the battlefield rather than a sport for friendly competition. Fencing is also one of the five main activities (others being Athletics, Cycling, Swimming, Gymnastics) which have been featured at every one of the modern Olympic Games.

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Baritsu

One of the earliest formalized, uniquely British takes on modern Martial Arts was that of Baritsu, which combines concepts from 19th century Japanese Jiu-Jitsu and 19th century Kung Fu, combined with Western Boxing (the British bareknuckle "fisticuffs" variation) and Western Kickboxing (particularly French Savate). A lesser known art today, British, Scottish, Welsh and Irish all have their own variations of stick and cane fighting. Savate has also reclaimed some of the developments of this art in a few of its techniques, footwork and positioning.

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American

American-style Kickboxing blends a number of concepts from other popular martial arts and fighting systems (particularly Kung Fu, Karate and Tae Kwon Do) in a gloved-competition with no leg protection or headgear for pro bouts and shin pads and/or headgear used for amateur bouts.


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In particular, it uses the following leg attacks:

1. Roundhouse (High, Medium and Low heights)
2. Jumping Roundhouse
3. Front-kick
4. Side-Kick
5. Snap Kick
6. Crescent Kick
7. Spinning Back-Kick
8. Jumping Spinning Back-Kick
9. Hook Kick
10. Jumping Hook Kick
11. Tornado Kick
12. Knee

And the same punches as Boxing with the addition of:

1. Spinning backfist
2. Super-man Punch

Elbows are not usually allowed in American-style Kickboxing competitions, thus are typically not practiced.


Dutch

Whereas much of Europe was introduced to American Kickboxing first and foremost (before the sport of kickboxing began to grow in popularity in Europe), Jan Plas & Thom Harinck - who together founded NKBB (The Dutch Kickboxing Association) in 1976, and Harinck who also went on to found the MTBN (Dutch Muay Thai Association) in 1983 - along with the earliest Kickboxing gyms, were far more heavily influenced by Japan's Karate and then later Thailand's Muay Thai. As such, the "Dutch Kickboxing"-style has become particularly distinct from other styles in both training methodologies, competition structure, as well as the evolution of techniques and their usage used.

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San Shou

San Shou (also referred to as Sanda) is a Chinese version of kickboxing derived from Kung Fu and other modern developments of other martial arts. It uses a unique combination of grabs, holds, takedowns, throws, kicks, knees, punches and elbows, but does not allow ground fighting. A particular differentiating factor is the allowance of a much wider variety of grappling techniques (clinches/throws/sweeps) while standing, than other kickboxing competitions.

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Wrestling

Wrestling is one of the oldest known forms of combat sports, and dates back to Ancient Egypt up to 17,300 years ago[3,086].

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Pankration

Pankration was an ancient Greek competition in which virtually anything goes (i.e no holds barred) As such, it was the first major human-human hand-to-hand combat sport. While exact details about this sport are not known, legends tell of some matches that went to the death,

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Greco-Roman

Greco-Roman wrestling is one of the oldest known forms of organized competitive combat sports.[3,115] It instilled strict rules on competitors in terms of permitted uniforms/clothing and limited techniques to prevent injury.

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The main techniques of Greco-Roman Wrestling include:

  1. Push (single or two handed)
  2. Push counter (like a single-arm guillotine on one side, high Judo grip on other, footwork of Aikido to turn/redirect opponent switching foot position while in a backwards motion or with a backwards hop/step)
  3. Pull (single or two-handed)
  4. Pull counter (like a single-arm guillotine on one side, high Judo grip on other, footwork of Aikido to turn/redirect opponent switching foot position while in a forwards motion or with a forwards hop/step)
  5. Arm Throw (similar to Ippon Seoinage especially in single-knee drop form or Yoko Wakare from Judo, or Irimi Nage from Aikido)
  6. Arm Drag (can be used as a positional move or to transition to an arm throw)
  7. 2-on-1 (arm throw from outside opponent)
  8. Headlock (the original schoolyard wrestling technique, not that effective though as too easy to counter)
  9. Head-and-Arm (variation of headlock with one arm trapped tightly in the grip, a much more effective technique for control/transitions)
  10. Necktie (one hand tight behind opponent's head pulling downwards, other hand could be controlling wrist, arm or shoulder, underhooked or overhooked)
  11. Clinch (aka. Over-under or 50-50; opponent in mirror position, single-arm trapped and necktie; both left/right side)
  12. Head Shuck (from Necktie throw opponent's head to one side to gain access to back or other positional advantage, takedown from shuck also possible if done strong enough or when opponent off-balance)
  13. Snapdown (similar to Head Shuck but grab over head and under arm on one side, throw opponent downwards while putting your weight on his back)
  14. Off-balance throw (from double-underhooks, or possible an over-under; similar to Aikido's forward-facing Irimi Tenkan variation, one arm throws one of opponent's shoulder's upwards and pulls down on the opposite side, off-balancing opponent, rotating body and switching leg position at the last moment to finish the throw)
  15. Body Lock (single-arm trapped, from front/back)
  16. Body Lock (double-arm trapped, from front/back)
  17. High Dive (drop as if going for a leg takedown, but it is not allowed of course only to distract opponent and change angle of attack, then drive through hard with inside upper-body lock)
  18. Belly-to-back Suplex
  19. Belly-to-belly Suplex
  20. Hip Tie (grab opponent around both hips at lowest permitted point, lift and slam or throw)
  21. Hip Tosses (any toss similar to Judo's hip throws that dont utilize leg attacks, such as: O-goshi, Uki-Goshi, Kubi Nage, etc)
  22. Fireman's Carry (Drop or Standing; done using arms only, i.e. Ninjitsu or Aikido style NOT Judo or Jiu-jitsu style)
  23. Lift (reach around over opponent's head from the front for a belly-to-back, with opponent still facing your or facing down, lift then slam)
  24. Low Clinch (aka. Powerbomb; reach around from front and grip opponent belly-to-back, with opponent still facing your or facing down, pick opponent up, flip over in air and slam or throw)
  25. High Clinch (reach around from front and grip opponent belly-to-head, high with forearms in opponent's armpits, with opponent still facing your or facing down, pick opponent up, flip over in air and slam or throw, or simply roll-over opponent on the ground)
  26. Gut Wrench (reach around from back and grip opponent belly-to-back from one side or directly behind, with opponent still facing same direction as you thus away from you, pick opponent up, flip over in air and slam or throw, or simply roll-over opponent on the ground)
  27. Straddle/Gut Backwards (reach around from back and grip opponent belly-to-back from one side or directly behind, with opponent still facing same direction as you thus away from you, pick opponent up and slam or throw backwards, or simply roll opponent backwards on the ground)
  28. Reverse Lift (aka. Karelin lift; reach around from one side and grip opponent belly-to-back, with opponent still facing your or facing down)

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Freestyle

Freestyle wrestling[3,120] is more of an "anything goes" form of grappling competition where it is permitted to leave the feet to perform a takedown and also legal to attack the opponent below the waist (but groin attacks are not allowed). Some versions of Freestyle wrestling allow submissions while matches in American Collegiate Freestyle Wrestling are won by a pin and submissions such as chokes and joint-locks are not allowed.

Examples of the types of additional moves not permitted in Greco-Roman Wrestling but that are permitted in Freestyle wrestling include:

  1. Single-leg takedown (head inside/outside)
  2. Double-leg takedown (head inside/outside)
  3. Ankle pick (using head or inside/outside shoulder)
  4. Fireman's carry (standing or secured from below-the-belt)
  5. Reverse lift (grab an attacking opponent shooting for takedown or downed using body lock over top head/back, lift and slam or throw)
  6. Head-in-crotch lift (from a downed position with back of head/neck between opponents' legs, use back/abs - not neck - to lift opponent up, the slam to one side)
  7. Irish Whip (pull opponent by arm with one or both hands and attempt to throw forward, trip or off-balance)
  8. Front Side Whip (throw your body down on its side in front of opponent, reach up between crotch with top arm, in circular motion whip opponent across your body)
  9. Rear Side Whip (throw your body down on its side behind opponent, reach up between crotch with top arm, in circular motion whip opponent across your body)
  10. Outside Leg trips (using arms on opponents' legs to perform trip, i.e. Osoto Gari/Kosoto Gake with hand-to-leg instead of leg-to-leg trip)
  11. Inside Leg trips (using arms on opponents' legs to perform trip, i.e. Ouchi Gari/Kouchi Gari with hand-to-leg instead of leg-to-leg trip)
  12. several non-breaking, no-gi variations of sport Judo sweeps, trips & throws are allowed, using hands to control opponent's upper body and legs to off-balance opponent's lower body


Attacks & Takedowns:


Defense & Counters:


Arm drag to back takedownDriving single-leg takedownTurn-over using backward throw with head lock from above and single-leg takedownTurn-over by backward throw with an inside singleBackward throw by a single leg lock with head pressed against the opponent's hipTakedown with outside upper arm lock and a knee lockTakedown by head lock from above and right knee lockForward bending throw: crotch and shoulder hold with a push upBackward throw with both legs lockedTakedown by using a left leg hold and left knee tripTwisting throw (flying mare), to a forward bending throw and crotch hold, to a body lock and internal legThrow with an ankle trip and leg/upper-arm lockForward bending throw with upper arm, hip hold and leg push-upForward bending throw with a crotch hold and upper arm holdForward leg trip holding the arm and leg on the same sideDriving Fireman's CarryShoulder throw using an upper arm lock and an external leg tripFront leg trip with an upper arm and hand holdTurn-over of opponent to their back with a chin lockDouble-Leg takedown by a smothering shot to suck/pull-in both legs, destroying opponent's base and pulling legs in while simultaneously driving shoulder to hips sending them to back or bellyShoulder throwFireman's carry (dropping/level-change)Takedown by a left knee holdFireman's carry with upper arm lockHip throw with an arm and neck lockBackward bending throw with an upper arm hold and leg grapplingSweep throw with an upper arm and outside leg holdBackward bending throw with a grapevine and an arm and body lockThrow with an elbow push-up and a shoulder and leg lockTurning an opponent with a far side hip lockDouble-Leg pick-up ad slam, (turning the corner on lift)Forward bending throw with an upper arm and body lock with left leg grapplingTwisting throw with head control and an opposite leg holdBackward bending throw with arm control and a body lockSweep throw with arm and body lock and leg grapplingLow Single-Leg takedownTwisting throw (flying mare) with a lock on the same arm and hipBackward spining counter-attack to Double-Leg takedownSwitch/counter-attack take-down using a leg lock from under the armThrowing backwards with a body lock and a left hand holdRolling sideways; turning the opponent across his back with a shoulder hold and a hip lockCountering opponent's head and arm hip throw or headlock with a backwards slam or belly-to-back suplexTurn-over counter-atcke with a waist and shoulder hold from aboveTurning the opponent to counter-attack with a bridge hip lock and a head lockThrowing opponent by turning him with an arm and neck lockThrow back with a body lock and lift from aboveBackward bending throw with a front waist lockTakedown with support on the opponent's hip and turn-over with a cross hold of the kneesTakedown by Single Leg ock and waand overthrowTakedown with a hip lock and an external head lock; twisting the opponent with a shoulder and right hip lockTurn-over with a reverse lockRolling sideways; turning the opponent with an arm lockBelly-to-Back suplex from rear bear hug position, slamming opponent to their back/shoulders for the pin or match-pointTurn-over by twisting the opponent with an arm and ankle lockTurn-over to the back with a hip scissors and a chin lockTurn-over using the stretcher ride with the opponent's arm over the offensive wrestler's shoulderTurn-over with a front cross knee holdTurn-over by using a hip lock and a waist lock from aboveTurn-over by driving forward with an arm lockTurn-over by rolling sideways and with a lateral arm lockTurn-over with the stretcher ride, a head lock and an inside leg vineDouble-Leg takedown/tackle with strong forward driving motion sending opponent to their backDouble-Leg takedown in the kneeling position, throwing down to the backWrestling.png
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Catch-As-Catch Can

Catch-As-Catch-Can (commonly abbreviated simply as Catch or referred to as Catch Wrestling[3,127], Combat Submission Wrestling or CSW) is a unique combination of "Professional Wrestling" slams and attacks, Freestyle wrestling techniques, and submissions (with some unique ones and some inspired or developed in conjuction with the base of Japanese Martial Arts). There was much cross-pollentation of ideas between high-level Japanese judoka/jiu-jitsu practitioners and traditional folk/catch style wrestlers from the UK and US during the hey-day of Catch Wrestling.

