Internet of Things

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The Internet of Things is an all-encompassing concept of technology becoming pervasive or ubiquitous in the world, to the point that nearly every object is connected via network to every other object.









[4] [5] [6][7]

What Things?

The following are systems, appliances and electronics which are commonly discussed as being included in the Internet of Things for automation and/or remote access purposes:


  • Thermostat (air temperature regulation)
  • Heater (furnace)
  • Air Conditioner/coolant (portable, mini-split or central)
  • Forced Air Heat Pump (portable, mini-split or central)

Air Quality

  • Dehumidifier
  • Air Filter
  • Air Exchanger
  • Air Re-Circulation System


  • Lighting Switches
  • Sound Detectors (i.e. modern version of The Clapper[8][9])
  • Motion Detectors
  • Dimmer
  • Timer (i.e. scheduled on/off times such as for Christmas or Festive lights)


  • Washing Machine
  • Dryer
  • Dishwasher
  • Sink
  • Shower & Bath Tub (water level / temperature)
  • Toilet


  • Refrigerator
  • Freezer
  • Wine Cooler
  • Microwave
  • Oven
  • Toaster


  • Home Entertainment System
  • Surveillance System (CCTV/security cameras)
  • Security/Alarm System
  • Circuit-Breaker/SmartMeter controller (overall power regulation & usage monitoring/patterns)


  • Vital Signs
  • Geo-location[10]
  • Activity (i.e. physical exercise, "outdoor time", work .vs. home "ToDos", errands and other things needing to be done)
  • "Screen-time"
  • Sleep
  • Schedule (i.e. planned Events, and places needing to go during a certain time-frame)
  • Mood



SmartHome is the term commonly used to define a residence that has appliances, lighting, heating, air conditioning, TVs, computers, entertainment audio & video systems, security, and camera systems that are capable of communicating with one another and can be controlled remotely by a time schedule, from any room in the home, as well as remotely from any location in the world by phone or internet.

Installation of smart products give the home and its occupants various benefits — the same benefits that technology and personal computing have brought to us over the past 30 years — convenience and savings of time, money and energy.

[12] [13] [14] [15] [16] [17] [18] [19] [20] [21] [22] [23] [24] [25]

Home Automation

Home Automation is an integrated approach to remote and/or automatic management of a home's digital appliances, ranging from everyday usage appliances such as Refrigeration systems, Alarm Systems, Heating Systems or Air Conditioners, to occasional use appliances such as Toasters, Microwaves, Washers and Dryers, and from everyday usage electronics such as Personal Computers, Telephone Systems or Televisions to occasional usage electronics such as Home Theatre Systems, Video Game Systems or Stereos.

[30][31] [32]


Open Home Automation Bus (OpenHAB) is an OSS SmartHome that consists of the following key concepts:

  1. UIs
  2. Sitemaps
  3. Things
  4. Items
  5. Rules
  6. Actions

[34] [35] [36] [37] [38] [39] [40] [41] [42] [43] [44] [45] [46]

[47] [48] [49] [50]



SmartLocks offer keyless entry, sense-based entry, keypad/keycode entry or other similar digital/electronic/signal-based mechanisms for deciding when to open or close a given lock.

[60][61][62][63] [64]


[65] [66] [67] | MANUAL[68] [69] [70] | FAQ | IFTTT[71] [72] [73] [74] [75] [76] [77] [78] [79] [80] [81] [82] [83]


Air Quality monitor



[95] [96] [97] [98]


[100] [101] [102] [103] [104] [105] [106]


[108] [109] [110]


[112] [113] [114] [115]


[116] [117]


See: SmartTV

Smart Buildings

Smart Buildings (also Smart Enterprise) is all about the efficient integration of the traditionally separate systems required to run a building or network of buildings. Integration in a Smart Building begins with a common IT backbone or infrastructure; the majority of buildings utilize separate and usually proprietary systems that have their own controls, protocol, cabling, and HMI. In this regard open source or at least proprietary with external facing APIs or Web Services is a requirement to make the interoperability of building functions possible. Once individual building systems are integrated onto one network they can be monitored and controlled by a single interface, accessible via a secure Web browser (i.e. Desktop/native Application, Web Application, Dashboard or Portal) for unlimited user access. Additional use of a network operating center (NOC) allows for 24/7 monitoring and control of an unlimited number of equipment, systems, and buildings by personnel with the proper training and skill set.

