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Apple's iOS - platform logo

iPhone OS (commonly abbreviated as iOS) is Apple's Mobile OS for its successful line of "i" consumer electronics products (iPhone/iPad/iPod).



OS Versions



iOS 1 was not released to the public and had no known "named" release version, merely it was the first iteration of iOS before they actually launched the first iPhone with iOS 2.
















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iPad OS

AS of version 13.0 of iOS a split was made between regular iOS designed primarily for Apple's Mobile phone & "iPod Touch" product lines, and, Apple's iPad tablet product lines. The result was a separate iPadOS v13.0 and separate iOS 13.0, making iOS 12.0 the last version that runs on iPads with support from Apple.


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iPhone 1

iPhone 2

iPhone 3G

iPhone 3GS

iPhone 4

iPhone 5

iPhone 5S
iPhone (5) SE

iPhone 6

iPhone 6S

iPhone 7

iPhone 8

iPhone 8 plus



XS with additional eXtended Reality (XR) features such as AR/VR/3D display/graphics.

iPhone 11

iPhone 11 pro
iPhone 11 pro max




Apple Watch

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Universal Links

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App Tracking Transparency

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UI Kit




Voice Memos





ML Kit

AI Kit

Image Recognition

Audio Recognition






AR Kit



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Video Calling



Screen Recording




Sign In With Apple

Apple Wallet

Apple Pay

In-App Purchasing

Apple GamePass

Apple Arcade



Shared Web Credentials

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Step/Activity Tracker

Sleep Tracker

Screen Time tracker

Dark Mode


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iOS Playgrounds

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Like just about any consumer/commercial device operating system sold or marketed in modern times, several applications come pre-installed with iOS. These will be listed below.

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Aplpications which come pre-installed as part of a specific release of iOS by default (included in iOS download size, and, usually can't be removed by the end-user without Unlocking and/or Jailbreaking your device).


Voice Recognition for identity and security as well as Speech Recognition for hands-free/voice-controlled operation of your iOS device. Examples of Siri commands:

  1. "Siri, Search the web for ___SOMETHING___" - search for something on the web (opens Safari) via your default Search Engine
  2. "Siri, Search ___WEBSITE/SEARCHENGINE___ for ___SOMETHING___" - search for something on a specific webite (opens Safari) via your default Search Engine
  3. "Siri, Search for images of ___SOMETHING___" - search for images of something on the web (opens Safari) via your default Search Engine
  4. "Siri, Tweet ___MESSAGE___" - tweet a message to the Twitter web service/website (you can also ask things like "What’s trending on Twitter" or "Search Twitter for ___SOMETHING___")
  5. "Siri, Post on Facebook ___MESSAGE___" - send a Wall Post to Facebook webservice/website (
  6. "Siri, Turn on/off ___SETTINGS___" - Change Phone Settings (including: Airplane Mode, Do Not Disturb, WiFi, Bluetooth, 3G/4G, Roaming, Flashlight, LBS, Show Privacy Settings, etc)
  7. "Siri, what's the weather tomorrow?" - get the weather forecast for tomorrow
  8. "Siri, open ___APPLICATION___" - open a specific application, by name (could be more specific i.e. "Facetime ___CONTACT___")
  9. "Siri, Read my new messages" - reads out your new Emails, Texts, plays Voicemails, lists missed calls, etc
  10. "Siri, Read my notifications" - reads out your iOS notifications from installed apps who have access to send Notifications
  11. "Siri, show-me/where-is ___LOCATION___" - open the default "Maps" application to a specific address (location could be input as "my current location", a notable landmark i.e. "" or full address i.e. "123 Main st, City, State Country")
  12. "Siri, Directions to ___LOCATION___ - same as above except the "Maps" application will be opened with direction from your current location to the specified location (current location could then be overridden by instead saying "Show me Directions from X to y")
  13. "Find ___LOCATION___ near me" - find a Local Business, Landmark, Service Provider or Government Facility near your current location
  14. "Siri, where is ___CONTACT___" - tries to find a person using their last known LBS geo-location (only works for those who also have an iOS device with Geo-Location services turned on); could be made more specific such as "where is my wife?"
  15. "Siri, call ___CONTACT___" - tries to match against a person in your contact book to phone (may prompt you to pick from a sub-list if multiple possible matches)
  16. "Siri, Send a message to ___CONTACT___" - tries to match against a person in your contact book to send SMS text message to (may prompt you to pick from a sub-list if multiple possible matches)
  17. "Siri, Reply ___MESSAGE___" - replies to an already open discussion thread (whether by Email if in the "Email" app or SMS if in the "Messages" app)
  18. "Siri, Meet with ___CONTACT___ at ___TIME___" - schedules a meeting and calendar entry at the specified time, with a person matched in your address book
  19. "Siri, What’s on my calendar ___TIME___" - reads out what you have lined up in terms of calendar entries for a given day (could be input as a date, or "today", "tomorrow", etc)
  20. Remind me to ___SOMETHING___ at ___TIME___ - Time-based or Lcoation-based reminders
  21. "Wake me up ___TIME___" - sets an Alarm for the specific time (could be input as an exact date/time i.e. "March 20th, 2015 at 6:00am" or "tomorrow at 7am")
  22. "What time is it ___LOCATION___?" - check the timezone different at the given point in time (leaving the location part blank would just give you your current timezone's exact time)
  23. "Siri, set a Timer for ___TIME___" - sets a countdown timer and starts it, great for timing workouts/exercises or other tasks (time can be input as seconds, minutes, hours, etc)
  24. "Siri, start/stop the Stopwatch" - starts off a stopwatch-style timer counting upwards until told to stop, useful for timing how long a task takes
  25. "Siri, Play ___SONG___ music/playlist" - plays the specified music or playlist (song could be input as the name of an Artist, Album, Song or Saved Playlist in your iPod/iTunes-MusicPlayer library)
  26. "Siri, How is the stock market doing today?" - get information about the stock market (or about specific stocks using the form "What is ___COMPANY___'s stock price?" or indexes using the form "What is the ___STOCKINDEX___ at" where stock index is something like Dow, Nasdaq, TSX, etc)
  27. "Siri, What movies are coming out this weekend?" - get information on Movie Showtimes/Listings in your area (you can also get more specific, such as “What are the best movies playing right now?”, “What action movies are playing”, “Show me reviews/ratings/trailer of the movie ___MOVIE___”)
  28. "Siri, Show me restaurant information for ___RESTAURANT___" - get reviews/ratings/menus/reservations for specific restaurants (asking “Show me good seafood restaurants near me” would give a list of restaurants while “I need a reservation tonight at ___RESTAURANT___ ___TIME___” would actually attempt to book a reservation or call the restaurant)
  29. "Siri, definition/synonyms/antonyms of ___WORD___" - looks up the definition, synonyms or antonyms of a word
  30. "Siri, What is the nutritional information for ___FOOD___" - looks up a product, food or generic recipe by name and tries to display its Nutritional contents
  31. "Siri, What is ___SOMETHING___?" - tries to define or summarize a specific term or concept
  32. "Siri, How many ___UNIT#1___ are in ___UNIT#2___?" - unit conversion between two unit types (i.e. "How many degrees are in 3 radians?")


Keychain Services


FaceID is a facial recognition system, designed and released by Apple Inc. and is included in the iPhone X.


TouchID is a Biometric security feature which uses your fingerprint to sign you into your iOS device (and unlock the screen when it is locked). According to Apple: "Your fingerprint is the perfect password. You always have it with you. And no one can ever guess what it is. Our breakthrough Touch ID technology uses a unique fingerprint identity sensor to make unlocking your phone easy and secure." As of iOS 8, TouchID is extended to 3rd-party developers to use as a valid sign-in method.