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Catch Wrestling Submissions:

  1. Chin lock/downward-headlock
  2. Nelson (full/three-quarter/half/quarter)
  3. Head-crank/can-opener
  4. Neck-crank
  5. Twister/Wrestler's guillotine
  6. Crucifix Neck-crank
  7. Spine-crank (Boston Crab and variations)
  8. Executioner
  9. Grovit (Wigan Grobbit/Front face-lock)
  10. Grapevine (crossing feet when in top rear mount then cranking lower back)
  11. Gearlock (Sleeper/Rear Naked Choke variation)
  12. Reverse Crucifix (Cattle-Catch/Iron-Cross)
  13. Cradle (simultaneous downward head/neck-crank and hip/knee crank, bringing the 2 together on opposite side from side-control)
  14. Body Lock/crush (Bear Hug)
  15. Hammer Lock
  16. Bicep Slicer
  17. Harness
  18. Knee to Belly lung/organs crank
  19. Harness (diagonal cross-body lock)
  20. Arm-Triangle choke (Head & Arm choke)
  21. Leg Scissor (to body, neck, head, muscles/ligaments, etc)
  22. Sasori Gatame (Scorpion/Sharpshooter; figure-4 leglock + boston crab)
  23. Keylock

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Sambo

Sambo is a Russian combative sport form of Judo, however it differs in a number of respects, the most significant of which being that it allows strikes when the combatants are standing and leg attacks both standing (grabs below the waist) and on the ground (leg locks & submissions on lower appendages). The primary goal in Sambo, like sport Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu is to win the match by submission but Knock-Outs (KOs) are allowed as well. Sambo stands for SAMozashchita Bez Oruzhiya (roughly, "fighting without a weapon").[3,220]

Sambo.jpg

One of the most unique aspects of Sambo are its many takedowns, transitions, setups and finishes for Leg Lock submissions:

  1. Knee Bar (Ashi Gatame)
  2. Double Knee Bar (aka. Russian Cowboy)
  3. "Weaved" Leg Lock (acts as achilles lock and/or kneebar, whichever is weakest)
  4. Toe Hold
  5. Inverted Toe Hold
  6. Diving Toe Hold
  7. Rolling Toe Hold
  8. Ankle Lock
  9. Straight Ankle Lock (aka. Achilles Lock)
  10. Rolling Achilles Lock
  11. Heel Hook[3,221]
  12. Rolling Heel Hook
  13. Inverted Rolling Heel Hook
  14. Inverted Heel Hook[3,222]
  15. Calf Slicer
  16. Calf Crank (aka. ACL Slicer)
  17. Vaporizer (toe hold/calf-crank)
  18. Hip Crank
  19. Banana Split
  20. Suloev Stretch (in fact an old Catch Wrestling move, attributed to Amar Suloev for winning with it in modern MMA competition)[3,223][3,224][3,225]
  21. Trash Compactor

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Sambo also has variations on traditional Judo throws and sweeps as well as old Judo throws that are now banned in modern Judo competition or part of the Habukareta Waza (preserved techniques) and new evolutions thereof, in particular by allowing a combination of hand-grabs to the legs and traditional leg techniques, such as:

  1. Leg Sweep
  2. Rolling Kneebar
  3. Back Kneebar
  4. Jumping Scissor Takedown


Sambo.gif

Main Sambo Techniques:

  1. Podsiechka (foot sweep)
  2. Perednia (font; also used to mean front trip)
  3. Zadnia (back; also used to mean back trip)
  4. Podnochka (trip)
  5. Nognitsy (scissors)
  6. Podsad (sitting throw)
  7. Spina (over the back throw)
  8. Bedro (hip throw)
  9. Podhvat (one leg or two leg kick up & lift throw)
  10. Gadavlia (kick up suplex with an over the back grip, kick up with knee)
  11. Bokovoi (lateral revolution single leg pick up, turn, and drop the guy on his back)
  12. Grud (chest to chest suplex)
  13. Zashagivanie (side step kick up throw with the knee)
  14. Zatsep Stopoy (turning foot hook/sweep)
  15. Zatsep Goleni (what we call an inner reap; same side leg)
  16. Nirok (an inner reap on the opposite side leg)
  17. Melnica (windmill throw)
  18. Brosok zahvatom odnoy nogi (single leg shoot)
  19. Brosok zahvatom dvuh nog (two legs shoot)
  20. Cherz Sebya (supplex)

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Bökh

Mongolian Wrestling (Bökh as it is referred to by Mongolians)[3,285] has a rich history and combines (or arguably inspired) many successful techniques from Chinese, Korean and Japanese grappling styles. As a sport, it is characterized by its extremely large and heavy combatants.


Shuai Jiao

Shuai Jiao is a Chinese grappling art which in modern terms takes primarily the now-sparse grappling techniques from the many different Kung Fu styles and attempts to codify them into a single sytem and sport. In modern form, according to some critics it also borrows back many techniques that themselves evolved from Kung Fu techniques from the present day Japanese Martial Arts particularly sport Judo, as well as the Korean art of Hapkido and Mongolian Wrestling, among others. Proponents claim that it is in fact a centuries-old Chinese wrestling sport that dates back as early as 2697 BC in Beijing, Tianjin and Baoding of Hebei Province, wherein recorded documents show that contestants in a jacketed-wrestling competition wore Bull/Oxe horns and "butt heads" and attempt to subdue their opponent, emulating the battles and contests for dominance that took place within the confines of their own livestock. According to this theory, Shuai Jiao could even pre-date the Indian exercises, physical meditation and martial techniques brought to China from India through Boddhidharma and other Buddhist monks.[3,287] , Shuai Jiao itself was only

Some unique aspects of Shaui Jiao are the combination of striking and throwing/sweeping techniques, constant trapping of both the opponent's arms when throwing and use of stronger, deeper hand/wrist grips to the opponent's body parts (limbs, torso, head, neck, ears, nose, mouth, etc) rather than relying solely on the grip to the uniform, which may lend itself better to street situations where the opponent is not wearing thick clothing that approximates a Gi as used in Judo and Brazilian Jiu Jitsu.

ShuaiJiao.jpg

Shuai Jiao - jian twei shuai jiao sweep:

  1. Ban Zi ("throwing skills")
  2. Xiao Ban Zi ("tricking opponent to make mistake, feints/jukes")
  3. Da Ban Zi ("large throws")
  4. Dui Lian Ban Zi ("small frontal tripping maneuvers")

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Chin Na

Chin Na[3,330] (also Dim Mak) is a system of joint-locking and breaking techniques, chokes and strangles and pressure point[3,331] strikes recovered from the old Kung Fu and Shaolin manuscripts, sets, verbally passed down through traditions, as well as re-integrated from their modern incarnations from the various martial arts (particularly Aikido and Jiu-Jitsu). Dim Mak could be viewed as a subset of Chin Na focused on striking to vital points.

Chin Na is not often used in MMA itself, as small-joint manipulations (their primary arsenal) are often disallowed. In theoritical terms the techniques could work well to subdue an attacker in a real self-defense scenario against other grappling stylists, however it would likely require a full-break or full-force application to precisely the right spot, thus few volunteers emerge to test these theories, and few practitioners have the confidence to apply the technique perfectly with full strength against a highly trained and resisting attacker. In addition, Chin Na suffers from the reputation of not training for conditioning and strength the way that BJJ, Sambo, Judo and other grappling arts do, as they believe they can apply their "one punch, one kill" or "one lock, one kill" techniques and not have to worry about fighting any further. This has resulted in some Chin Na schools not having highly conditioned practitioners.

While most Chin Na schools pre-date Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu (which is worth comparing for its similar focus on locks and chokes), some have even started to integrate no-gi techniques and training methods from the more modern arts as well, such cases often lead purist to decree such integrations as a perverse hybrid of BJJ/Sambo/Judo and Kung Fu, however progressives simply deem it as necessary to acquire new weapons as they are proven effective in combat (such as through grappling tournaments and MMA competition).[3,332]

ChinNa.jpg


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Hapkido

Hapkido[3,341] is a modern Korean martial art and self-defense system derived from a combination of Ssireum (Korean folk wrestling)[3,342], Chinese influences from numerous arts such as Shaolin Kung Fu, Shuai Jiao and Tai Chi, the early grappling techniques from Taekkyon (which later evolved into the TaeKwonDo striking arts) and re-integrations of techniques from numerous Japanese arts such as Aikido, Judo and Jiu-Jitsu (for this reason it is often referred to as Korean Jiu-Jitsu). Kuk Sool Won[3,343] and Tang Soo Do[3,344] are two similar arts that serve as a sort of bridge between the Taekkyon-based Korean striking arts like TKD and combined grappling/striking hybrids like Hapkido, and their early histories are tied to 20th-century fighting systems like Chinese Kung Fu and Japanese Judo.

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Bohk

Bohk (also referred to as Bohk-ti or simplified in translation to Mongolian Wrestling) is a form of wrestling that developed in Inner Mongolia for sport and combative purposes. It has a rich history that dates back to the Mongol Empire and the court of Gengis Khan who pitted top soldiers against one another in battles to the death (sometimes for settling disagreements, deciding promotions, or spectator sport/entertainment purposes). It is said that fierce close-quarters hand-to-hand fighting techniques gave Genghis Khan and subsequent Khans a significant military advantage on the battlefield.


Sumo

Sumo Wrestling is a Japanese tradition that developed from the grappling techniques of various martial arts, particularly those of Eastern-Oriental origin (such as Mongolian Wrestling, Chinese Wrestling and Korean Wrestling). Sumo is a different form of combat sport in that the primary goal is to force your opponent out of a small ring, rather than attempting to submit them or render them unconscious. Open hand striking techniques and head attacks to the body are allowed, as are trips, sweeps and takedowns, but kicks, knees and elbows are not. Because of the unique rule set, Sumo also developed some unique traits and techniques of its own such as the fact that practitioners were often very large/heavy individuals to gain advantages in "no weight-class" competitions and the use of palm strikes and open-hand slapping techniques are often employed to off-balance an opponent or distract them for a trip/throw.