[118] [119]

Smart Data Center

A "Smart" Data Center differs from a typical data center in that it primarily concerned with Power Usage Effectiveness (PUE)[120], namely, how much computing power can it offer for a given amount of energy input. Cost-savings calculations are done by multiplying PUE by kWh and Utilization Rate (as a % of throughput the hosted applications get):

PUE x kWh x Utilization Rate

For example, if a Data Center has a PUE rating of 1.4 and 1 kilowatt (kW) of load consumes 722 kilowatt-hours (kWh) per month with 80% utilization of the hosted apps, then there is a $8.09/kW savings per month (1.4 * 722 * 0.8 = 809).[121].

Smart City

A Smart City (also smarter city) uses digital technologies to enhance performance and wellbeing, to reduce costs and resource consumption, and to engage more effectively and actively with its citizens. Key 'smart' sectors include transport, energy, health care, water and waste. A smart city should be able to respond faster to city and global challenges than one with a simple 'transactional' relationship with its citizens. Interest in smart cities is motivated by major challenges, including climate change, economic restructuring, the move to online retail and entertainment, ageing populations, and pressures on public finances.

[122] [123] [124] [125] [126]

Smart Dust

The perhaps border-line terrifying and dystopic "Smart Dust" concept is that small sensors, transmitters, receivers, and/or transceivers could be mass manufactured for various purposes, primarily tracking & surveillance of everything within a given "Smart City".

Smart Utilities

For more info see: SmartGrid

Smart Environment

A Smart Environment is a network of sensor nodes and/or monitoring tools, equipment and management software for a part of the world's natural resources and environment.

A prime example of this is the Neil Young-backed project to hookup a network of Solar Panel-powered old cellphones which monitor the status of the rainforest to detect sounds such as chainsaws, tractors (illegal logging/clear-cutting activity prevention) or gunshots, traps and irregular herd stampeding-type movements (illegal hunting/poaching activity prevention).[127][128][129]


Smart Agriculture

"Smart Agriculture" is the use of technologies such as plant monitoring (soil pH/acidity/alkalinity, nutrient levels, moisture, rooting rate, etc) and various automations such as automated watering, positioning & rotating (relative to heat/light/water sources for indoor agriculture, hydroponics, etc), picking/harvesting (based on optimal timing for freshness/ripeness), cleaning and possibly even packaging for transport.

[131] [132]

Smart Items

Pretty much any other type of thing could be made somewhat "Smart" by having a sensor and/or networking capabilties added to it. One of the cheapest wayd to do this (on a per item basis) is with RFID or NFC tags. Another similar, but more "consumer-friendly" way is with trackers



[133] [134] [135] [136]


[137] [138] [139] [140] [141]

Self-Driving Car

Smart People

Smart People is about taking metrics to aid in decision making in personal health and also to enable new levels of creativity and personal time recovery through automation of tasks.



If This Then That (IFTTT) is a service which enables users to wire together things like devices, webapps, apps, files using a very basic [Rule Engine] which can only do IF x THEN DO y.



A competitor to IFTTT, Stringify allows more complex rules and integration options than simple IF this THEN that. So for instance you could chain or nest many IF statements, or, you could have composite rules such as IF this but NOT this happens, then do these multiple things.

Microsoft Flow

Yahoo! Pipes


SnApp Stores

According to the Ubuntu site: "Snappy Ubuntu Core is a new rendition of Ubuntu with transactional updates - a minimal server image with the same libraries as today’s Ubuntu, but applications are provided through a simpler mechanism. The snappy approach is faster, more reliable, and lets us provide stronger security guarantees for apps and users".


OpenRemote aims to "create meaningful connections, turning your data into Smart Applications.




Corporate IoT pages


Using MQTT for IoT:

External Links

[205] [206]