Passbook is a centralized "digital wallet" for storing tickets, boarding passes, membership cards, coupons, rewards/loyalty cards & credit/debit cards in a common format for quick reference and portability (without needing to bring physical print-outs or cards everywhere). It can be useful for quickly pulling up membership information and IDs, but has had issues in the past and thus Credit/Debit Card storage here may not be wise in terms of preventing Identity Theft or Illegal Access to Personal Funds.


HealthKit allows apps that provide health and fitness services to share their data with the new Health app and with each other. A user’s health information is stored in a centralized and secure location and the user decides which data should be shared with your app


HomeKit is a framework for controlling supported devices in your home by creating actions or using pre-developed actions, grouping actions together, and triggering them using Siri (or typical touch/swipe gestures). This means with HomeKit you could use your voice to turn on lights, adjust the thermostat, open/close your garage door, water your plants, lock your doors, control your SmartTV or Home Theater, and potentially many other devices/usages (for those 3rd-party device app developers that follow Apple's HomeKit protocol and integrate with its API).

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Find My iPhone is an LBS and Telemetry service to locate, lock and or fully deactivate an iOS device (iPhone, iPod, iPsd, iWatch, etc). Later, inspired by Japanese mobile app "Ima-hima" (now I'm free/not-busy) which was a long-running service in Japan's early mobile ecosystem, Apple released a similar tool for finding friends (but it depended on them owning an iOS device that could be located similarly to "Find My iPhone").


Podcasting client to receive podcasts (audio blogs or "episodes") and/or vodcasts (video blogs or "episodes").


Video Chat application designed to compete with Microsoft's purchased Skype service.


Allows you to use your iPhone (or other iOS device) as a remote control for a PC's iTunes desktop application, or, another Apple Device you've paired such as AppleTV, docked iPad, Macbook, etc.


Development Concepts








Prepare for app distribution: (BundleID significance of using a "reverse DNS" domain name you actually own)

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[122][123] [124] [125]

[156] (relevant to both SwiftUI/Storyboard)