The primary types of techniques used in Sumo are:

  • Pushing hands
  • Stiff-arm
  • Slap
  • Push
  • Pull
  • Headbutt
  • Trip
  • Throw
  • Sweep
  • Lift

Within this high-level set are many variations, setups and transitions, a majority of which are located in the chart below:

Sumo.jpg [3,357] [3,358]

The full list of allowed techniques is:

  1. ABISETAOSHI (Backward force down)
  2. AMIUCHI (The fisherman's throw)
  3. ASHITORI (Leg pick)
  4. CHONGAKE (Pulling heel hook)
  5. GASSHOHINERI (Clasped hand twist down)
  6. HARIMANAGE (Backward belt throw)
  7. HATAKIKOMI (Slap down)
  8. HIKIOTOSHI (Hand pull down)
  9. HIKKAKE (Arm grabbing force out)
  10. IPPONZEOI (One armed shoulder throw)
  11. IZORI (Backwards body drop)
  12. KAINAHINERI (Two-handed arm twist down)
  13. KAKENAGE (Hooking inner thigh throw)
  14. KAKEZORI (Hooking backwards body drop)
  15. KATASUKASHI (Under-shoulder swing throw)
  16. KAWAZUGAKE (Hooking backward counter throw)
  17. KEKAESHI (Minor inner foot sweep)
  18. KETAGURI (Pulling inside ankle sweep)
  19. KIMEDASHI (Arm barring force out)
  20. KIMETAOSHI (Arm barring force down)
  21. KIRIKAESHI (Twisting backward knee trip)
  22. KOMATASUKUI (Over thigh scooping body drop)
  23. KOSHINAGE (Hip throw)
  24. KOTEHINERI (Armlock throw)
  25. KOTENAGE (Armlocking twist down (new - added January 2001))
  26. KOZUMATORI (Ankle pick (new - added January 2001))
  27. KUBIHINERI (Head twisting throw)
  28. KUBINAGE (Headlock throw)
  29. MAKIOTOSHI (Twist down)
  30. MITOKOROZEME (Triple attack force out)
  31. NICHONAGE (Body drop throw)
  32. NIMAIGERI (Ankle kicking twist down)
  33. OKURIDASHI (Thigh scooping body drop)
  34. OKURIGAKE (Rear push out)
  35. OKURIHIKIOTOSHI (Rear leg trip (new - added January 2001))
  36. OKURINAGE (Rear pull down (new - added January 2001))
  37. OKURITAOSHI (Rear throw down (new - added January 2001))
  38. OKURITSURIDASHI (Rear push down)
  39. OKURITSURIOTOSHI (Rear lift out (new - added January 2001))
  40. OMATA (Rear lifting body slam (new - added January 2001))
  41. OSAKATE (Backward twisting overarm throw (new - added January 2001))
  42. OSHIDASHI (Frontal push out)
  43. OSHITAOSHI (Frontal push down)
  44. SABAORI (Forward force down)
  45. SAKATOTTARI (Arm bar throw counter)
  46. SHITATEDASHINAGE (Pulling underarm throw)
  47. SHITATEHINERI (Twisting underarm throw)
  48. SHITATENAGE (Underarm throw)
  49. SHUMOKUZORI (Bell hammer backwards body drop)
  50. SOKUBIOTOSHI (Head chop down (new - added January 2001))
  51. SOTOGAKE (Outside leg trip)
  52. SOTOKOMATA (Over thigh scooping body drop)
  53. SOTOMUSO (Outer thigh propping twist down)
  54. SOTOTASUKIZORI (Outer reverse backwards body drop)
  55. SUKUINAGE (Beltless arm throw)
  56. SUSOHARAI (Rear foot sweep)
  57. SUSOTORI (Ankle pick)
  58. TASUKIZORI (Reverse backwards body drop)
  59. TOKKURINAGE (Two handed head twist down (new - added January 2001))
  60. TOTTARI (Arm bar throw)
  61. TSUKAMINAGE (Lifting throw)
  62. TSUKIDASHI (Frontal thrust out)
  63. TSUKIOTOSHI (Thrust down)
  64. TSUKITAOSHI (Frontal thrust down)
  65. TSUMATORI (Rear ankle pick)
  66. TSURIDASHI (Lift out)
  67. TSURIOTOSHI (Lifting body slam)
  68. TSUTAEZORI (Underarm forward body drop (new - added January 2001))
  69. UCHIGAKE (Inside leg trip)
  70. UCHIMUSO (Inner thigh propping twist down)
  71. USHIROMOTARE (Rear lean out (new - added January 2001))
  72. UTCHARI (Backward pivot throw)
  73. UWATEDASHINAGE (Pulling overarm throw)
  74. UWATEHINERI (Twisting overarm throw)
  75. UWATENAGE (Overarm throw)
  76. WARIDASHI (Upper-arm force out)
  77. WATASHIKOMI (Thigh grabbing push down)
  78. YAGURANAGE (Inner thigh throw)[3,359]
  79. YOBIMODOSHI (Pulling body slam)
  80. YORIKIRI (Frontal force out)
  81. YORITAOSHI (Frontal crush out)
  82. ZUBUNERI (Head pivot throw)

The number of situations in which a "rikishi" (competitor) can win a match without actually initiating a technique has expanded from two to five. These winning "non-techniques" are:

  1. FUMIDASHI (Rear step out (new - added January 2001))
  2. ISAMIASHI (Forward step out)
  3. KOSHIKUDAKE (Inadvertent collapse)
  4. TSUKIHIZA (Knee touch down (new - added January 2001))
  5. TSUKITE (Hand touch down (new - added January 2001)

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Mixed Martial Arts

Mixed Martial Arts (MMA) are those Martial Arts systems, competitions, prize fights, challenge matches or other combat sports events which combine a variety of forms of unarmed combat techniques:

  1. striking
  2. grappling
  3. sweeps
  4. throws
  5. pins
  6. joint-locks
  7. compression-locks
  8. chokes

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Today, MMA competitions are often done not just for pride or competitive spirit, but typically are carried out as prizefights with a monetary reward for the winner (and possibly an appearance award for the loser).

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[3,428] [3,429] [3,430] [3,431] [3,432] [3,433] [3,434] [3,435] [3,436] [3,437] [3,438] [3,439] [3,440] [3,441] [3,442] [3,443] [3,444] [3,445] [3,446] [3,447] [3,448] [3,449] [3,450] [3,451] [3,452] [3,453] [3,454] [3,455] [3,456] [3,457] [3,458] [3,459] [3,460] [3,461] [3,462] [3,463] [3,464] [3,465] </ref>No opponent confirmed for Fedor Emelianenko announced at Rizin FF introductory press conference: http://www.mmafighting.com/2015/10/8/9477863/no-opponent-for-fedor-emelianenko-announced-at-rizin-ff-introductory</ref> [3,466] [3,467] [3,468]


LIST OF MARTIAL ARTS GLOBAL HEADQUARTERS

  1. Shaolin Temple - Kung Fu: (Zhenzou, China)
  2. Inosanto Academy - Jeet Kune Do: (California, USA)
  3. Fairtex Gym - Muay Thai: (Phuket, Thailand)
  4. Kukkiwon - TKD: (Seoul, South Korea)
  5. Naha/Shuri - Karate: (Okinawa, Japan)
  6. Kodokan - Judo: (Tokyo, Japan)
  7.  ??? - Sumo: http://www.sumo.or.jp/En/ (Osaka, Japan)[3,469][3,470][3,471]
  8. Aikikai Hombu Dojo - Aikido: (Tokyo, Japan)
  9. Bujinkan - Ninjitsu: (Chiba, Japan)
  10. World Sambo Academy - Sambo: (Kstovo, Russia)
  11. Gracie Barra - BJJ: (Rio de Janiero, Brazil)
  12. 10th Planet JJ - Submission Grappling: (California, USA)
  13. Snake Pit - Catch Wrestling: (Wigan, UK)
  14. US Olympic Training Center - Freestyle Wrestling: https://www.teamusa.org/usa-wrestling/membership/athletes/find-a-club (Ohio, USA)
  15.  ??? - Greco-Roman Wrestling: (Athens, Greece)
  16.  ??? “Wrestling House" —Khaneye-Koshti in Persian -
  17.  ??? - Bohkti: (Ulenbaantar, Mongolia)
  18.  ??? - San Shou/Shuai Jiao: (Beijing, China)
  19.  ??? - Kalaripayutta: (Kochi-Kerala, India)
  20.  ??? - Krav Maga: (Tel Aviv, Israel)
  21.  ??? - Eskrima: (Cebu, Phillipines)
  22.  ??? - Silat: (Bali, Indonesia)
  23. Nacho Beristain Gym - Boxing: (Mexico City, Mexico)
  24. Golden Glory - Kickboxing: (Amsterdam, Holland)
  25.  ??? - Savate: (Marseilles, France)
  26. Evolve MMA - Mixed Martial Arts: (Singapore)


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Capoeira

Capoeira is a Brazilian martial that combines athleticism, acrobatics, music, dance, and culture into one complete, exciting and all-encompassing martial art. Its origins vary in detail, but it unquestionably has African roots and was modified largely by the African slaves forced into labor in the South Americas, namely Brazil. Some Martial Arts historians believe there may have been additional influences on Capoeira from the Eastern Martial Arts due to immigration (i.e. large Indian and Chinese populations in Africa). The harsh slave masters of the time forbid any Martial Arts training to be done that could potentially make their slaves strong enough for an uprising, so they were clever enough to disguise the more martial techniques as a "Dance-form" in order to be allowed to continue training and spreading the art. For this reason, Capoeira is said to emphasize the "concealment" of its various kicks, punches, sweeps, takedowns and other fighting techniques, and unarguably has one of if not the most rhythmic set of movement structures and patterns. While not yet historically conclusive, many people attribute the aggressive "B-Boy" and "Breakdancing battle" dance movements (which arose in the late 1970s and which developed through the 1980s) to a cross-pollination of "Poppin'" and other emerging HipHop dance forms with Capoeria.