  1. What Is “Project Connected Home Over IP” for Smart Homes?:
  2. Matter’s plan to save the smart home:
  3. What Is Amazon Sidewalk, and Should You Disable It?:
  4. "WebXR" meets the "Web of Things":
  5. Bring JavaScript to the Internet of Things -- From Embedded Device to Smart Gateway:
  6. Empowering User Privacy and Decentralizing IoT with Mozilla WebThings:
  7. WebThings Gateway for Wireless Routers:
  8. How the Clapper Works:
  9. wikipedia: The Clapper
  10. Why Location Throttling Will Become The New Ad Blocking:
  11. Your IoT Devices Can Be Hacked - Here’s What We Should Do About It:
  12. Smart Home:
  13. Tesla-Panasonic's solar deal could signal SmartHome future:
  14. How to measure Square Footage:
  15. Amazon's "SmartHome" gadget overload is too much for anyone to soak in:
  16. 35% of large-scale home builders in new survey install (SmartHome-enabling"whole-home network" as standard:
  17. Dumbass Home 2.0 -- Internet of Things. How to Automate Your Flat Today:
  18. Internet of Things - The rise of the smart light bulb:
  19. How to Control All Your Smart Home Devices in One App:
  20. How to Control Your Smart Home from the Android Quick Settings:
  21. Google Actions:
  22. Google Actions -- Create a "Smart Home" Action:
  23. Actions directory:
  24. Sample Actions:
  25. Build Google Action for HOME:
  26. Amazon, Apple and Google team up to break home tech barriers:
  27. Apple, Google, and Amazon are teaming up to develop an open-source smart home standard:
  28. Apple, Amazon, and Google team up to make your smart home suck less:
  29. Amazon, Apple, Google, and the Zigbee Alliance and Its Board Members Form Industry Working Group to Develop a New, Open Standard for Smart Home Device Connectivity:
  30. Best SmartHome Gadgets 2016:,review-2008.html
  31. Best smart home devices of 2016 -- From smart locks to smart lights, tech has finally come home.:
  32. IoT server installation and setup via Ansible:
  33. OpenHAB configuration: (grid with list of config options)
  34. Access OpenHAB on mobile iOS & Android:
  35. OpenHAB -- Usecase Examples:
  36. OpenHAB server setup:
  37. OpenHAB installation on Linux:
  38. OpenHAB installation on Raspberry Pi:
  39. Philips Hue binding: | [ EXAMPLE]
  40. Ecobee binding: | EXAMPLE
  41. MQTT binding:
  42. Designing the brain of the Home of the Future with Grant Imahara:
  43. OpenHAB Conference Talks:
  44. OpenHAB 2.x - Home Automation - tutorial: (BK-Hobby)
  45. OpenHAB 2.x - complete guide: (MK-SmartHouse)
  46. Setup OpenHAB 2.x Configuration Files & Interfaces: (part of MK-SmartHouse series)
  47. (SOLVED) Raspbian doesn't detect my wifi:
  48. Ethernet and WiFi Setting:
  49. Rebooting the Raspberry Pi when it loses wireless connection (via automated script): (provides a "" script example)
  50. WiFi detector -- monitor for when someone comes within your WiFi range:
  51. VSCode IDE workspace to your Raspberry PI running OpenHABIAN step-by-step (VIDEO): (spot in the 2nd video in the BK Guides OPenHAB series where it walks through VS Code's OpenHAB settings)
  52. The Ultimate List Of Burglar Deterrents:
  53. Virtual Locks API: (for Developers thinking about integrating to the platform)
  54. Here's Your Smart Lock of the Future, Today (2013):
  55. August SmartLock Review 2016:
  56. August Home Adds IFTTT Integration to Smart Lock:
  57. wikipedia: Kwikset
  58. Goji -- Here's Your Semi-Perfect Camera-Equipped Smart Lock (DEFUNCT/BANKRUPT):
  59. wikipedia: UniKey
  60. SmartLock side-by-side comparisons:
  61. The Current State of Smart Locks:
  62. Security Shortcomings Could Slow IoT Adoption:
  63. 5 Best Smart Locks for Your Home:
  64. The Best Smart Locks of 2022:
  65. Ecobee 3 in-depth Review:
  66. Ecobee - YouTube channel:
  67. Remote sensors. The smarter solution:
  68. Ecobee3:
  69. 7-Day Smarter Wi-Fi Programmable Thermostat with Remote Sensor, HomeKit Enabled:
  70. Amazon - ecobee3:
  71. Using the ecobee 3 with IFTTT: | RECIPE - If very cold, heat extra to prevent frozen pipes
  72. ecobee3 is an Amazing Thermostat - 5 stars:
  73. ecobee3 Room Sensors #FAIL: (can't do zoning - to have different temperatures in different rooms - that well)
  74. Combating Solar Gain With An ecobee3:
  75. Ecobee3 Thermostat Review:,review-2708.html
  76. ecobee3 HomeKit Enabled Review:
  77. Ecobee3 Wi-Fi Smart Thermostat, HomeKit-enabled review:
  78. Ecobee 3 Temperature Accuracy:
  79. ecobee Developer Community - What will be the Refresh rate for the ecobee3's remote sensor data? :
  80. Ecobee Smart Thermostat:,review-1202-5.html
  81. ecobee3 w/ External Sensors:
  82. perl modules and script to control ecobee thermostat for dehumidifier and furnace fan:
  83. Comparison -- ecobee4 vs. ecobee3 smart thermostats:
  84. wikipedia: Nest Labs
  85. Google to acquire Nest for $3.2 billion:
  86. Google to Buy Nest Labs for $3.2 Billion:
  87. Google and Nest Acquire Dropcam For $555 Million:
  88. Comfort is Not About Air Temperature, Thermostat #FAIL:
  89. REVIEW -- Nest Learning Thermostat -VERSUS- HomeKit-enabled Ecobee3 Smart Thermostat:
  90. Ecobee 3 Thermostat Is “Smarter” Than Nest:
  91. Smart Thermostat Showdown - Is Nest the Best?:
  92. Ecobee3 vs. Nest Thermostat -- A Head-to-Head Comparison:
  93. Ecobee3 Smart WiFi Thermostat:,2817,2475606,00.asp
  94. Google Maps Can Now Tell You Where to Find "Clean Air":
  95. The Best Smart Light Bulbs of 2022:
  96. Install Light Switch Guards to Keep People from Turning Off Your Smart Bulbs:
  97. The Best In-Wall Smart Light Switches:
  98. How to Use Adaptive Lighting With Apple HomeKit Lights:
  99. Philips Hue meets Apple Homekit + SIRI:
  100. Generate Phillips Hue API token:
  101. How do I know the generation of my bulbs?:
  102. What’s the Difference Between 1st- 2nd-, and 3rd-Generation Philips Hue Bulbs?:
  103. Differences Between 1st, 2nd, 3rd & 4th Gen Philips Hue Bulbs:
  104. How to Tell Which Generation of Philips Hue Bridge You Have:
  105. How to Update Your Philips Hue Firmware:
  106. How to Control Philips Hue Lights From Your Mac:
  107. Hue Developer news:
  108. Philips Hue lights -- A guide to what each bulb does (and costs):,review-4161.html
  109. The complete guide to Philips Hue - Bulbs, smart features and lots of colors:
  110. Philips Hue Developer -- How to develop for Hue? - Getting started:
  111. Quick notes about Philips Hue API, pros and cons:
  112. Ecobee API examples:
  113. DIY IoT -- Message format:
  114. Microsoft C#/UWP -- Hue Lights sample:
  115. Microsoft C#/UWP -- Bluetooth RFCOMM chat sample:
  116. Amazon Smart Speaker Share Drops To 41%; Google Up To 28%:
  117. Asia Passes North America In Smart Speakers: Study:
  118. What Smart Buildings are all about:
  119. Reverse Engineering of a Not-So-Secure IoT Device:
  120. PUE - Definition:
  121. Fortune Data Centers - Cheap/Clean Power:
  122. Toyota Intros Its Smart City Concept At CES:
  123. Verizon, AT&T withdraw from smart city efforts: (due to FCC ruling that cities have to move quickly on requests for "small cell" access for 5G)
  124. SmartCities world amp 2020-2025:
  125. Frost & Sullivan - SmartCity research (2019):
  126. Frost & Sullivan - SmartCity research (2018):
  127. Rainforest Connection - Old Phones Turned to Forest Guardians:
  128. Neil Young Teams With New Kickstarter Campaign to Save the Rainforest:
  129. Neil Young signs on to save the rainforest - using solar powered mobile phones:
  130. Wind Dispersal of Battery-free Wireless Devices:
  131. Let It Grow -- The Appification of Plants Is Helping Owners Keep Them Alive:
  132. A Proof of Concept for Camunda Platform BPMN With IoT to build a "Smart Greenhouse": Pt.1 | Pt.2 | Pt.3
  133. The Best AirTag Alternative for Android:
  134. Buy an AirTag, Not a Tile Tracker (Unless You Use Android):
  135. How Apple’s AirTags Prevent Stalkers from Tracking You:
  136. What to Do When You See “AirTag Found Moving With You”:
  137. wikipedia: Smart (marque)
  138. Smart - model & brands history:
  139. The Design of the smart:
  140. Smart Car - models list:
  141. Smart Car leasing & sales:
  142. Put IFTTT to Work - 6 Unique Ways to Use IFTTT:
  143. BestBuy Guide - Make your home even smarter by letting IFTTT do the work:
  144. An introduction to Yahoo Pipes:
  145. Let's Get Wiring - Yahoo Pipes:
  146. Yahoo Pipes Retires…:
  147. After Yahoo Pipes: Back to square one?:
  148. The 13 Best Yahoo Pipes Alternatives You Should Look at Today :
  149. IoT Revolution (from Ubuntu parent company Canonical) - SnApp Stores for Any THINGS:
  150. Come Together Right Now Over IoT - Canonical Partners with Microsoft and Others: (Canonical, Microsoft, GE, Acer & DataArt working on IoT "Industrial Predictive Maintenance" project; together, uniting their individual Cloud Computing, Continuous Delivery - Docker, Big Data, Machine Learning & IoT efforts)
  151. wikipedia: OpenRemote
  152. Rather Than Ask Google, Let’s Ask Shodan:
  153. Introducing the InternetDB API:
  154. Shodan - Introducing Data Feeds for Search Results:
  155. New Release of Eclipse Paho and Eclipse Mosquitto Continue Momentum of the Growing Open Source IoT Community and MQTT:
  156. Node-RED -- Wiring Together the Internet of Things:
  157. Mortgage penalty can be a shocker:
  158. Cash Back Mortgages Examined:
  159. InternetOfShit: | EXAMPLE - Philips Hue (sarcastic list of IoT products/services/sensors)
  160. Tiwtter -- @InternetOfShit:
  161. AllSeen Alliance member companies:
  162. Why AllSeen? (Mission Statement):
  163. Eclipse SmartHome Development Framework:
  164. Panasonic opens royalty-free portfolio to boost IoT development:
  165. Industry Leaders to Establish Open Interconnect Consortium to Advance Interoperability for Internet of Things:
  166. TRUSTe Announces Multi-Stakeholder IoT Privacy Tech Working Group as Next Step to Help Enhance Consumer Privacy in Internet of Things:
  167. Yet Another IoT Standards Group: This One For Privacy:
  168. Calling all Things -- IBM Internet of Things Foundation is Ready:
  169. Bluemix and the Internet of Things - Hands on Tutorial:
  170. BlueMix and IoT:
  171. Changes to the IoT Foundation – and migrating your old applications:
  172. CMHC - Maintaining Your Heat Recovery Ventilator (HRV):
  173. Is There an Alternative to a Heat-Recovery Ventilator?:
  174. HRV or ERV what's the difference?:
  175. Diatomaceous Earth - organic, 85%/food grade (safer for kids/pets):
  176. The Internet of Things needs openness and industry collaboration to succeed, says Samsung Electronics CEO BK Yoon:
  177. This is Samsung's grand vision for the Internet of Things:
  178. Samsung Unveils New ‘Internet of Things’ Push:
  179. Samsung Shows Dedication to IoT with $1.2 Billion Investment and R&D:
  180. Upgrade your windows to egress standards:
  181. DIY insulate water heater:
  182. Buying Guide - Flooring:
  183. wikipedia: Stachybotrys chartarum
  184. Moldblogger review and comments on Concrobium:
  185. Concrobium Mold Control - official site:
  186. Mold, Mildew and Stain Removal Alternatives:
  187. Canadian Tire - Concrobium:
  188. Home Depot - Concrobium:
  189. DIY Mold Test Kit:
  190. DIY Install Guide for Recessed Drop Ceilings (VIDEO):
  191. Drop Ceiling Grid And Materials Calculator:
  192. Net-Zero Energy Home programme:
  193. GE's GridIQ DRMS solution:
  194. Demand Response Management Systems - The Next Wave of Smart Grid Software:
  195. Siemens-NBpower deal confirmed:
  196. Solar House - official listing:
  197. Solar House detailed listing (with commute time to attractions by type):
  198. Solar House basic listing - explanation of surroundings:
  199. ICLR - Basement Flood prevention brochure:
  200. Microsoft announces two new offerings to streamline IoT management:
  201. Coming soon to your kitchen -- The 'smart' trash can:
  202. 'Smart Garbage' Startup Cuts City Trash Costs by 40 Percent:
  203. Smart garbage -- The future of stink:
  204. IFTTT Adds a Channel for Makers:
  205. How to Set Up a Smarthome Without the Cloud:
  206. How to Safely Dispose of (or Sell) Smarthome Hardware:
  207. US DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY -- CHIEF INFORMATION OFFICER - Cybersecurity Requirements for Teleworkers in the Vicinity of Smart lnternetof Things (loT) Applications and Devices:

See Also

SmartGrid | Microcontroller | Robot | Wireless Sensor Networks | Internet | Mobile | MQTT | LTE | IPv6 | Web Services | Cloud Computing | AI | Big Data | Privacy | Security