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External Links


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  1. The History of iOS, from Version 1.0 to 11.0:
  2. iOS 10 complete overview:
  3. The best iOS 12 features:
  4. iOS 13 features:
  5. :
  6. iOS 14 features:
  7. Why is iOS 14 so bad?:
  8. The New Look of iOS 15 -- Apple is shifting its UI design after a decade of the same look:
  9. Will iOS 15 & "iPadOS" 15 Run on my iPhone or iPad?:
  10. WWDC 2021 -- Everything new in iOS 15:
  11. Use these 8 new iOS 15 privacy and security features right away:
  12. Will iOS 16 and iPadOS 16 Run on My iPhone or iPad?:
  13. What’s New in iOS 16 for iPhone:
  14. 10 Hidden iOS 16 Features You Might Have Missed:
  15. wikipedia: watchOS
  16. WatchOS 4.0 - what we know so far:
  17. watchOS 5 adds powerful activity and communications features to Apple Watch :
  18. watchOS 7 adds significant personalization, health, and fitness features to Apple Watch :
  19. WatchOS 8.0 - Everything we know:
  20. What’s New in watchOS 9:
  21. What WatchOS 9 Says About the Apple Watch's Future:
  22. wikipedia: Apple Watch
  23. Should You Enable Fall Detection on Your Apple Watch?:
  24. What Is An AASA (apple-app-site-association) File?:
  25. Next Generation "Robots.txt (for mobile)" -- Apple App-Site-Association:
  26. How to link to apps on the app store:
  27. “apple-app-site-association” file examples (from WWDC):
  28. App store link for “rate/review this app”:
  29. Apple iOS dev docs -- Creating easy-to-read short links to the App Store for your apps and company:
  30. Add an Apple App Site Association (AASA) to your Wix, Squarespace or whatever website, using Cloudflare Workers:
  31. How to upload file apple-app-site-association for universal linking in server for iOS app?:
  32. Apple Dev Docs -- iOS - System-Declared Uniform Type Identifiers:
  33. Introduction to Uniform Type Identifiers Overview:
  34. Apple iOS user docs -- Universal Links:
  35. Universal links in iOS (step-by-step guide):
  36. WWDC 2019 - What's New in Universal Links:
  37. WWDC 2020 - What's New in Universal Links:
  38. How to Set Up iOS 9 Universal Links (Deep Linking) for Your App:
  39. Universal deeplinks do not open the app the first time they are tried:
  40. The things I hate (and you should know) about Apple Universal Links:
  41. Troubleshooting Universal Links:
  42. Universal links (direct links for iOS):
  43. Apple Dev docs -- iOS - "applinks": (root object for a universal links service definition) (root object for a universal links service definition)
  44. Universal Type Identifiers Tutorial for iOS - Importing and Exporting App Data:
  45. Apple Dev docs -- iOS - Supporting associated domains:
  46. Apple iOS 14.5 update includes ‘app tracking transparency’ feature:
  47. What is App Tracking Transparency and how do you block app tracking?:
  48. Apple’s App Tracking Transparency feature has arrived — here’s what you need to know:
  49. To Be Tracked or Not? Apple Is Now Giving Us the Choice:
  50. How to use iOS 14.5’s new app tracking blocker:
  51. Control personalized ads on the App Store, Apple News, and Stocks:
  52. WWDC -- 2021 - Create custom audio experiences with ShazamKit: (music/audio matching algorithm... to identify what song or type of sound it is)
  53. Apple docs -- User Privacy on iOS and OS X - Apple Inc.:
  54. A growing number of iOS apps collect and sell location data:
  55. How to clear Analytics Data from the iPhone without sending to Apple ?:
  56. I asked Apple for all my data. Here's what was sent back: | Apple Data Collection - Schema
  57. Managing Shared Credentials:
  58. Shared Web Credentials guide:
  59. What Is Focus Mode on iPhone and How to Use It?:
  60. How to use iOS 15’s new Focus modes:
  61. How to print to console using swift playground?:
  62. Coding in Swift Playgrounds (walkthrough):
  63. How to Install Older Versions of iOS Apps on an Old iPhone or iPad:
  64. Steve Jobs Was Originally Dead Set Against Third-Party Apps for the iPhone: | VIDEO
  65. How to Use Siri – Full list of Siri Commands for iPhone, iPad, Video:
  66. 20 Siri tips that'll make your life easier:
  67. Secret Siri commands - Twelve cool questions you can ask right now!:
  68. 15 Siri commands you need to try:
  69. 100 Funny Siri Commands:
  70. Which iPhones Have Touch ID?:
  71. How to make the most of Apple's HealthKit in iOS 8 with compatible apps and accessories:
  72. How Long Did I Sleep Last Night? Using Cordova, HealthKit, and JavaScript, and a Handful of Promises:
  73. What is HomeKit? Soon you'll control your home with your iPhone:
  74. Apple HomeKit release date rumors:
  75. HomeKit Explained (out starting with iOS8):
  76. Yes, Apple TV will be a (if not THE) HomeKit hub:
  77. Home App and HomeKit for iPhone, iWatch with iOS 10:
  78. Info.plist Reference for Xamarin.iOS:
  79. How to disable word-wrap in Xcode 4 editor?: (Go to Xcode Preferences -> Text Editing -> Indentation then deselect the Line wrapping setting)
  80. TestFlight - ScreenCast/recording of configuring & using the app:
  81. Largest iOS Jailbreak App Stores Become One After Cydia Acquires Rock:
  82. Xcode13 - Legacy Build System deprecated, unable to install to device with New Build System:
  83. Legacy iOS Jailbreaking (iPhone, iPad, iPod touch, Apple TV):
  84. iOS 8 Adoption Rate Jumps 68% For iOS devices:
  85. Enterprises need to get smart about iOS security:
  86. Complete List of iOS User-Agent Strings:
  87. Safari 11 on iOS 11:
  88. Apple ID does not have permission to access iTunes Connect:
  89. How to reassign "legal" permission in iTunesConnect:
  90. iOS Universal Links for a Seamless App User Experience: (example on how to omit specific paths from App association)
  91. How to Set Up iOS 9+ Universal Links (Deeplinking) for Your App:
  92. What Is An AASA (apple-app-site-association) File?:
  93. Setting up iOS Universal Links:
  94. Support Universal Links:
  95. How to support Universal Links in iOS App and setup server for it?:
  96. How to upload file apple-app-site-association for universal linking in server for iOS app?:
  97. Jailbreak and Unlock iPhone, iPod touch, and iPad for Dummies:
  98. Let's Talk Jailbreak podcast:
  99. Older iOS 6 SHSH Blobs Saved in Cydia Have Become Unusable:
  100. Bell Mobility - Phone Model support lookups:
  101. Bell Mobility - iPhone 3GS support page:
  102. iPhone 5S:
  103. iPhone 6:
  104. Appium -- XCUITest Driver for iOS: | SRC
  105. Five XCUITest Best Practices:
  106. The Basics of XCUITest and Using Xcode UI Test Recorder:
  107. Preparing XCUITest Tests for Upload:
  108. Getting started with XCUITest framework for testing iOS apps:
  109. XCUITest Tutorial – iOS Testing Framework Guide:
  110. How Quickly Will Users Upgrade to iOS 14.5 with IDFA-limiting App Tracking Transparency?:
  111. How to Use Your iPhone or iPad as an Apple TV Remote:
  112. How to Create a Provisioning Profile for iPhone:
  113. Export signing certificates and provisioning profiles:
  114. How to build Xcode project from the command line?:
  115. Xcode “Build and Archive” from command line:
  116. Build in xcode via terminal, using the “build for profiler” settings:
  117. How to compile an iOS project from command line:
  118. Build/run iOS Xcode project from Terminal:
  119. How to make a command line tool in Xcode:
  120. Build and Run an xcode project via terminal (Command Line Tool):
  121. Use xcodebuild to build workspace vs project:
  122. iOS Code Signing & Provisioning in a Nutshell:
  123. Generating an Apple iOS certificate using Windows:
  124. What is a provisioning profile & code signing in iOS?:
  125. Re-Signing an iOS App Without Xcode:
  126. iOS -- Step 4 - How to Create a Distribution Certificate
  127. How do I Create a Distribution Profile for iOS?:
  128. 4 Ways/Methods to install ipa file (app) on iPhone / iPad / iPod Online + offline methods:
  129. iOS 6.1.3 - Worth Upgrading?:
  130. iOS/Safari, just Safari, or non-Safari:
  131. jQuery Detect Mobile Devices – iPhone iPod iPad:
  132. Simple way to identify iOS user agent in a jQuery if/then statement?:
  133. Determine if user navigated from mobile Safari:
  134. Is there a css hack for safari only NOT chrome?:
  135. CSS Hacks for Safari 6.1, 7, 8, 9 and 10 (Not Chrome!):
  136. Apply some CSS styles only in the Safari browser:
  137. CSS hack for Safari ONLY:
  138. Mobile Safari on iPhone/iPod CSS hack:
  139. Scrolling your website past the iPhone X’s notch:
  140. initial-scale=1 makes Safari iOS react to orientation change:
  141. Using the viewport meta tag to control layout on mobile browsers:
  142. viewport device-width -- incorrect width / large font in Safari landscape (correct on Chrome):
  143. Disable pinch/zoom in WebKit (or electron) via JS:
  144. Can-I-Use -- user-select: none:
  145. Does UIWebView send the same User-Agent in the Request Headers as mobile Safari?:
  146. Understanding ITMS-90809 -- UIWebView API Deprecation - iOS removes legacy WebView engine (replaced by WebKit's 'WKWebView'):
  147. How to find UIWebView uses in your iOS app:
  148. Change User Agent in UIWebView:
  149. WKWebView UserAgent changes on iPad: | VIDEO
  150. Correctly Form User-Agents for Webview Apps:
  151. Difference between WKWebView and Safari?:
  152. Set useragent in WKWebview:
  153. WebViewGetUserAgent1.m (Objective-C example):
  154. Intercept request with WKWebView:
  155. Responsive iframes on iOS do not size correctly (workaround included):
  156. Android developer trying to play with this thing called iOS:
  157. List of all iOS (Swift) Components:
  158. Apple docs -- iOS UI Kit - UITextView:
  159. UIPickerView:
  160. Swift/iOS equivalent of spinner in Android?:
  161. Pickers in SwiftUI with State & Form — How to use PickerViews In SwiftUI:
  162. Pickers in forms:
  163. AppCoda's coverage of AutoLayout has some additional details to the useful RayWenderlich tutorial:
  164. A Concise Guide to Remote Debugging on iOS, Android, and Windows Phone:
  165. Some random iPhone (debugging) stuff:
  166. Table of Contents -- iOS Emulator (Simulator) in xCode:
  167. Run an app on a device:
  168. iOS simulator only list the latest iOS version. How can I set earlier versions:
  169. Getting Started in Simulator:
  170. iOS simulator only list the latest iOS version. How can I set earlier versions:
  171. iOS 5 simulator:
  172. Xcode/Simulator -- How to run older iOS version?:
  173. Launch the iOS simulator:
  174. Use Xcode's IOS Simulator to Test Mobile Websites:
  175. iOS Simulator on Steroids -- Tips & Tricks in Xcode 9:
  176. How do I run an iPad Simulator in Xcode?:
  177. Xcode 9 - no iOS 11 simulator:
  178. How do I change the iOS version for the Simulator?:
  179. Testing web pages with Xcode's iOS Emulator/Simulator:
  180. Can I start the iPhone simulator without “Build and Run”?:
  181. ios simulator: how to close an app: (CMD+Shift+H+H to simulate a double press to go to home)
  182. iOS vs Android app architecture similarities:
  183. iOS Storyboards in Xcode - The Ultimate Guide:
  184. Apple ID - Frequently asked questions about two-step verification for Apple ID:
  185. What you need to know about iOS 9:
  186. Apple Pay gets stronger amid Passbook change to 'Wallet':
  187. 8 Tips for Saving Battery Life on Your iPhone:
  188. Apple -- real-money gambling apps must now be iOS native:
  189. How Casino Apps Stay Compliant:
  190. Dissecting Apple’s updated HTML5 App Store guidelines:
  191. Apple Guideline 4.7 -- What does it mean?:
  192. Numerous Apps Caught up in Apple's New App Store Review Policy to Ban Gambling-Related Apps:
  193. Compliance with Apple policy -- "3.3.2 An Application may not download or install executable code.":
  194. ReactNative WebView -- iOS Deprecated API Usage Warning:
  195. After Removing UIWebView (ITMS-90809):
  196. Flutter -- How to fix ITMS-90809 - Deprecated API Usage, Apple will stop accepting submissions of apps that use UIWebView APIs:
  197. iOS developers file class-action against Apple over ‘profit killing’ App Store practices:
  198. Apple tweaks its App Store algorithm as antitrust investigations loom:
  199. Apple iOS 13 makes it harder for app makers to track location data:
  200. App Analytics Shared with Developers - Our Take On iOS Privacy Permissions:
  201. Chinese Firm to Operate China iCloud Accounts:
  202. Apple defends complying with China over VPNs:

See Also

Apple | iPhone | iPad | iPod | iTunes | Swift/Objective-C | Mac | Mobile OS | Mobile App | Mobile Web | Safari