The following are the core techniques of Capoeira:

  • Au Compasso
  • Au Cruzado
  • Au de cabeça or Aú Cabeça no Chão
  • Au Batido (or Au Quebrado or Bico de Papagaio)
  • Au sem mao
  • Armada Dupla
  • Armada
  • Arrastão
  • Bananeira
  • Bananeira Cabeca no Chao
  • Bananeira Fechado
  • Banda
  • Bênção
  • Cabeçada
  • Chapa
  • Chapa de Costas
  • Chapa Giratorio
  • Cocorinha
  • Contragolpe
  • Corta Capim
  • Escorpiao
  • Escorpiao Cabeca no Chao
  • Esquiva
  • Esquiva Lateral
  • Esquiva de frente
  • Esquiva Diagonal
  • Galopante
  • Ginga
  • Golpe
  • Helicoptero
  • Invergado
  • Joelhada
  • Macaco
  • Martelo
  • Meia Lua de Compasso
  • Meia Lua de Compasso sem Mao
  • Meia Lua de Frente
  • Moenda
  • Negativa
  • Parafuso
  • Piao de Cabeca or Pião
  • Piao de Mao
  • Ponte
  • Ponteira
  • Queda de Quatro
  • Queda de rins
  • Quexada or Queixada
  • Rabo de arraia
  • Rasteira
  • Resistençia
  • Relogio
  • Roler or Rolé
  • Salto Mortal
  • S-dobrao
  • Tesoura
  • Vingativa

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AúQueda de RinsMacacoCocorinhaRolêTesouraNegativa AngolaQueda de QuatroRelogioAu MalandroMeia Lua de CompassoChapa de CostasRolê MarteloRolê Meia Lua de CompassoArmadaBênçãoPonteiraEscorãoMarteloQueixadaEscorpiaoArpão de CabeçaRasteiraMartelo RotadoTesoura AngolaFolha SecaVingativaNegativaQueda de TresCarpadoFolha SecaCruzCapoeira.jpg
About this image


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[3,513]

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Krav Maga

Krav Maga is a self-defense art taught to active serving members of the Israeli military. It has been developed using techniques from multiple different martial arts, in particular Wrestling, Boxing, Wing Chun trapping/kick, Escrima stick-fighting and Kali knife-fighting, to address their unique field needs of frequent close-quarters combat.


KravMaga.jpg


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Jeet Kune Do

Jeet Kune Do (commonly abbreviated JKD) was Bruce Lee's system of fighting which emphasized cross-training in many different disciplines and martial arts in order to build your own style that suited your particular body type, age, fitness level, flexibility, agility, speed, athleticism, mental capacity (especially under duress) and other capabilities fundamental to fighting and the martial arts. That said, there were a core set of techniques which Bruce Lee discovered worked particularly well for him over time, and this is now taught based on first-hand accounts taught through his students and second-hand accounts from personal memoirs and training notes of his released by his family.

Bruce Lee is also reputed to have advocated that there should only be one of four primary goals for training in the Martial Arts:

  1. physical conditioning
  2. (sport) fighting competency
  3. (street) self-defense
  4. self-awareness (aka. spiritual enlightenment)

JKD.png

Some of JKD's unique techniques include:

  1. skipping sidekick
  2. sliding sidekick
  3. spinning sidekick
  4. stomping sidekick
  5. whipping jab
  6. whipping backfist
  7. split punch (aka Johnny Cage)
  8. jumping stomp kick
  9. knee drop
  10. double-knee drop
  11. jumping double-knee drop
  12. modified one-leg armbar
  13. modified head & arm choke
  14. modified crucifix


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Sports & Activities

Hockey

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Indoor Hockey

Ball Hockey

Field Hockey

Soccer


Basketball

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Baseball

Rugby

Football

Kickball

Handball

Dodgeball

Water Polo

Ultimate Frisbee

Frisbee Golf

Golf

Indoor/Virtual Golf

Racket Sports

Tennis

Badminton

Paddleball

Pickle Ball

Bowling

Lawn Bowling

Backyard Games

Washer Toss

Lawn Darts

Bar-room Games

Darts

Shuffle Board

Foosball

Air Hockey

Table Hockey

Motion Arcade Games

References

  1. Meditation May Reduce Stress and Improve Health: http://www.medicinenet.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=46268
  2. Introduction to Meditation: http://www.youtube.com/watch?list=PLE295F8E282608EA4&v=NkGseopVaao
  3. How to Meditate: http://www.wikihow.com/Meditate
  4. Meditation for Health Podcast: http://www.meditationforhealthpodcast.com/
  5. Meditation Can Increase IQ: http://www.artofliving.org/meditation/meditation-for-you/meditation-increases-IQ
  6. Meditation for Beginners - 20 Practical Tips for Quieting the Mind: http://zenhabits.net/meditation-for-beginners-20-practical-tips-for-quieting-the-mind/
  7. 5 Things to Know About Mindfulness Meditation: http://longevity.about.com/od/longevitytodos/tp/What-Mindfulness-Meditation-Can-Do-For-You.htm
  8. wikipedia: Dalai Lama
  9. wikipedia: Sri Sri Ravi Shankar
  10. wikipedia: Asaram
  11. wikipedia: Sukhabodhananda
  12. wikipedia: Chaitanya Mahaprabhu
  13. wikipedia: Chidanand Saraswati
  14. wikipedia: Morari Bapu
  15. wikipedia: H. W. L. Poonja
  16. wikipedia: Jiddu Krishnamurti
  17. wikipedia: A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada
  18. wikipedia: Rajneesh (Osho)
  19. wikipedia: Ramakrishna
  20. wikipedia: Maharishi Mahesh Yogi
  21. wikipedia: Sai Baba of Shirdi
  22. wikipedia: Zhuang Zhou
  23. wikipedia: Guo Xiang
  24. wikipedia: Dōgen Zenji
  25. wikipedia: Shunryū Suzuki
  26. wikipedia: Gautama Buddha
  27. wikipedia: Jesus Christ
  28. wikipedia: List of people who have learned Transcendental Meditation
  29. Chan Meditation Center - How to Meditate: http://chancenter.org/cmc/chan-practice/how-to-meditate/
  30. 10-step Guide to Zazen Meditation: http://www.wikihow.com/Begin-Zen-Meditation-%28Zazen%29
  31. Who’s Who of Buddhism: http://www.thedhamma.com/whos_who.htm
  32. Workplace Health Programs Increase Productivity: http://www.cdc.gov/workplacehealthpromotion/businesscase/benefits/productivity.html
  33. Medavie Blue Cross (BLOG) - The Art of Being Mindful: http://medaviehealthfoundation.ca/2015/01/art-mindful/
  34. Harvard Unveils MRI Study Proving Meditation Literally Rebuilds The Brain’s Gray Matter In 8 Weeks: http://www.feelguide.com/2014/11/19/harvard-unveils-mri-study-proving-meditation-literally-rebuilds-the-brains-gray-matter-in-8-weeks/
  35. How To Meditate Without The "Woo-Woo" (and a list of believed & proven benefits): http://menshealth.about.com/od/Holistic-Living-for-Men/fl/How-To-Meditate-Without-The-Woo-Woo.htm
  36. Hakomi Method – Body centred, Mindfulness based Psychotherapy: http://www.justiceschanfarber.com/hakomi-method/
  37. F*ck That Sh!t method of Meditation/Relaxation: http://www.funnyordie.com/videos/c6d6848516/f-ck-that-a-guided-meditation
  38. wikipedia: Enlightenment (spiritual)
  39. wikipedia: Self-realization
  40. wikipedia: Dark retreat
  41. wikipedia: Isolation tank
  42. wikipedia: Sensory deprivation
  43. wikipedia: Sensory overload
  44. wikipedia: Extrasensory perception
  45. wikipedia: Autonomous sensory meridian response
  46. What Is ASMR and Why Does It Make Me Feel So Good?: https://www.vice.com/en_uk/article/asmr-the-good-feeling-no-one-can-explain
  47. ASMR Triggers – Common ASMR triggers that cause tingles: http://www.asmrlab.com/common-asmr-triggers/
  48. What is ASMR?: https://asmruniversity.com/about-asmr/what-is-asmr/
  49. What is ASMR?: https://www.quora.com/What-is-ASMR | DEFINITION
  50. Health Benefits of Isolation Tanks, Sensory Deprivation & REST therapy: http://www.mensjournal.com/health-fitness/health/the-modern-day-float-tank-20131108 (reducing stress by lowering cortisol levels; managing chronic pain, injury, and illness; fighting addiction and depression; elevating mood; and even improving sports performance... also "problems involving the autonomic nervous system, such as insomnia, stress symptoms, dysfunctions of the skeleto-muscular system, chronic headache", purportedly concentration and creativity can be enhanced as an after-effect as well)
  51. Claimed benefits of Flotation (by a leeading Pod/Capsule/Tank vendor): https://floatworks.com/floatation-benefits
  52. TIME TRAVEL MEDITATION: http://aaronmurakami.com/2014/11/09/time-travel-meditation/ (improve the accuracy of your near-term future predictions by writing down 5 things that you learned during the day that would have made your past better if you'd known them sooner)
  53. Get up at least once every 30 minutes -- Failure to do so may shorten your life, study finds: http://www.latimes.com/science/sciencenow/la-sci-sn-sitting-death-risk-20170911-story.html
  54. Everything you should know about happiness in one infographic: http://bigthink.com/design-for-good/everything-you-should-know-about-happiness-in-one-infographic
  55. The origins of Qi Gong: http://www.literati-tradition.com/qi_gong_origins.html
  56. Chi Kung / Qi Gong - Health Benefits of Ancient Chinese Moving Meditation: http://www.spaceandmotion.com/health/chi-kung-qigong.htm
  57. What is Reiki? Healing through Meditation: http://www.reiki.org/faq/whatisreiki.html
  58. What is the recent history of Qigong in China?: http://www.wujiproductions.com/recent-history-qigong-in-china/
  59. What is the Dantien?: http://greattriad.wordpress.com/2010/05/28/what-is-the-dantien/
  60. Chakras and Dantien: http://www.holisticrejuvenate.com/resources/chakras-and-dantien/
  61. Compare Dantien to Chakra?: http://thedaobums.com/topic/6876-compare-dan-tien-to-chakra/
  62. Cultivating Qi Energy in the Hara & Its Energetic pathways: http://www.qiwithoutborders.org/hara.html
  63. Qu’est ce que le Dan Tian: http://energiecoeurpresence.wordpress.com/travail/dan-tien/
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  65. wikipedia: List of forms of alternative medicine
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  67. wikipedia: San Jiao
  68. wikipedia: Orgone
  69. wikipedia: Energy (esotericism)
  70. wikipedia: Energy medicine
  71. wikipedia: Vitalism
  72. wikipedia: Mediumship
  73. wikipedia: Spirit
  74. wikipedia: Soul
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  77. Your Body Type - Ectomorph, Mesomorph or Endomorph?: http://www.muscleandstrength.com/articles/body-types-ectomorph-mesomorph-endomorph.html
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  80. Body Shape....What's yours??? (Ladies) : http://www.misspurpleheart.com/2012/09/body-typewhats-yours.html
  81. Vitamins and Minerals - How Much Should You (In)Take (per day)?: http://www.webmd.com/vitamins-and-supplements/lifestyle-guide-11/vitamins-minerals-how-much-should-you-take
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  89. wikipedia: Veganism
  90. wikipedia: Pescetarian diet
  91. wikipedia: Kosher diet
  92. wikipedia: Atkins diet
  93. wikipedia: Paleolithic diet
  94. wikipedia: Gluten-free diet
  95. wikipedia: Raw foodism
  96. wikipedia: High-protein diet
  97. wikipedia: Low-fat diet
  98. wikipedia: Locavore diet
  99. wikipedia: Detox diet
  100. Dietary Reference Intakes Tables: http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/fn-an/consult/2014-daily-value-valeurs-quotidiennes/document-consultation-eng.php
  101. A Consumer's Guide to the DRIs (Dietary Reference Intakes): http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/fn-an/nutrition/reference/cons_info-guide_cons-eng.php
  102. Health Canada's Proposed Changes to the Daily Values (DVs) for Use in Nutrition Labelling: http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/fn-an/consult/2014-daily-value-valeurs-quotidiennes/document-consultation-eng.php
  103. Healthy Canadian - tools for Daily Value (true dietary needs by body type) calculations: http://www.healthycanadians.gc.ca/eating-nutrition/label-etiquetage/daily-value-valeur-quotidienne-eng.php
  104. Decoding Nutrition Labels (INFOGRAPHIC): http://www.pinterest.com/pin/97108935694468320/sent/?sender=555842916417818969&invite_code=4b37ed7b5c4a00168f0a1c5af7ab18c9 (make note of serving sizes & nutritients per calorie)
  105. Blueberries - A Handful of Health (INFOGRAPHIC): https://www.pinterest.com/pin/97108935694468320/sent/?sender=555842916417818969&invite_code=4b37ed7b5c4a00168f0a1c5af7ab18c9
  106. Health Benefits of Drinking Green Tea: http://healthnbodytips.com/benefits-of-green-tea-health-beauty.html/
  107. Here's why you're always hungry (how "Dietary Displacement" works): http://www.precisionnutrition.com/all-about-dietary-displacement
  108. Best sources of Micronutrients for MEN: http://blog.lafitness.com/2016/07/11/food-and-nutrition-tips-specifically-for-men/
  109. Health Blog (INFOGRAPHICS): https://www.flickr.com/photos/healthblog/
  110. Blood Type Based Diet Chart: http://www.newhealthguide.org/Blood-Type-Chart.html
  111. Protein - A Guide to Maximum Muscle: http://www.mensfitness.com/nutrition/what-to-eat/protein-guide-maximum-muscle
  112. Daily Protein requirements (by age/gender): http://www.cdc.gov/nutrition/everyone/basics/protein.html
  113. The Recommended Daily Protein for Men Vs. Women: http://healthyeating.sfgate.com/recommended-daily-protein-men-vs-women-5141.html
  114. What % of Diet Should Be Protein, Carbohydrates & Fat?: http://tinyurl.com/pzngf5k (45-65% carbs, 20-35% fat, 10-35% protein)
  115. Fitting Fiber In: http://my.clevelandclinic.org/heart/prevention/nutrition/fittingfiberin.aspx
  116. 10 Best sources of Fiber: http://www.mensfitness.com/nutrition/what-to-eat/10-best-sources-of-fiber
  117. How do I calculate the percentage of calories from fat?: http://health.howstuffworks.com/wellness/diet-fitness/information/calculating-the-percentage-of-calories-from-fat.htm
  118. How to Avoid a Catabolic State (and muscle loss) with nutrition/meal-timing: http://www.fitday.com/fitness-articles/fitness/body-building/how-to-avoid-a-catabolic-state.html
  119. How To Combat Catabolism And Build Muscle Fast: http://ezinearticles.com/?How-To-Combat-Catabolism-And-Build-Muscle-Fast&id=810943
  120. The Top 3 Supplements for Surviving the Singularity: http://singularityhub.com/2011/05/03/kurzweil-3-supplements-to-let-you-live-until-the-singularity-video/
  121. Non-GMO Project: http://www.nongmoproject.org/find-non-gmo/search-participating-products/
  122. Greenpeace - Non-GMO and Organic Product Shopper's Guide: http://gefreebc.files.wordpress.com/2010/02/greenpeace-shoppers_guide.pdf
  123. How to Get Inexpensive Organic, Locally-Grown Vegetables: http://articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2006/08/17/how-to-get-inexpensive-organic-locally-grown-vegetables.aspx
  124. Butter v. margarine - which is better?: http://www.theglobeandmail.com/life/health-and-fitness/butter-v-margarine---which-is-better/article4330182/
  125. The big sellout -- Majority of organic companies owned by mega corporations: http://www.naturalnews.com/037972_organic_companies_corporations_sellout.html
  126. 10 Rules of Supermarket Shopping: http://www.menshealth.com/nutrition/rules-supermarket-shopping?fullpage=true
  127. Does Massage Therapy Work?: http://saveyourself.ca/articles/reality-checks/does-massage-work.php (review of the science of massage therapy)
  128. wikipedia: Glycemic index
  129. Glycemic Index (GI) vs Glycemic Load (GL): http://vitaflexlifestyle.com/2012/04/18/glycemic-index-gi/
  130. Glycemic Index and Load for 100 popular foods: http://www.health.harvard.edu/newsweek/Glycemic_index_and_glycemic_load_for_100_foods.htm
  131. The Glycemic Index–What is it and Why does it matter?: http://askdrdani.com/the-glycemic-index-what-is-it-and-why-does-it-matter/
  132. Organic Cane Sugar vs Other Sweeteners: How They Measure Up, Part 1: http://smartypantsvitamins.com/organic-cane-sugar-vs-other-sweeteners-how-they-measure-up-part-1/
  133. Organic Cane Sugar vs Other Sweeteners: How They Measure Up, Part 2: http://smartypantsvitamins.com/organic-cane-sugar-vs-other-sweeteners-part-2/
  134. Hidden sources of MSG: http://www.truthinlabeling.org/hiddensources.html
  135. Getting Blood Work done... what should i ask for?: http://forum.bodybuilding.com/showthread.php?t=123623621
  136. Blood Type Comparison - CHILD, FATHER, MOTHER: http://www.canadiancrc.com/Paternity_determination_blood_type.aspx (how to calculate Blood Type)
  137. Blood Type Calculator: http://www.biology.arizona.edu/Human_Bio/problem_sets/blood_types/btcalcA_popup.html
  138. Drop a belt size in one month with As Many Reps As Possible (AMRAP) workouts: http://www.menshealth.com/fitness/drop-one-belt-size-one-month
  139. Is a Lack of Chewing Causing You to Gain Weight?: http://www.healthcentral.com/cholesterol/c/42538/146202/causing-gain/
  140. Chewing and Digestion: http://www.healthcentral.com/diet-exercise/c/299905/119056/digestion
  141. UFC's Anderson Silva horrifying shin break in Weidman fight most likely due to chronic vitamin D deficiency via dark skin: http://www.naturalnews.com/043345_Anderson_Silva_leg_break_vitamin_D_deficiency.html
  142. Overdosing on Vitamin D -- Side Effects, Toxicity, Symptoms, Poisoning: http://ctheblog.cforyourself.com/2008/12/overdosing-on-vitamin-d-side-effects.html (the sun, not supplements, still the best way to get Vitamin D; also Eggs/Fish)
  143. Home Remedies for Cracked Heels: http://www.top10homeremedies.com/home-remedies/home-remedies-for-cracked-heels.html (possibly indicative of Zinc or Omega-3 deficiency)
  144. Cracked Heels - Causes/Symptoms/Remedies: https://www.facebook.com/notes/the-doctor-asky/cracked-heels-causes-symptoms-home-remedies-treatment-prevention/242711672463083
  145. 10 Simple Home Remedies For Cracked Heels: http://www.stylecraze.com/articles/simple-home-remedies-for-cracked-heels/
  146. What is the Banana Girl Diet Challenge?: http://thebananagirl.com/what-is-the-banana-girl-diet.php
  147. 1200 Calories or less per day for Women to lose weight and look sexy? Think again: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/sophia-herbst/1200-calories_b_4816597.html
  148. How Much Protein Is Right For You?: http://www.livestrong.com/article/556322-how-much-protein-is-right-for-you/
  149. Sample text for Living among meat eaters - aka. the Vegetarian's Survival Handbook (by Carol J. Adams): http://catdir.loc.gov/catdir/samples/random044/2001027760.html
  150. How to Make a Perfect Green Smoothie: http://www.100daysofrealfood.com/2013/12/26/green-smoothie-recipe/
  151. Juicing or Smoothies? Which Are Better?: http://www.onegreenplanet.org/vegan-health/juicing-or-smoothies-which-are-better/
  152. Green Smoothies Vs. Green Juices – Which Is Better?: http://www.incrediblesmoothies.com/green-smoothies/green-smoothies-vs-green-juices-which-is-better/
  153. The Green Smoothie Debate - does they reduce Digestible Fiber and increase Blood Sugar?: http://longevity.about.com/od/everydayantiagingfoods/fl/Are-Green-Smoothies-Healthy-Or-Not.htm (ANSWER: It depends, maybe reduce Digestible Fiber for Oats/Wheats/Nuts but not for most Fruits/Veggies, maybe spike Blood Sugar due to high fructose and sugar content, depends on quantities and types of fruit)
  154. Juicing vs Blending - What's the difference? (INFOGRAPHIC): http://simplegreensmoothies.com/tips/juicing-vs-blending-whats-the-difference
  155. Juicing vs. Blending - Everything You Need to Know: http://www.rebootwithjoe.com/juicing-vs-blending-facts/
  156. What Are the Advantages of Juicing Vs. Smoothies?: http://healthyeating.sfgate.com/advantages-juicing-vs-smoothies-7552.html
  157. Which is Better for my Health, a Green Juice or a Green Smoothie?: http://www.drfuhrman.com/library/better_for_health.aspx
  158. Blender or Juicer - Is it better to drink juice or to drink smoothies?: http://realfoodswitch.com/raw-food-equipment-reviews/blender-juicer-juice-drink-smoothies/
  159. Juicing vs. Blending - Which One Is Better?: http://www.foodmatters.tv/articles-1/juicing-vs-blending-which-one-is-better
  160. 7 key points on Green Smoothies Vs. Green Juices: http://www.incrediblesmoothies.com/green-smoothies/green-smoothies-vs-green-juices-which-is-better/
  161. Juicing & Smoothies For Dummies: http://www.dummies.com/how-to/content/juicing-smoothies-for-dummies-cheat-sheet.html
  162. Which is Better for my Health, a Green Juice or a Green Smoothie?: https://www.drfuhrman.com/library/better_for_health.aspx
  163. Juice Fast Learn how to go on a 3-day juice fast: http://altmedicine.about.com/od/detoxcleansing/a/juice_fasting.htm
  164. WTF is Oil Pulling + Why I’m Hooked: http://www.fashionlush.com/wtf-is-oil-pulling-why-im-hooked/
  165. wikipedia: Ayurvedic medicine
  166. wikipedia: Valsalva maneuver
  167. Anatomical Terms of Movement: http://teachmeanatomy.info/the-basics/anatomical-terminology/terms-of-movement/
  168. wikipedia: Anatomical terms of motion
  169. Guts and Grease - The Diet of Native Americans: http://www.westonaprice.org/traditional-diets/guts-and-grease
  170. 8 Food Hacks That Help Your Health: http://www.menshealth.com/print/71606
  171. Why Weight Loss is Not the King of Achievements (on Fitocracy): http://www.fitocracy.com/knowledge/why-weight-loss-is-not-the-king-of-achievements/
  172. 9 Activities Linked to a Longer Life: http://thespiritscience.net/2014/09/30/9-activities-linked-to-a-longer-life/
  173. How to overcome Candida naturally: http://foodmatters.tv/articles-1/how-to-overcome-candida-naturally (a bacterial infection that infects more people than originally thought, causing headache, stomach issues and more)
  174. Acid vs. Alkaline - The Science Behind Balancing Your pH: http://vidyacleanse.com/2013/03/acid-vs-alkaline-the-science-behind-balancing-your-ph/
  175. The pH Chart of Foods: http://www.phmiracleliving.com/t-food-chart.aspx
  176. Alkaline Forming Foods - Balancing the pH is a major step toward well-being and greater health (LIST): http://www.rense.com/1.mpicons/acidalka.htm
  177. Alkalinity Food Chart (by Food Type/Category): http://www.acidalkalinediet.com/Alkaline-Foods-Chart.htm
  178. Alkaline food chart by degree of alkilinity vs acidity: http://greenopedia.com/article/alkaline-food-chart-degree
  179. Pathogens and Alkalinity chart: http://www.alkalinesisters.com/alkaline-food-chart/
  180. 2011 Estimates of Foodborne Illness in the United States: http://www.cdc.gov/features/dsfoodborneestimates/
  181. CDC Estimates of Foodborne Illness in the United States - TRENDS: http://www.cdc.gov/foodborneburden/trends-in-foodborne-illness.html
  182. Health Canada - Guide to the 10 Least Wanted Foodborne Pathogens: http://www.hss.gov.yk.ca/10leastwanted.php
  183. Pathogenic Organism Chart: http://www.gdx.net/core/supplemental-education-materials/Pathogenic-Organism-Chart.pdf
  184. Food Safety for Moms-to-Be -- Medical Professionals - Foodborne Pathogens: http://www.fda.gov/food/resourcesforyou/healtheducators/ucm091681.htm
  185. Cleaning For Health - Pathogen Chart: http://www.cleaning-for-health.org/pathogen-chart/
  186. Foodborne Illness Chart: http://www.foodsafe.ca/resources/Foodborne_Illness_Chart.pdf
  187. How To Lose 20-30 Pounds In 5 Days - The Extreme Weight Cutting and Rehydration Secrets of UFC Fighters: http://fourhourworkweek.com/2013/05/06/how-to-cut-weight-ufc/
  188. Mike Dolce, creator of The Dolce Diet -- Ultimate Grocery Guide: http://www.onnit.com/ultimate-grocery-guide/
  189. The Mike Dolce Show -- Episode 21 - Inside the Weight Cut & Your Questions Answered: http://themikedolceshow.com/ep-21-inside-the-weight-cut-your-questions-answered/
  190. How Mike Dolce Suggests to Cut Water Weight: http://forums.sherdog.com/forums/f15/how-mike-dolce-suggests-cut-water-weight-2017435/
  191. Mike Dolce methods - the mechanics of cutting weight and adding it back on: http://www.reddit.com/r/MMA/comments/2g8qw6/mike_dolce_methods_the_mechanics_of_cutting/
  192. DOLCE KNOWS - Weight Cutting for the new generation: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SLUo4XhbWXs
  193. Secrets to Cutting Weight - MMA Fighters Reveal (Part I): http://www.chicagonow.com/pow-mixed-martial-arts/2010/11/secrets-to-cutting-weight-mma-fighters-reveal/
  194. Secrets to Cutting Weight - MMA Fighters Reveal (Part II): http://www.chicagonow.com/pow-mixed-martial-arts/2010/11/secrets-to-cutting-weight-mma-fighters-reveal-part-ii/
  195. Joe Lauzon's Gym Guide to Weight Cuts: http://www.reddit.com/r/MMA/comments/erlhw/cutting_weight_how_do_you_guys_do_it/c1aefdw
  196. Cutting weight by Martin Rooney: http://lovejudomag.com/2014/01/13/cutting-weight-by-martin-rooney/
  197. Cutting weight strategies: http://beyondgrappling.com/articles/nutrition/cutting-weight-strategies/
  198. Judo Way of Life - Bro…do you even cut?: http://judowayoflife.com/weight-loss
  199. Cutting Weight and Losing Out - How Rapid Weight Loss in Wrestling and Judo Impacts Performance: http://www.usja-judo.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/02/Cutting-Weight-Losing-Out-2010.09JS.pdf
  200. A Judo Olympians' advice on Weight Cutting: http://ezinearticles.com/?Judo---Cutting-Weight&id=3823986
  201. Differences in Making Weight in Judo and Mixed Martial Arts: http://drannmaria.blogspot.ca/2013/01/differences-in-making-weight-in-judo.html
  202. Balancing Work and Training Leading Up to a Major Competition: http://lexfridman.com/blogs/training/2013/06/23/balancing-work-and-training-leading-up-to-major-competition/
  203. Cosmopolitan guide to Drop 5 Pounds in a Week (for women/models): http://www.cosmopolitan.com/health-fitness/advice/a5614/drop-5-pounds-in-a-week-0509/
  204. How I Lost 7 lbs In One Week: http://sarahfit.com/lose-7-pounds-lbs-in-one-week/
  205. How to Lose 10 Pounds in 1 Week without Any Pills: http://www.wikihow.com/Lose-10-Pounds-in-1-Week-without-Any-Pills
  206. Potassium Rich Foods List: http://potassiumrichfoods.com/potassium-rich-foods-list/
  207. WebMD -- Vitamins & Supplements Lifestyle Guide - Potassium: http://www.webmd.com/vitamins-and-supplements/lifestyle-guide-11/supplement-guide-potassium (requirements)
  208. Mayo Clinic -- Drugs and Supplements - Potassium Supplement (Oral Route, Parenteral Route): http://www.mayoclinic.org/drugs-supplements/potassium-supplement-oral-route-parenteral-route/description/drg-20070753 (sources)
  209. Food High In Potassium: http://www.essortment.com/food-high-potassium-36046.html
  210. Winter Squash, Potassium and Blood Pressure: http://healthyhabitscoach.wordpress.com/2008/10/01/winter-squash-potassium-and-blood-pressure/
  211. What foods are high in Potassium?: http://askville.amazon.com/foods-high-Potassium/AnswerViewer.do?requestId=10048011
  212. New research on plant intelligence may forever change how you think about plants: http://www.pri.org/stories/2014-01-09/new-research-plant-intelligence-may-forever-change-how-you-think-about-plants
  213. How to Choose the Best Probiotic: http://ibs.about.com/od/otcsforibs/fl/Best-Probiotics.htm
  214. 5 Interesting Gluten-Free Grains: http://celiacdisease.about.com/od/glutenfreegrains/a/Five-Interesting-Gluten-Free-Grains.htm
  215. The Benefits And Downsides Of Gluten-Free Eating -- Should You Go Gluten-Free?: http://www.prevention.com/food/healthy-eating-tips/benefits-and-downsides-gluten-free-eating
  216. The Truth about Gluten: http://www.webmd.com/diet/healthy-kitchen-11/truth-about-gluten
  217. The 13 Biggest Nutrition and Food Myths Busted: http://www.eatingwell.com/nutrition_health/nutrition_news_information/the_13_biggest_nutrition_and_food_myths_busted
  218. The Basics of Body Recomposition - How to Lose Fat & Gain Muscle at the Same Time: http://blog.myfitnesspal.com/2014/11/the-basics-of-body-recomposition-how-to-lose-fat-gain-muscle-at-the-same-time/
  219. Understand the "Nutrition Facts" on the box: https://medaviebc.mygoodhealth.ca/newsletter/Default.aspx?newsletterid=36&hf=487&ismain=t&ArticleID=1402
  220. Can Superfoods Save Pasta?: http://blog.myfitnesspal.com/2014/11/can-superfoods-save-pasta/ (important fact listed here: Ingredients are listed in order of weight on nutrition labels, so the primary ingredients show up first)
  221. The Steak Breakdown - Your ultimate guide to cuts of beef: http://www.thrillist.com/eat/nation/ultimate-steak-guide-how-to-cook-a-steak
  222. The Ultimate Steak Manual: http://www.shortlist.com/instant-improver/food/the-ultimate-steak-manual
  223. How To Count Your Macros: http://ontheregimen.com/2013/10/15/how-to-count-your-macros-a-comprehensive-guide/
  224. Micronutrients vs Macronutrients: http://www.macronutrients.net/micronutrients-vs-macronutrients/
  225. Macronutrients and Micronutrients: http://dietdatabase.com/macronutrients-and-micronutrients/
  226. A Beginner’s Guide to Meal Planning: http://blog.myfitnesspal.com/meal-planning-for-beginners/
  227. MCT Oil vs. Coconut Oil - The Truth Exposed: http://healthimpactnews.com/2014/mct-oil-vs-coconut-oil-the-truth-exposed/
  228. 15 Best Fiber-Rich Foods for Weight Loss: http://weightloss.about.com/od/CookingTips/ss/15-Natural-High-Fiber-Foods-for-Weight-Loss.htm
  229. Workout Nutrition: What and When You Should Eat to Build Muscle: http://www.menshealth.com/nutrition/workout-nutrition-what-and-when-you-should-eat-build-muscle?fullpage=true
  230. Nutrient timing revisited - is there a post-exercise anabolic window? (STUDY): http://www.jissn.com/content/10/1/5 (TAKEAWAY: timing not as important as hitting daily totals)
  231. Post-Workout Carbs -- Best Choices To Grow & Recover!: http://www.bodybuilding.com/fun/post_workout_carbs.htm
  232. Dr.Mauro DiPasquale's Article on PWO Carbs: http://www.canadabodybuilding.com/showthread.php?23456-Dr-Mauro-DiPasquale-s-Article-on-PWO-Carbs
  233. Post Workout Nutrition - High or Low Carb?: http://robbwolf.com/2009/07/01/post-workout-nutrition-high-or-low-carb/
  234. The 7 Best Weight Loss Tips You’ll Ever Read: https://health.clevelandclinic.org/2017/01/the-7-best-weight-loss-tips-youll-ever-read/
  235. Sports Medicine -- February 2015, Volume 45, Issue 2 (pp 161–186): http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s40279-014-0260-0
  236. Sleep Research Society - VOLUME 34, ISSUE 07, The Effects of Sleep Extension on the Athletic Performance of Collegiate Basketball Players: http://www.journalsleep.org/ViewAbstract.aspx?pid=28194
  237. Gatorade Sports Science Institute - Sleep and the Elite Athlete: http://www.gssiweb.org/Article/sse-113-sleep-and-the-elite-athlete
  238. Sleep deprivation - Impact on cognitive performance; 2007 Oct; 3(5) pg.553–567: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2656292/
  239. Can Sleep Improve Your Athletic Performance?: http://www.webmd.com/fitness-exercise/features/sleep-athletic-performance
  240. Sports’ Secret Weapon -- Sleep: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/dr-michael-j-breus/sports-sleep_b_2160565.html
  241. Research Finds a Lack of Sleep May Reduce Sports Recovery and Performance: https://www.verywell.com/sleep-deprivation-and-athletes-3119144
  242. Sleep, Melatonin, and Athletic Performance: http://www.isagenixhealth.net/sleep-melatonin-and-athletic-performance/
  243. Sleep Deficit - The Performance Killer: https://hbr.org/2006/10/sleep-deficit-the-performance-killer
  244. How to Sleep Like an Olympic Athlete: http://www.webmd.com/sleep-disorders/features/sleep-like-an-olympian#1
  245. Sleep, Learning, and Memory: http://healthysleep.med.harvard.edu/healthy/matters/benefits-of-sleep/learning-memory
  246. Synchronized Sleeping — The New Olympic Sport: https://jonathanturley.org/2009/04/19/synchronized-sleeping-the-new-olympic-sport/
  247. Polysomnography (sleep study): http://www.mayoclinic.org/tests-procedures/polysomnography/basics/definition/PRC-20013229
  248. WebMD - Sleep Studies: http://www.webmd.com/sleep-disorders/sleep-studies#1
  249. What Do Sleep Studies Show?: https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/slpst/show
  250. What is a Sleep Study for Sleep Apnea?: http://sleepapnea.toxichabits.com/what-is-a-sleep-study-for-sleep-apnea/
  251. National Sleep Foundation - Sleep Studies: https://sleepfoundation.org/sleep-topics/sleep-studies
  252. Preparing for a Sleep Study: http://sleepcenter.ucla.edu/preparing-for-a-sleep-study
  253. What type of doctor specializes in obstructive sleep apnea?: https://www.sharecare.com/health/obstructive-sleep-apnea/doctor-specializes-obstructive-sleep-apnea
  254. Power of Sleep (INFOGRAPHIC): http://www.precisionnutrition.com/power-of-sleep-infographic (get 7hrs per 24hrs, wake up at right timing in REM cycles)
  255. Sleeping Positions -- A Disucussion of Pros & Cons (for recovery): http://www.jtsstrength.com/articles/2017/01/04/sleeping-positions-disucussion-pros-cons/
  256. Counting sheep -- The best sleep trackers and monitors: http://www.wareable.com/withings/best-sleep-trackers-and-monitors
  257. Five Best Sleep Tracking Gadgets or Apps: http://lifehacker.com/5993005/five-best-sleep-tracking-gadgets-or-apps
  258. Validation of Basis Science Advanced Sleep Analysis" http://www.mybasis.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/04/Validation-of-Basis-Science-Advanced-Sleep-Analysis.pdf
  259. Personal Sleep Monitors - Do They Work?: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/dr-christopher-winter/sleep-tips_b_4792760.html
  260. Pebble SmartWatch - Morpheuz Sleep Tracker app: http://www.morpheuz.net/p/introduction.html
  261. Ten Sleep Wearables to look for in 2015: https://www.wearable-technologies.com/2015/05/ten-sleep-wearables-to-look-for-in-2015/
  262. wikipedia: Dream interpretation
  263. The Interpretation of Dreams Sigmund Freud (1900): http://psychclassics.yorku.ca/Freud/Dreams/dreams.pdf
  264. Finding Your Fitness Personality: http://experiencelife.com/article/are-we-having-fun-yet-2/ | PDF (by trait, see CHART at bottom)
  265. You Pass The FBI’s Fitness Test?: https://www.yahoo.com/beauty/could-you-pass-the-fbis-fitness-test-115683662617.html
  266. (Tips from the Military to) Ace the FBI Fitness Test: http://www.military.com/military-fitness/law-enforcement-training/fbi-academy-workout-plan
  267. FBI Fitness Test: http://www.menshealth.com/fitness/fbi-fitness-test
  268. So you want to be an F.B.I. agent? Here’s what it takes: http://fortune.com/2015/04/06/fbi-agent-fitness-test/
  269. Marine Physical Fitness Test (PFT): http://www.marines.com/becoming-a-marine/how-to-prepare/pft#
  270. USAF Fitness Test: http://www.afpc.af.mil/shared/media/document/AFD-110804-054.pdf
  271. Army Physical Fitness Test (APFT): http://usarmybasic.com/army-physical-fitness/apft-standards
  272. APFT Conditioning - (Grass) Calisthenics Exercises: http://www.jointhearmy.us/active-duty/basic-training/army-physical-fitness-test/apft-conditioning-drills/apft-conditioning-grass-exercises/
  273. APFT Calisthenics Exercises: http://www.armyreal.com/apft/item/5293
  274. The Workout That Demolishes Body Fat -- This is the ultimate do-anywhere, zero-excuse metabolic circuit: http://www.menshealth.com/fitness/bodyweight-circuit-workout
  275. The Ultimate 10-Minute Warmup -- The most important part of any workout is the one most guys skip: http://www.menshealth.com/fitness/ultimate-10-minute-warmup
  276. The Difference Between an Isotonic and Isometric Contraction: http://www.livestrong.com/article/382348-the-difference-between-an-isotonic-and-isometric-contraction/
  277. What is the Difference between Calisthenics, Isometrics, and Pilates?: http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-the-difference-between-calisthenics-isometrics-and-pilates.htm
  278. What Are the Different Types of Calisthenics Exercises?: http://www.wisegeek.com/what-are-the-different-types-of-calisthenics-exercises.htm
  279. Bodyweight exercises, Calisthenics and Plyometrics - What's the deal here?: http://forums.sherdog.com/forums/f13/a-1555167/
  280. What's the difference between a Lunge and a Split Squat?: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lvvttdzUKcc
  281. The 30-Day Plank Challenge (INFOGRAPHIC): http://blog.myfitnesspal.com/the-30-day-plank-challenge/
  282. The Body-Weight Workout that Will Kick Your Ass: http://www.menshealth.com/fitness/ultimate-body-weight-workout?fullpage=true
  283. Ling Gymnastics at Karlberg, Sweden (1927): http://www.euscreen.eu/play.jsp?id=EUS_F54A5468289A4F2397CED6F442FE61BD (was a demo-sport at the
  284. 7 Exercises To Keep Your Lower Back Healthy If You Sit All Day: http://www.fitocracy.com/knowledge/7-exercises-to-keep-your-lower-back-healthy-if-you-sit-all-day/
  285. 85% VO2 Max Training - The Most Effective Cardio Workout for Your Body: http://www.menshealth.com/fitness/cutting-edge-way-do-interval-training
  286. 24 Pushups Variations You Need to Try: http://www.menshealth.com/fitness/24-pushups-you-need-try
  287. 25 Awesome Ab Moves: http://www.menshealth.com/fitness/best-abs-exercises-ever
  288. The 25 Best Exercises for Your Obliques: http://www.menshealth.com/fitness/best-oblique-exercises
  289. RossTraining: http://rosstraining.com/blog/
  290. TACFIT: http://www.rmaxi.com/tacfit/programs.php
  291. GMB Fitness - Bodyweight Exercise for Physical Mastery: http://gmb.io/
  292. DragonDoor - PCC Blog: http://pccblog.dragondoor.com/
  293. Relieve Your Pain Without Leaving Your Chair (useful office/home stretches): http://useful.littlethings.com/pain-relief-stretches/
  294. Reform -- The 12-Week Transformation Workout Plan: http://www.muscleandfitness.com/workouts/workout-routines/reform-90-day-transformation-program-every-man
  295. The Body Coach TV -- the "home" of Home Workouts: https://www.youtube.com/user/thebodycoach1/videos
  296. Heather Robertson's FREE 12 Week Workout Plan: https://www.youtube.com/user/heatherrobertsoncom/videos
  297. BeachBody workouts: https://www.beachbodyondemand.com/
  298. Olympic-grade Vaulting Boxes: http://www.janssen-fritsen.com/vaulting-boxes.html
  299. Plyometric Boxes Exercises: http://www.jumpusa.com/plyo_boxes.html
  300. Focus on Plyometrics Bootcamp: http://fitnessista.com/2011/10/focus-on-bootcamp-workouts/
  301. Plyometrics - Good, bad or indifferent: http://musclelondon.com/plyometrics-good-bad-or-indifferent/
  302. Powerful Jump Plyometrics that will knock your socks off!: http://fitjerk.com/powerful-plyometrics-training-that-will-knock-your-socks-off/
  303. Drop Jumps and Depth Jumps - Shock Yourself into high gear: http://www.higher-faster-sports.com/shockmethods.html
  304. Get UP! The Vertical Leap Workout Plan: http://www.leanitup.com/get-up-the-vertical-leap-workout-plam/
  305. Air Alert - The Vertical Jump program: http://ebookee.org/Air-Alert-The-Complete-Vertical-Jump-Program_1249179.html
  306. Defy Gravity with this Men's Health Plyometric Jump Workout: http://www.menshealth.com/fitness/defy-gravity
  307. Ways to Increase your Vertical Jump: http://www.criticalbench.com/increase-vertical-jump.htm
  308. Michael Jordan Vertical Jump Training with Jordan's Former Trainer: http://www.stack.com/2005/02/01/vertical-jump-training-with-michael-jordans-former-trainer/
  309. How to double your Vertical Jump: http://www.basketballforcoaches.com/vertical-jump/
  310. Top 15 Exercises for Vertical Jump improvement: http://www.defrancostraining.com/articles/38-articles/53-top-15-exercises-for-higher-vertical-jumps.html
  311. Dr. Natalia Verkhoshansky - DEPTH JUMP VS DROP JUMP: http://www.cvasps.com/depth-jump-vs-drop-jump-dr-natalia-verkhoshansky/
  312. Drop Jumps -- Performance diagnostics - Measurement of reactive power: http://translate.google.com/translate?sl=auto&tl=en&js=n&prev=_t&hl=en&ie=UTF-8&u=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.solutions-in-sports.de%2Fleistung2.html
  313. Vertical Jump tests: how to perform correctly the Bosco tests: http://marcocardinale.blogspot.ca/2008/11/vertical-jump-tests-how-to-perform.html
  314. Long Jump - Training Program: http://www.brianmac.co.uk/longjump/ljplan.htm
  315. Plyometrics Explained: http://volleyjump.wordpress.com/plyometrics/
  316. 13 Plyometric exercises in an easy to understand image format: http://www.fitnessforworld.com/physical_exercise/plyomatrics.htm
  317. Pictures of the most common Plyometric exercises: http://specialfighter.com/?p=409
  318. Is Plyometric Training Really That Effective?: http://sites.managerslogin.com/folder31531/index.cfm?id=166&fuseaction=browse&pageid=31
  319. FIFA 11+ Injury Prevention: http://arrowphysiotherapy.blogspot.ca/2012/04/fifa-11.html
  320. Kelly Baggett’s Vertical Jump Development Bible: http://msuathletics.ru/books/bible/vert_jump_bible.pdf
  321. The Effects of Arms and Countermovement on Vertical Jumping (STUDY/PAPER): http://www.asu.edu/courses/kin335tt/Labs/Linear%20Kinetics/Harman.pdf
  322. Power Play - Plyometrics for Runners: http://www.fitnessmagazine.com/workout/running/tips/plyometrics-exercises-runners/?sssdmh=dm17.761216&esrc=nwfitdailytip093014
  323. wikipedia: Continuous training
  324. wikipedia: Fartlek
  325. wikipedia: Hypoventilation training
  326. wikipedia: Street workout
  327. wikipedia: Outdoor fitness
  328. FitnessBlender -- free HIIT workouts: https://www.youtube.com/user/FitnessBlender/videos
  329. HIIT Me Up! History of HIIT Workout (INFOGRAPHIC): https://www.rubcorp.com/history-of-hiit/
  330. The Complete Guide to Interval Training (INFOGRAPHIC): https://greatist.com/fitness/complete-guide-interval-training-infographic-2#1
  331. The PERFECT 10 Minute HIIT Cardio Workout To Lose Fat (at Gym or Home): https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Jzgqjb16Oek
  332. Replace Treadmill With This 10 Min HIIT/CARDIO Workout: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=edIK5SZYMZo
  333. HIIT vs Cardio - Which is TRULY Better? (New Science Update): https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rhDRwU95Pbk
  334. High-Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) - The Benefits Of Interval Training: http://ca.askmen.com/sports/bodybuilding_100/135_fitness_tip.html
  335. Pilates Classic Mat Series 34 original Exercises: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL7B6F0E4A3673DDD7
  336. The First 10 Pilates Mat Exercises in detail and a full listing of movements in the Classical Pilates Workout: http://pilates.about.com/od/pilatesexercises/tp/First-10-Classic-Exercises.htm
  337. Origins of Pilates: http://www.pilates.com/BBAPP/V/pilates/origins-of-pilates.html
  338. Pilates official Studio Finder: https://www.pilates.com/BBAPP/V/community/studio-finder.html
  339. wikipedia: Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS machine)
  340. Pectoral Strain: http://www.physioadvisor.com.au/14703550/pectoral-strain-torn-pectoral-physioadvisor.htm
  341. All About Pectoralis Muscle Strains: http://www.coreperformance.com/knowledge/injury-pain/pectoralis-muscle-strain.html
  342. How to tell if a pectoral strain is grade 1 or grade 2: http://www.md-health.com/Pulled-Chest-Muscle.html
  343. Metatarsus adductus: http://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001601.htm (difference & relationship between pigeon/cleft toes, club foot, bow-legged lower limb alignment disorders)
  344. How to Improve Posture? Posture Exercises to Correct Bad Posture: https://bhls.wordpress.com/2011/06/15/how-to-improve-posture-posture-exercises-to-correct-bad-posture/
  345. You are as Old as Your Spine: http://sydneysystemablog.blogspot.ca/2013/06/you-are-as-old-as-your-spine.html
  346. Spinal Decompression Therapy: http://www.webmd.com/back-pain/guide/spinal-decompression-therapy-surgical-nonsurgical
  347. How to Stretch Your Back with this Spinal Decompression Exercise: http://www.bloomtofit.com/how-to-stretch-your-back-with-this-spinal-decompression-exercise
  348. Reverse Hyper (Restore and Increase Back Health): http://web.archive.org/web/20160317220948/http://louiesimmons.com/professional-health-care-reverse-hyper-restore-and-increase-back-health
  349. wikipedia: Human musculoskeletal system
  350. CDC on Physical Activity - Why strength training for all ages (including elderly)?: http://www.cdc.gov/physicalactivity/growingstronger/why/
  351. Breast cancer survivors reap benefits of weight training, study finds: http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/02/140213112620.htm
  352. Get Heart Healthy by Lifting Weights: http://www.mensfitness.com/training/get-heart-healthy-by-lifting-weights
  353. Seniors and Weightlifting - Never Too Late: http://consumer.healthday.com/encyclopedia/aging-1/misc-aging-news-10/seniors-and-weightlifting-never-too-late-647213.html
  354. Weight Training -- Your Best Friend When Fighting Depression!: http://www.bodybuilding.com/fun/fighting_depression.htm
  355. The Surprising Health Benefits of Lifting Heavy Weights: http://www.huffingtonpost.ca/lee-boyce/weight-lifting_b_4059302.html
  356. wikipedia: Delayed onset muscle soreness
  357. Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness (DOMS): http://saveyourself.ca/articles/delayed-onset-muscle-soreness.php
  358. DOMS - The Good, the Bad, and What It Really Means to Your Training: http://breakingmuscle.com/strength-conditioning/doms-the-good-the-bad-and-what-it-really-means-to-your-training
  359. What Causes delayed muscle soreness after exercise and tips for dealing with: http://sportsmedicine.about.com/cs/injuries/a/doms.htm
  360. wikipedia: Excess post-exercise oxygen consumption
  361. Highly Intensive Training (HIT): http://www.bodybuilding.com/teen/sean12.htm
  362. (HST): http://www.bodybuilding.com/fun/hst1.htm
  363. HIT vs HST: http://www.drdarden.com/readTopic.do;jsessionid=967D59F9884F38840EFB341AF063E1BD.hydra?id=398143
  364. History of HST: http://hypertrophyspecific.com/hst_index.html
  365. High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) - Best Cardio to Burn Fat: http://www.builtlean.com/2010/06/04/high-intensity-interval-training-hiit-best-cardio-to-burn-fat/ (Aerobic .vs. Anaerobic exercise efficiency OR Marathoners .vs. Sprinters)
  366. High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) .vs. Metabolic Resistance Training (MRT) -- What Does It All Mean?: http://mutusystem.com/high-intensity-interval-training-metabolic-resistance-training-what-does-it-mean.html
  367. HIT vs Periodization: http://www.bodybuilding.com/fun/mohr76.htm
  368. DC vs. 5x5 vs. HIT vs. Westside vs. Periodization: http://www.elitefitness.com/forum/weight-training-weight-lifting/dc-vs-5x5-vs-hit-vs-westside-vs-periodization-263275.html
  369. Bill Starr & Glenn Pendlay 5x5 Program -- Periodized Version for Advanced Lifters: http://madcow.wackyhq.com/geocities/5x5_Program/Periodized_5x5.htm
  370. Increase workout intensity with supersets: http://www.humankinetics.com/excerpts/excerpts/increase-workout-intensity-with-supersets
  371. The Health Benefits Of Weightlifting And The New Science That Supports Strength Building: http://www.forbes.com/sites/juliewilcox/2012/05/31/health-benefits-weightlifting/
  372. Do Supersets Result in Increased Strength Gains? Apparently so according to study: http://www.stack.com/2010/11/02/do-supersets-result-in-increased-strength-gains/
  373. The metabolic costs of reciprocal supersets vs. traditional resistance exercise in young recreationally active adults: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20300020
  374. Don’t Stop After the Squats - “Superset” Your Gym Routine: http://www.abqjournalfit.com/5797/blog/2012/01/12/dont-stop-after-the-squats-superset-your-gym-routine/
  375. Barbell Complexes: http://70sbig.com/blog/2011/09/barbell-complexes-2/
  376. The Metabolic Costs of Reciprocal Supersets vs. Traditional Resistance Exercise in Young Recreationally Active Adults (JOURNAL): http://journals.lww.com/nsca-jscr/Abstract/2010/04000/The_Metabolic_Costs_of_Reciprocal_Supersets_vs_.23.aspx
  377. Supersets For Growth!: http://www.bodybuilding.com/fun/andy2.htm
  378. What is a superset?: http://www.weighttraining.com/faq/what-is-a-superset
  379. What is a superset in weightlifting?: http://ca.answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20100111185107AAIUJK0
  380. How to Challenge your body with supersets: http://exercise.about.com/cs/weightlifting/a/supersets.htm
  381. Creative Drop Setting - 12 techniques for some of the most amazing muscle growth you've ever experienced: http://www.bodybuilding.com/fun/dropsets.htm
  382. Gain Greater Mass with Drop Sets: http://www.muscleandfitness.com/workouts/workout-routines/gain-greater-mass-drop-sets
  383. Metabolic Resistance Training (MRT) guide: http://www.bodybuilding.com/fun/metabolic-resistance-training-build-muscle-torch-fat.html
  384. 25-minute MRT Workout (BEGINNER): http://www.shape.com/sites/shape.com/files/u36/25-min_mrt_workout_chart-beg.pdf
  385. 25-minute MRT Workout (INTERMEDIATE): http://www.shape.com/sites/shape.com/files/u36/new_25-minute_mrt_workout-int-adv.pdf
  386. What is Metabolic Resistance Training?: http://www.mensfitness.com/training/endurance/metabolic-conditioning-the-key-to-better-performance
  387. Metabolic Resistance Training workout that burns tons of calories: http://www.builtlean.com/2010/04/30/metabolic-workout-that-burns-a-ton-of-calories/
  388. 5 characteristics of successful MRT program: http://www.ericcressey.com/5-characteristics-successful-metabolic-resistance-training-programs
  389. Lifting Heavy for Endurance Gains: http://www.outsideonline.com/fitness/bodywork/in-stride/Lifting-Heavy-For-Endurance-Gains.html
  390. Mixed maximal and explosive strength training in recreational endurance runners: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23860287
  391. How Steve Spence Earned (Olympic) Bronze in 1991: http://www.runnersworld.com/races/how-steve-spence-earned-bronze-1991
  392. Metabolic Resistance Training - The New Way to Burn Fat and Build Muscle: http://www.stack.com/2013/06/28/metabolic-resistance-training/
  393. Metabolic Circuit Training Workout: http://www.muscleandfitness.com/workouts/workout-routines/metabolic-circuit-training-workout
  394. Truth About Metabolic Resistance Training Workouts: http://www.earlytorise.com/metabolic-resistance/
  395. Metabolic Training 101 - Definition, Benefits, and Exercises: http://www.builtlean.com/2011/01/10/metabolic-training-101-definition-benefits-exercises/
  396. Periodization for Bodybuilders: http://www.bodybuilding.com/fun/keats2.htm
  397. DoggCrapp Weight Training Method: http://www.thepumpingstation.com/doggcrapp.html
  398. How to Build 50 Pounds of Muscle in 12 Months: http://www.t-nation.com/free_online_article/sports_body_training_performance/how_to_build_50_pounds_of_muscle_in_12_months
  399. DoggCrapp (DC) Training Overview: http://www.criticalbench.com/doggcrapp-dc-training.htm
  400. DoggCrapp training -- A BodyBuilding Program: http://www.jcdfitness.com/2008/12/doggcrapp-training-a-bodybuilding-program/
  401. DoggCrapp (DC) Training - What Is The Best Doggcrapp Workout?: http://www.bodybuilding.com/fun/wotw53.htm
  402. : http://muscleandbrawn.com/a-concise-guide-to-doggcrapp-training/
  403. HardGainer (HG) Training Guide: http://www.timinvermont.com/fitness/faq06.htm
  404. Hardgainer's Guide To Muscle Building: http://www.bodybuilding.com/fun/hardgainers-guide-to-muscle-building.htm
  405. StrongLifts 5x5: http://www.stronglifts.com/
  406. StrongLifts 5x5 summary: http://hardgainernomore.blogspot.ca/p/sl-5x5-workout.html
  407. Starting Strength 3x5: http://startingstrength.com/
  408. Starting Strength Program Summary: