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The message = Don't want anyone to see us naked on bike...
A.) HTTP = driving naked through windowed tunnel
B.) HTTPS = driving naked through covered tunnel
C.) Auth + MessageSigning/WS-Security = biking with clothes & helmet on (covered tunnel optional), extra security entourage keeps people far away so they can't stop your bike and/or strip your clothes off, guaranteed security but HTTPS covered tunnel optional

Security is the real or perceived protection from real or potential external and internal threats. Threats may be to personal harm, group harm or large-scale societal harm; and may come in any number of forms, from compromising of an individual (as in death or physical injury) to compromising of equipment (as in hardware damage, theft or vandalism) to information such as software or data (as in theft of customer data, company trade-secrets, leaking of personal emails, or overall damage to information consistency).




Public-Key Infrastructure (PKI) is a set of hardware, software, people, policies, and procedures needed to create, manage, distribute, use, store, and revoke digital certificates. A PKI consists of:

  1. A Certificate Authority (CA) that both issues and verifies the digital certificates.
  2. A Registration Authority (RA) which verifies the identity of users requesting information from the CA
  3. A central directory (i.e. a secure location in which to store and index keys)
  4. A certificate management system (i.e. a user interface or software tool exposing client/server or other architecture for displaying information such as public-private key pairs and key contents to authenticated/authorized user)



The Payment Card Industry (PCI) is an informal and unofficial grouping for any company that processes payment for a product/service.



Payment Card Industry Security Standards Council (PCI SSC) is an official group of payment processing providers and interested parties. When people talk about "PCI compliance", they really mean adherance to the set of standards by the PCI SSC.


The Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard (PCI DSS) is an information security standard by the PCI SSC which is intended for organizations that handle cardholder information of any of the major debit, credit, prepaid, e-purse, ATM, and POS cards.

[2] [3] [4] [5]


The Payment Application Data Security Standard (PA-DSS) is the global security standard created by the PCI SSC for the purpose of providing the definitive data standard for software vendors that develop payment applications. The standard aims to prevent developed payment applications for third parties from storing prohibited secure data including magnetic stripe, CVV2, or PIN.[6]

There are currently 14 requirements for PA-DSS compliance: 1. Do not retain full magnetic stripe, card validation, code or value, or PIN block data. 2. Protect stored cardholder data. 3. Provide secure authentication features. 4. Log payment application activity. 5. Develop secure payment applications. 6. Protect wireless transmissions. 7. Test payment applications to address vulnerabilities. 8. Facilitate secure network implementation. 9. Cardholder data must never be stored on a server connected to the internet. 10. Facilitate secure remote software updates. 11. Facilitate secure remote access to payment application. 12. Encrypt sensitive traffic over public networks. 13. Encrypt all non-console administrative access. 14. Maintain instructional documentation and training programs for customers, resellers, and integrators. [7]

To date, less than 800 organizations have reached full PA-DSS compliance. [8]



[9] [10]

ATT&CK Matrix

Jargon File




Content Security Policy (commonly abbreviated CSP)



[15] [16]

InfoSec frameworks



SP 800
SP 1800


27000 series

Covered within ISO standards 27001 & 27002, among others, this framework was developed and continues to be maintained by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and focuses on providing requirements of creating an Information Security Management System (ISMS). Their framework sets out to provide a systematic approach to risk management by focusing on controls to protect people, processes, and technology.


Control Objectives for Information Technology (COBIT).



Secure Hash Algorithm (commonly abbreviated SHA) is a set of cryptographic hash functions designed by the National Security Agency (NSA) and published by the NIST as a U.S. Federal Information Processing Standard. The three SHA algorithms are structured differently and are distinguished as SHA-0, SHA-1, SHA-2 & SHA-3. The SHA-2 family uses an identical algorithm with a variable digest size which is distinguished as SHA-224, SHA-256, SHA-384, and SHA-512. The SHA-3 family is the most recent and secure (but costly/time-consuming), yet offers the same hash sizes as SHA-2.[18]


Hash-based Message Authentication Code (commonly abbreviated HMAC), is a specific construction for calculating a message authentication code (MAC) involving a cryptographic hash function in combination with a secret key. As with any MAC, it may be used to simultaneously verify both the data integrity and the authenticity of a message. Any iterative cryptographic hash function, such as MD5 or SHA-1, may be used in the calculation of an HMAC; the resulting MAC algorithm is termed HMAC-MD5 or HMAC-SHA1 accordingly. The cryptographic strength of the HMAC depends upon the cryptographic strength of the underlying hash function, on the size and quality of the key and the size of the hash output length in bits.[19]



Electronic Security (commonly shortened as E-Security or eSecurity) is a concept representing the relative trustworthiness, reliability, access protections and safeguards against unauthorized access, tampering or damages to data or activities in any digital systems. These measures are designed to preserve the confidentiality and integrity of each and every user's data as well as more broadly to the protection of physical assets and/or intellectual property which may be accessed or protected electronically.[20]


Related to the concept of "E-Security" is the subset of "Cybersecurity" which focuses on the protection of all users' data and property as well as corporate data, physical assets and intellectual property which is potentially accessible over a network (typically focused broadly on the entire Internet and wide-area networks, but also applicable to corporate intranets and/or local network).

[23] [24] [25] [26] [27] [28] [29] [30]

Threat Assessment

[31] [32] [33] [34]

Security Awareness Training



  • Denial-of-Service[38]
  • XSS
  • CSRF
  • SQL Injection
  • LDAP injection
  • Clickjacking
  • Session hijacking
  • URL manipulation
  • Parameter tampering
  • Authentication bypass
  • IDOR/BOLA[39][40][41]
  • Command injection (via HTML FORMs, GreaseMonkey, or DevTools)
  • Web services analysis (SOAP & REST protocol private/internal API attacks)
  • Java, Flash, ActiveX clients analysis
  • Active Content exploits
  • XML, XPATH, JSON injection
  • Remote file inclusion (via JSONp, File Upload forms, etc)
  • Malformed File Format & Memory buffer overrun (File Uploads)
  • Weak cryptographic mechanism exploits
  • Brute Force
  • Man-in-the-Middle
  • Relay
  • Phishing
  • Snooping
  • Forgery
  • Identity Fraud[42]
  • Keystroke Analysis
  • Spyware
  • Malware
  • Worm
  • Virus
  • Trojan Horse
  • Organizational In-Person Deception/Espionage
  • Malvertising
  • Request Stuffing




[44] [45] [46] [47] [48] [49]


Highly-targeted attacks directed at specific individuals or groups within a company such as those who make purchasing decisions, finance department members, managers, HR & hiring decision-makers, vendor selection, Security team leads, Developers, etc.


Attacking top-level executives such as Presidents, C-suite and/or VPs.



Voice phishing (by mimicking IVR, caller ID / Voicemail services, or possibly even real-time or recorded faked voice transformations.


SMS/MMS-based phishing attacks.

SQL Injection

SQL Injection is a common web application vulnerability whereby a database is attacked by injecting unwanted or undesirable SQL queries at the end of a valid and expected SQL query.

The most common solution to this problem is to clean the string by trimming it at the end of its known and allotted length, while also escaping and/or dropping any non-expected characters that could comprise security by running undesired code.


[50] [51] [52] [53] [54]

Buffer Overflow

Cross-Site Scripting (XSS)

Server-Side Code Injection

Server-Side Include

Format String Error

Parameter Tampering

CRLF Injection

Remote OS Command Injection

Cross-Site Request Forgery (CSRF)

Server-Side Request Forgery (SSRF)

Infinite Redirect


Insecure Direct Object Reference (IDOR).

[55] [56] [57] [58] [59] [60]


Bit Flipping

Signal Spoofing

Using electrical signals or radio signals to interrupt other communications or trick software/hardware to divulge, erase, lock or otherwise manipulate information or settings on a device.


[61] [62] [63] [64] [65] [66] [67]


Malicious software or hardware hacks designed to injure, maim or kill individuals, groups or undisclosed (perhaps even unplanned/non-specific) members the general public.


  • Caching
  • Logging
  • Observability & Real-time Event-Driven Alerting
  • Audits
  • Indicators Of Compromise (IOCs)
  • Intrusion Prevention
  • Intrusion Detection
  • Directories (w. user-centric permissions)
  • Honey Pots
  • Hashing
  • Encryption
  • Signatures (Digital Certificate, Elliptic Curve, etc...)
  • PKI (public/private keys)
  • Validation (inputs must match a certain pattern or they are ignored)
  • String Cleaning (HTML, Script tag, SQL and/or Server-side code removal)
  • Filters (purifiers, removal of specific types of text/patterns)
  • Type-checking (MIME-types delimitation/validation)
  • URL Encoding/Decoding
  • Firewalls
  • IPsec
  • Anti-Virus software



  • Authentication
  • Authorization
  • Basic (Username:Password via HTTP Header)
  • Digest (Username + Password + nonce/configs, sent in HTTP POST header only, automatically encrypted when using SSL/TLS)



HTTP Digest authentication differentiates from HTTP Basic authentication in that it specifies extra parameters that must appear in the challenge response's WWW-Authenticate header.

For instance, on an unauthenticated request to a DIGEST secured endpoint "https://localhost:8080/helloworld-webapp/account/username123" you should get a challenge response with HTTP status 401, and which contains the digest WWW-Authenticate header:

WWW-Authenticate: Digest realm="digest realm", qop="auth", nonce="1415713971682:2ffba5083baf438b90d2986cc77ae793", opaque="C4DAF43F253C0AFA5F006908F5595C8F"

Here are the additional parameters that need to be processed and sent in the response:

  1. digest - the authentication scheme
  2. realm - configurable on the server, for example, [<realm-name/>] on Tomcat
  3. (Quality of Protection) qop - indicates the required digest calculation
  4. nonce - A (cryptographic) nonce is a server-generated number, and is generated only once
  5. opaque - This is harder to explain quickly (see the following links for more), but is not part of the digest calculation, and should be returned unchanged.

These parameters are used by the client, to calculate the digest for the subsequent request's Authorization header; for example:

Authorization: Digest username="restuser", realm="digest realm", nonce="1415716491557:de6af453ecd19abca5d55334e8146831", uri="/helloworld-webapp/account/username123", response="2b9d6d028c50cdd5fca231dd0cbc2ffe", qop=auth, nc=00000001, cnonce="f494e7c6145efa8651123920df2b3a2d", opaque="C4DAF43F253C0AFA5F006908F5595C8F"

Strong Passwords

[71] [72] [73] [74] [75] [76]

Credential enumeration protection

[77] [78]

Credential recognition protection
Multi-Factor Authentication

There are potentially any combination of the following three factors:

  1. what you know - username, password, passphrase, etc
  2. what you are - biometrics such as fingerprint reader, facial recognition, iris/retina scan, gait pattern (physical facility surveillance), etc
  3. what you have - email address, phone number (calls or SMS text messages), encryption key fob, etc



Web-based One-Time Password (commonly referred to as WebOTP or 1-time-pass) can be used to verify phone numbers on the web.


[83] [84] [85] [86] [87] [88]

Password Managers

[90] [91] [92] [93] [94] [95] [96] [97] [98] [99] [100]

Secret Management



[102] [103] [104] [105]



DevSecOps is an architectural pattern or extension of DevOps whereby Security (just like the emphasis on quality) gets baked in tot he Products/Projects being delivered.

[106] [107] [108] [109] [110] [111]

Dependency Vulnerability Checker

[114] [115]

[116] [117] [118] [119] [120]



Bill of Materials (BoM).



Software Bill of Materials (SBoM).

[123] [124] [125] [126] [127] [128] [129] [130] [131] [132]


[133] [134]




OWASP CycloneDX is a lightweight Software Bill of Materials (SBOM) standard designed for use in application security contexts and supply chain component analysis.

[136] [137]



Secret protection

This includes API Keys, Tokens (JWT, auth tokens, Cookie IDentifiers, SessionIDs), Usernames/Passwords, encrypted hashes, public keys, and other forms of credentials or secrets. The best defense for these is ensuring they are never leaked in the first place.

Key rotation policies

These protect keys in the event of unauthorized access, snooping/spying (codebase, client-side code & network requests), accidental leaks, etc.


Application Security Testing (AST).


Static Application Security Testing (SAST).



Dynamic Application Security Testing (DAST).



Interactive Application Security Testing (IAST).



Runtime Application Self-Protection (RASP).




Digital Signature

A Digital Signature is an electronic cryptographic identification or symbol representing an individual.


A specific type of Digital Signature is a file or library checksum.




Hiding data within images (such as other images, secret messages, etc).

Security Headers

Content Security Policy

[151] [152] [153] [154] [155] [156] [157] [158] [159] [160] [161] [162] [163] [164] [165] [166] [167] [168] [169] [170] [171]

Principle of Least Privilege

Bug Bounty


Ethical Hacking

Ethical Hacking (related to "White hat" hacking). For hacking to be deemed ethical, the hacker must obey the following rules:

  1. Expressed (preferrably written) permission should be given to penetrate or access a network and attempt to identify potential security risks.
  2. Respect must be given to the individual's, company's or end users' privacy at all times.
  3. Hacking traces and/or exploits must be closed out, not leaving anything open for future exploits.
  4. Inform the software developer or hardware manufacturer of any security vulnerabilities (if not already known) which have been located in their software or hardware.

[173] [174]

Red Team

Red Teaming (also known as "Chaos Engineering") is the practice of deliberately attacking, misusing, or otherwise playing "devil's advocate" to ideation (if "Shift-left Red Teaming") of a given product, service or complete set of IT systems, for the purpose of uncovering any application-level or organization-level weaknesses or vulnerabilities and fixing them before they can be found or exploited by malicious parties such as geo-political adversaries, competitors or hackers.

Initially, where such a practice is not being carried out (maybe even frowned upon in the early days of introducing the concept) the "Red Team" is intentionally setup to provide controlled attempts to thwart, hack/crack/crash, or derail a given project. Later on, the role of the "Red Team" may be spread to specific representatives across departments/teams made up from roles from around the organization who understand the value of the "attack ourselves and find our weaknesses before our enemies do" mindset, so as to avoid creating yet another "security silo" or "security bottleneck".

[175] [176] [177] [178] [179] [180] [181] [182] [183] [184] [185] [186]

Blue Team


Anti-Virus Software











Open Web Application Security Project (OWASP).

[221] [222] [223] [224] [225] [226] [227] [228] [229] [230] [231] [232] [233] [234] [235]


[236] [237] [238] [239] [240]

API Security

[243] [244] [245] [246] [247] [248] [249] [250] [251] [252] [253] [254] [255] [256] [257] [258] [259] [260] [261] [262] [263] [264] [265] [266] [267] [268] [269]



  • Arachni: | SRC (free, simple, distributed, intelligent, powerful, friendly application security scanner with network/SSL scanning capabilities)

[270] [271]


[272] [273] [274] [275]


[279] [280] [281]

[290] [291] [292]

Vulnerability Registries

[293] [294] [295] [296] [297] [298]

Vulnerable Websites/WebApps (for PenTesting)

For more info, see: Penetration Testing


[300] [301] [302] [303] [304] [305] [306] [307] [308] [309] [310] [311] [312] [313] [314] [315] [316]

Breaches & Hacks

Identity Theft Resource Center’s 2021 Annual Data Breach Report Sets New Record for Number of Compromises:[321] [322]


[328] [329] [330]

[331] [332] [333] [334] [335] [336]

[337] [338] [339]

[340] [341] [342] [343] [344] [345] [346] [347]

[350] [351] [352] [353] [354] [355] [356] [357] [358] [359] [360] [361] [362] [363] [364] [365] [366] [367] [368] [369] [370] [371] [372] [373] [374] [375] [376] [377] [378] [379] [380] [381] [382] [383]


[384] [385] [386] [387]


[395] [396] [397] [398]

External Links

* Capital One Says Data On 106 Million People Was Stolen:


[412] [413]



  1. Securing the Future of Payments - PCI SSC Publishes PCI Data Security, Standard v4.0
  2. PCI
  3. Payment Card Industry - Data Security Standard (DSS) v4.0:
  4. Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard Summary of Changes from PCI DSS Version 3.2.1 to 4.0:
  5. What You Need to Know About PCI DSS 4.0's New Requirements:
  6. wikipedia: PA-DSS
  7. PA-DSS -- Info & FAQ:
  8. PA-DSS official providers:
  9. Leveraging MITRE tools for effective Threat Informed Architecture:
  10. Container Security Threats Added to MITRE Attack Framework:
  11. wikipedia: Jargon File
  12. HTML5 - SRI (code signing for JS, CSS, Fonts, etc): M.
  13. [CSP] "sri" source expression to enforce SRI:
  14. MDN -- CSP - "upgrade-insecure-requests":
  15. Does Your Organization Have a Security.txt File?:
  16. Not Everything About ".well-known" is Well Known:
  17. 7 Security Frameworks Every InfoSec Professional Should Know:
  18. wikipedia: SHA hash functions
  19. wikipedia: HMAC
  20. e-Security:
  21. Biden Signs Two Bills to Enhance Government Cybersecurity:
  22. CISA releases second version of secure cloud migration guidance for agencies:
  23. Jobs in Information Security (InfoSec):
  24. 8 funny cyber security quotes and why they matter to you:
  25. 15 hilarious cyber security videos demonstrate the growing need for cyber security training while providing a bit of comedy relief:
  26. 19 of the funniest quotes about cyber security & tech:
  27. 2022 Cyber Attack Statistics, Data, and Trends:
  28. 2022 Must-Know Cyber Attack Statistics and Trends:
  29. New federal bill would compel key industries to bolster cyber security — or pay a price:
  30. More than 90% of cyberattacks are made possible by human error:
  31. CISA Releases New Tool to Help Organizations Guard Against Insider Threats:
  32. ESET -- Threat report 2021:
  33. National Security Agency (NSA) -- Cybersecurity & Infrastructure Security Agency (CISA) - Selecting and Hardening Remote Access VPN Solutions:
  34. NSA, CISA Release VPN Security Guidance:
  35. Security Awareness and Training:
  36. Fredericton IT, cybersecurity firm attracting international attention:
  37. Magic Quadrant for Security Awareness Computer-Based Training:
  38. How to Find DoS Attacks Exploit:
  39. OWASP -- API1:2019 — Broken Object Level Authorization (BOLA):
  40. A Deep Dive On The Most Critical API Vulnerability — BOLA (Broken Object Level Authorization):
  41. OWASP -- Insecure Direct Object Reference (IDOR):
  42. Who’s Making All Those Scam Calls?:
  43. Cloudflare mitigates 26 million request per second DDoS attack:
  44. ScamBusters:
  45. Phishing Emails -- A Field Guide:
  46. The American Greed Report -- Online shopping scams - Eight signs you’re on a fake site:
  47. A Guide For Protecting Yourself From Identity Theft:
  48. Watch Out For This New Amazon Email Phishing Scam:
  49. Browser In The Browser (BITB) Attack -- Behold, a password phishing site that can trick even savvy users:
  50. X-Frame-Options Allow-From multiple domains:
  51. HTTP Header Frame Options:
  52. IE8 Security Part VII -- ClickJacking Defenses:
  53. Combating ClickJacking With X-Frame-Options:
  54. Declaring Security:
  55. Explaining various IDOR exploit techniques:
  56. IDOR explained:
  57. Hunting Insecure Direct Object Reference Vulnerabilities for Fun and Profit (PART-1):
  58. Privilege Escalation & IDOR to delete anyone's support ticket:
  59. Pen Tester's guide to IDOR:
  60. Website Hacking with Insecure Direct Object Reference (VIDEO):
  61. Where ransomware goes next - Your phone, your TV, your servers: (Cyber-cops list cryptoware as their 'dominant concern' and warn that it will target more devices and aim for higher-value targets)
  62. Justice Dept. Claws Back $2.3M Paid by Colonial Pipeline to Ransomware Gang:
  63. US recovers most of Colonial Pipeline's $4.4M ransomware payment:
  64. Department of Justice Seizes $2.3 Million in Cryptocurrency Paid to the Ransomware Extortionists Darkside:
  65. US Treasury Dept. sanctions Russian cryptocurrency exchange for work with ransomware groups:
  66. US Dept. of the Treasury -- Taking Robust Actions to Counter Ransomware:
  67. The Biggest Ransomware Bust Yet Might Actually Make an Impact:
  68. Microsoft's new "AI Security scanning tool" spots critical security bugs 97% of the time:
  69. Something You Know, Have, or Are:
  70. Password Strength Test:
  71. NIST’s new password rules – what you need to know:
  72. FTC -- Time to rethink mandatory password changes:
  73. Don't Pass on the New NIST Password Guidelines:
  74. We Didn't Encrypt Your Password, We Hashed It. Here's What That Means:
  75. Should You Change Your Passwords Regularly? (yes & no):
  76. The 20 Most Common Passwords Found On The Dark Web:
  77. “Invalid Username or Password” - a useless security measure:
  78. OS Credential Dumping:
  79. The efficiency of Microsoft. Or how the Microsoft MFA system almost brought me to a complete nervous breakdown in under 24 hours.:
  80. How MFA Can Be Used Against You:
  81. OpenSSH/Cookbook/Public Key Authentication passwordless login with Public/Private SSH key pair:
  82. SSH Passwordless Login Using SSH Keygen in 5 Easy Steps:
  83. SSH login without password:
  84. Microsoft Hello - The end of passwords:
  85. Passwordless phone sign-in with the Microsoft Authenticator app (public preview):
  86. How to Enable No Password Login on Raspberry Pi:
  87. Auth0 - Passwordless login:
  88. Inside FIDO Alliance’s vision of a future free of passwords:
  89. KeePassXC: (performant Windows client for KeePass)
  90. You Need a Password Manager — Just Don’t Use LastPass:
  91. The Best Password Managers to Secure Your Digital Life:
  92. Best password manager to use for 2021 - 1Password, LastPass and more compared:
  93. The Best Password Managers for 2021:
  94. LastPass can now proactively tell you if your passwords have been compromised — for a price:
  95. LastPass password manager hacked:
  96. LastPass Hacked – Identified Early & Resolved:
  97. Which "password managers" have been hacked:
  98. LastPass, 1Password and other password managers can be hacked -- What to do now:
  99. LastPass security history -- what if your password manager got hacked?:
  100. The 1Password Disaster (And Two Brilliant 1Password Alternatives):
  101. Login MFA Support Added to Vault Open Source and HCP Vault:
  102. What is SIEM? A Beginner’s Guide:
  103. What Is Security Information and Event Management (SIEM)?:
  104. What is SIEM?:
  105. Security Information and Event Management (SIEM):
  106. WhiteHat Report -- DevSecOps Adoption on the Rise: (rate of vulnerabilities being found proactively increases, time-to-remediate not budging)
  107. Managing Secrets in DevOps -- A Maturity Mode:
  108. Top 5 Challenges of DevSecOps and How to Overcome Them:
  109. Shifting Security Left -- The Innovation of DevSecOps:
  110. US Executive Order on Cybersecurity -- Software Bill of Materials (SBOM) - What it Means for DevOps:
  111. Secrets Detection on Pull Request… The DevSecOps Way:
  112. Security Content Automation Protocol -- Common Platform Enumeration (CPE):
  113. MITRE Launches Centers to Protect Infrastructure and Health:
  114. Unable to download the NVD CVE data; the results may not include the most recent CPE/CVEs from the NVD:
  115. Dependency-Check Jenkins plugin -- v4.x to v5.x Migration:
  116. Eclipse plugin -- Snyk Security Scanner: | DOCS
  117. Snyk for Eclipse tutorial:
  118. Snyk snags $150M investment as its valuation surpasses $1B:
  119. Snyk Releases Enhanced Vulnerability Prioritization Features:
  120. Vulnerability analysis with Red Hat CodeReady Dependency Analytics and Snyk Intel:
  121. Renovate, a Dependabot Alternative:
  122. What is a software supply chain?:
  123. wikipedia: Software bill of materials
  124. The State of Software Bill of Materials (SBOM) and Cybersecurity Readiness:
  125. FOSSA Receives Highest Scores Possible in License Risk Management, SBOM Criteria in Forrester Wave:
  126. What is an SBOM?:
  127. Framing Software Component Transparency - Establishing a Common Software Bill of Material (SBOM):
  128. Software Bill of Materials -- Elements & Considerations:
  129. Why You Should Rethink Your Software Bill of Materials (SBOM):
  130. Report -- Fewer than half of companies are creating or using a Software Bill of Materials (SBoM):
  131. 4 Things You Can Do with a Mobile SBOM:
  133. wikipedia: Software Package Data Exchange (SPDX)
  134. Maven Plugins - SPDX:
  135. wikipedia: SWID
  136. wikipedia: CycloneDX
  137. Maven Plugins - CycloneDX:
  138. OpenChain + SPDX Lite – Credit where Credit is due:
  139. Open-sourcing Mariana Trench - Analyzing Android and Java app security in depth:
  140. SAST .vs. DAST -- What’s the best method for application security testing? (INFOGRAPHIC): (also includes side-by-side comparison)
  141. What is "Interactive Application Security Testing" (IAST) and how does it work?:
  142. SAST, DAST, IAST and RASP:
  143. Can’t Clone Git Respository in SourceTree: Failed to connect….No error:
  144. Installing SourceTree 1.10 in an offline environment:
  145. Getting git to work with a proxy server:
  146. Watermarks - New ways to see and search them:
  147. New in CSP 2.0 form-action a key new Header directive for controlling what servers a FORM on your site can be submitted to:
  148. Secure your website with Content Security Policy:
  149. Implementing Content Security Policy:
  150. Google Fonts violates Content Security Policy (what needs to be whitelisted?!): (ANSWER: style-src 'self'; font-src 'self';)
  151. Exploiting weak Content Security Policy (CSP) rules for fun and profit:
  152. Webmasters, your CSP could break PCI DSS compliance & leak sensitive data: (if you're using the report-uri logging directive, especially if sending to a 3rd-party Logging Analytics service)
  153. MDN -- CSP - script-src:
  154. MDN -- window.postMessage():
  155. Play safely in sandboxed IFrames:
  156. Working around Content Security Policy issues in Chrome Extensions: extensions/Working-Around-Content-Security-Policy-Issues-in-Chrome-Extensions/
  157. Browser implementations of Content Security Policy introduce security problems:
  158. Data Exfiltration in the Face of CSP:
  159. CSP -- "frame-src":
  160. CSP -- frame-ancestors:
  161. postMessage and header errors in Chrome:
  162. Cross-window communication (security guide):
  163. Re: CSP and PostMessage?: (click through thread to see answers on CSP configs and impact on postMessage)
  164. Injecting iframe into page with restrictive Content Security Policy:
  165. Cordova - CSP refuses to load media blob:
  166. Error -- Refused to connect to 'blob:':
  167. Extension refuses to load the script due to Content Security Policy directive:
  168. Chrome and Firefox won't send form data to HTTP URL from HTTPS site:
  169. Clickjacking Defense Cheat Sheet: (frame-ancestors is the rule to use within a CSP, rather than, or in addition to, traditional X-FRAME-OPTIONS header)
  170. How I failed to implement CSP:
  171. Mitigate cross-site scripting (XSS) with a strict Content Security Policy (CSP):
  172. Google Pays Out Millions To Squash Bugs:
  173. Ethical Hacking - Quick Guide:
  174. 20 Hours, $18, and 11 Million Passwords Cracked:
  175. Red Team -- Pwning the Hearts and Minds one Ticket at a Time:
  176. 9 Evil Bash Commands Explained:
  177. Blueprint for a team with a DevOps mindset:
  178. Modern red teaming -- 21 resources for your security team:
  179. Mindset shift to a DevSecOps culture:
  180. Red team, blue team -- How to run an effective simulation:
  181. 6 reasons to hire a red team to harden your app sec:
  182. Intuit’s DevSecOps -- War Games & Culture Hacking:
  183. Red Team the Cultural taem change inspired by "DevSecOps" — A look at what it is:
  184. Wargames: (learn and practice security concepts in the form of fun-filled attack/defend games)
  185. How to integrate IT security in a company - The five pillars of IT security: (Visibility, Investigation, Governance, Fulfillment, Threat Hunting)
  186. How much does it cost to build a 24x7 Security Operations Center (SOC)?:
  187. Understanding Have I Been Pwned's Use of SHA-1 and k-Anonymity:
  188. "Project Svalbard", "Have I Been Pwned" and its ongoing independence:
  189. I'm Open Sourcing the Have I Been Pwned Code Base:
  190. Pwned Passwords, Open Source in the .NET Foundation and Working with the FBI:
  191. FBI to Share Compromised Passwords With Have I Been Pwned:
  192. Check a CSP:
  193. Serverless... Security?:
  194. How to add mod_headers directive in Apache:
  195. What if China went all GitHub on your website? Grab this coding tool:
  196. Free Tool Helps Security Teams Measure Their API Attack Surface:
  197. BitLocker - Drive preparation tool:
  198. Hardware (OEM) makers' Guide to BitLocker:
  199. BitLocker Drive Encryption (Technical) Overview:
  200. Windows BitLocker Drive Encryption Step-by-Step (User) Guide -- BitLocker:
  201. How to Turn On or Off BitLocker for Windows 8 OS Drive with or without TPM:
  202. How to Set Up BitLocker Encryption on Windows:
  203. Anti-Virus Market Share Report June 2012:
  204. HOME AntiVirus Benchmark Tests:
  205. Kaspersky software reverse engineered by NSA, GCHQ: Report:
  206. Introducing Merlin — A cross-platform post-exploitation HTTP/2 Command & Control Tool:
  207. Is there any documentation for xmlseclibs?:
  208. Which is the proper XML exclusive canonicalization?:
  209. Google has released its enterprise network vulnerability scanner as open source via GitHub:
  210. Google open-sources Tsunami vulnerability scanner:
  211. OWASP AntiSamy Project:
  212. OWASP Top 10 #10 -- Unprotected APIs (Updated 2018):
  213. OWASP Top 10 Training Boot Camp:
  214. New OWASP List Highlights API Security Holes:
  215. OWASP API Security Top 10 -- Get your dev team up to speed:
  216. Gartner -- How to Build an Effective API Security Strategy:
  217. Gartner -- API Insecurity - The Lurking Threat In Your Software:
  218. Guide to the OWASP Benchmark v1.1,1.2:
  219. ShiftLeft -- OWASP SAST Benchmark:
  220. OWASP Security Testing checklist:
  221. OWASP -- DevSecOps days:
  222. OWASP, Antisamy, and Sightly in AEM:
  223. Setting a Baseline for Web Security Controls:
  224. OWASP Top 10 -- What's missing for enterprise app sec:
  225. Preparing to Release the OWASP IoT Top 10 2018:
  226. OWASP- Top 10 Vulnerabilities in web applications (updated for 2018):
  227. OWASP Cornucopia -- card game to assist software development teams identify security requirements:
  228. OWASP WebSpa Project:
  229. OWASP WebSpa - The Concept of Web Knocking and a Tool to Go With it:
  230. Software Assurance Marketplace (SWAMP):
  231. OWASP - SWAMP:
  232. NIST Data Mirror: (CLI tool in Java to grab CVEs)
  233. Unable to download NVD CVE data:
  234. Unable to download meta file "":
  235. How to do application security on a budget:
  236. Checking vulnerabilities in 3rd party dependencies using OWASP Dependency-Check Plugin in Jenkins: (great advice for how to setup v1.x-4.x but not exact same steps for 5.x)
  237. Using OWASP Dependency check with SonarQube:
  238. OWASP Dependency Check for Vulnerability Reporting:
  239. OWASP Dependency-Check - How Does It Work?:
  240. Sec in your DevOps -- Adding the OWASP Dependency Check to your Jenkins pipeline:
  241. wikipedia: OWASP ZAP
  242. OWASP ZAP -- Getting Started Guide:
  243. ZAP local setup:
  244. Jenkins plugin -- OWASP-Jenkins:
  245. Automating Security Testing of web applications using OWASP Zed Attack Proxy in Jenkins:
  246. Automating the boring stuff in development using ZAP & Jenkins Continuous Integration:
  247. ZAP -- Jenkins plugin setup (WALKTHROUGH):
  248. OWASP ZAP Official Jenkins Plugin: (good presentation where the plugin was introduced, but demo too grainy, refer to walkthrough video above)
  249. Intro & ZAP Jenkins Plugin:
  250. Security Testing for Developers Using OWASP ZAP:
  251. ZAP wiki -- Tutorial Videos:
  252. ZAP tutorials youtube playlist:
  253. ZAP Baseline Scan: (Python-based basic Penetration Test, just feed in one parameter, the URL to attack/check)
  254. ZAP API Scan:
  255. Scripting with OWASP ZAP:
  256. Scripting with ZAP -- adding a new header to each scan request:
  257. Security Testing for APIs using ZAP:
  258. Exploring APIs with ZAP:
  259. OWASP ZAP API demonstration - Extended:
  260. Beating the Cost, Time, and Quality Equation With OWASP ZAP Automation:
  261. ZAP Tutorial - Authentication, Session and Users Management:
  262. OWASP ZAP Official Jenkins Plugin walkthrough & Demo - Goran Sarenkapa:
  263. Automating security tests using OWASP ZAP & Jenkins:
  264. Getting error in python code for automate owsap zap for the application:
  265. How to create HTML report for ZAP (OWASP) using Python API script which integrates with Jenkins:
  266. ZAP -- Help Addons, Quickstart & Cmdline:
  267. How to speed up OWASP ZAP scans:
  268. Getting Started with ZAP and the OWASP Top 10 -- Common Questions:
  269. Stop Using Burp Suite, Use ZAP!:
  270. Arachni checks:
  271. Arachni OSS is no longer maintained: (moving to commercial scanning algorithm)
  272. Mozilla’s giving you a free Minion for developer-first security:
  274. Minion - BREACH exploit checker (PLUGIN):
  275. Introducing Minion:
  276. wikipedia: ISO/IEC_27001
  277. What is ISO/IEC 27001 for Information Security Management System (ISMS)?:
  278. Microsoft compliance to ISO/IEC 27001:2013 Information Security Management Standards:
  279. Getting Started with the NIST Cybersecurity Framework - A Quick Start Guide:
  280. How to Use NIST Cybersecurity Framework (CSF) to Map Risk to Cyber Threats and Enable Zero Trust:
  281. NIST -- CyberSecurity (WHITEPAPER) - Planning for a Zero Trust Architecture, A Starting Guide for Administrators:
  282. Clarifying Government Security Clearances: Protected Level B:
  283. Canada Firearms Act:
  284. Canadian Firearms License:
  285. Canadian Firearms Safety Course:
  286. RCMP - Official Firearms Safety Training course:
  287. Restricted Firearms safety course:
  288. UN -- Sanctions List: (known Terrorists)
  289. Subscribe to the Application Security Podcast:
  290. 20 API security resources that you can’t afford to miss:
  291. Attack vectors of compromised Email:
  292. Attack vectors of compromised Computer:
  293. Launching "Open Source Vulnerabilities" (OSV) - Better vulnerability triage for open source:
  294. Google's "Announcing a unified vulnerability schema" for open source:
  295. Finding Critical Open Source Projects:
  296. A shared vulnerability format for open-source packages:
  297. Google rolls out a unified security vulnerability schema for open-source software:
  298. Google pushes bug databases to get on the same page for open-source security:
  299. OWASP Vulnerable Web Applications Directory:
  300. Apache Log4j Security Vulnerabilities:
  301. Log4j 2.x -- SLF4J Binding:
  302. Simple Logging Facade for Java (SLF4J) -- Comments on the CVE-2021-44228 vulnerability:
  303. Bridging legacy APIs:
  304. Critical New 0-day Vulnerability in Popular Log4j Library Discovered with Evidence of Mass Scanning for Affected Applications:
  305. (Sonatype offers practical advice on how to) Find and Fix Log4j:
  306. Snyk's CLI "Log4Shell checking" command:
  307. Kaspersky -- Critical vulnerability in Apache Log4j library:
  308. Vulnerability Affecting Multiple Log4j Versions Permits RCE Exploit:
  309. Extremely Critical Log4J Vulnerability Leaves Much of the Internet at Risk:
  310. YCombinator forums -- Log4j - Remote Code Execution (RCE) found:
  311. New "Zero-day exploit" for Log4J Java logging library (aka. "log4shell" & "logjam" exploit):
  312. Microsoft’s Response to CVE-2021-44228 Apache Log4j 2:
  313. "Traceable AI" can help detect & protect against Log4Shell, the Log4j RCE Zero-day Vulnerability (CVE-2021-44228):
  314. Tidelift advisory -- Log4Shell critical vulnerability - what you need to know and do:
  315. Apache Log4j Remote Code Execution Vulnerability (CVE-2021-44228):
  316. AEM FORMS JEE -- Apache Log4j Remote Code Execution Vulnerability (CVE-2021-44228):
  317. Cybersecurity in 2015 -- What to expect:
  318. SEC proposes four-day rule for public companies to report cyberattacks:
  319. SEC proposes mandatory breach reporting for publicly traded companies:
  320. Demystify the Cybersecurity Risk Management Process:
  321. Data Breach Notice Research by the Identity Theft Resource Center Shows Consumers Don’t Act After a Data Theft:
  322. Data breaches in the US are over 90% cyberattack-related:
  323. Capital One data breach -- here’s what Canadians need to know:
  324. What We Can Learn from the Capital One Hack:
  325. Capital One Data Theft Impacts 106M People:
  326. The British Airways Hack -- JavaScript Weakness Pin-pointed Through Time-lining:
  327. Incident Report Guessing -- Chatbots, the BA Hack and Ticketmaster:
  328. Cisco Data Center Network Manager Authentication Bypass Vulnerability:
  329. Cisco 'Knowingly' Sold Hackable Video Surveillance System to U.S. Government (fined $8.6million):
  330. An Office Phone Flaw Can’t Be Fixed by Cisco Alone:
  331. What to know (and do) about the CRA breach and shutdown:
  332. Victims of CRA hackers vulnerable to other cyberattacks (experts):
  333. CRA cyberattack victims say they notified agency about hack long before breaches confirmed:
  334. CRA says online services to be restored by Wednesday following hack:
  335. Better Business Bureau shares cyber tips after CRA hack:
  336. Thousands of CRA accounts hacked in cyberattack:
  337. Why the US government hack is literally keeping security experts awake at night:
  338. Did Someone at the Commerce Dept. Find a SolarWinds Backdoor in Aug. 2020?:
  339. SolarWinds CEO reveals much earlier hack timeline, regrets company blaming intern:
  340. Facebook confirms that a sample of the 533M data is related to a ‘contact importers vulnerability’ which was fixed in Aug 2019:
  341. Scraped personal data of 1.3 million Clubhouse users has reportedly been posted online:
  342. Clubhouse CEO says user data was not leaked, contrary to reports:
  343. Exclusive interview - The Iranian grad student who scraped Clubhouse explains why he did it, and that it's not "hacking":
  344. FBI Works With 'Have I Been Pwned' to Notify Emotet Victims:
  345. Data From The Emotet Malware is Now Searchable in Have I Been Pwned, Courtesy of the FBI and NHTCU:
  346. 70TB of Parler users’ messages, videos, and posts leaked by security researchers:
  347. The Growing Victim List -- Data Breaches Rose In Q1, Hitting More People:
  348. US nuclear weapon bunker security secrets spill from online flashcards since 2013:
  349. Smart API Security for Your Smart Car:
  350. Hackers Breach EA, Claim to Have Stolen Company Source Code:
  351. Tracking Amazon delivery staff through their own "Package Tracking API":
  352. How I Found A Vulnerability To Hack iCloud Accounts and How Apple Reacted To It:
  353. Clearview Data Breach Prompts Renewed Calls To Curb Facial Recognition:
  354. Tour de Peloton - Exposed user data:
  355. Apple’s Insecure iPhone Lets NSO Hack Journalists (again):
  356. 38 Million Users’ Data Exposed by Microsoft Power Apps:
  357. 38M Records Were Exposed Online—Including Contact-Tracing Info:
  358. UN Computer Networks Breached by Hackers Earlier This Year:
  359. Twitch hack - data breach exposes sensitive information:
  360. Massive Twitch hack - Source code and payment reports leaked:
  361. Security experts aghast at the scale of Twitch hack - 'This is as bad as it could possibly be':
  362. Protect the source -- EA and others hacked:
  363. Critical flaws found in interoperability backbone - FHIR APIs vulnerable to abuse:
  364. Worst breaches of 2021 so far:
  365. More than half of medical devices found to have critical vulnerabilities: (new report reveals what kind of medical devices are at most risk of security threats)
  366. IV pumps riskiest healthcare IoT, while 50% of medical devices hold critical flaws:
  367. Hackers Hack Samsung, Leak 190GB of Company Secrets:
  368. Christian Donation site "GiveSendGo", used by Freedom Convoy, suffers 3rd data leak in two weeks:
  369. Does This Look Infected? A Summary of APT41 Targeting U.S. State Governments:
  370. FBI warns of ransomware gangs targeting food, agriculture orgs:
  371. FBI warns of ransomware attacks targeting US agriculture sector:
  372. Cow-counting app abused by China "to spy on US states' governments":
  373. Ransomware plows through farm machinery giant AGCO:
  374. Protecting Android users from 0-Day attacks:
  375. Researchers devise iPhone malware that runs even when device is turned off:
  376. Uber investigating cybersecurity incident after hacker breaches its internal network:
  377. Google - "Predator" spyware infected Android devices using zero-days (several governments potentially involved):
  378. Security flaws in a popular GPS tracker (manufactured by Chinese company MiCODUS) are exposing a million vehicle locations:
  379. American Airlines says hackers obtained some customer and employee data:
  380. Microsoft confirms Lapsus$ breach after hackers publish Bing, Cortana source code:
  381. Thousands of Nvidia employee passwords leak online as hackers’ ransom deadline looms:
  382. Samsung confirms data breach after hackers leak internal source code:
  383. Rockstar Games confirms GTA 6 footage leak:
  384. Password Authentication -- How to Correctly Do It:
  385. How to Hash a BLOB:
  386. Database Modeling Tip - How to Store Passwords in a Database with HASH + SALT:
  387. A Future-Adaptable Password Scheme (WHITEPAPER):
  388. Cracking encrypted CreditCard numbers (exposed by API):
  389. Credit Card Stealer Investigation Uncovers Malware Ring:
  390. Dependency Risk and Funding:
  391. How to Prevent File Upload Vulnerabilities:
  392. Protection from Unrestricted File Upload Vulnerability:
  393. Why File Upload Forms are a Major Security Threat:
  394. What is DevSecOps?:
  395. Necurs.P2P – A New Hybrid Peer-to-Peer Botnet:
  396. Marcus Hutchins' analysis on Kelihos malware:
  397. Inside the Takedown of ZOMBIE SPIDER and the Kelihos Botnet:
  398. The Leaked NSA Spy Tool That Hacked the World:
  399. DHS notice on UPnP old news, as FBI warned about it in 2001, CIA exploited in Middle East spying/cyberwarfare:
  400. Equifax Inc. (EFX)Announces Significant Data Breach; -13.4% in After-Hours:
  401. Apache Struts Statement on Equifax Security Breach:
  402. Apache Struts Flaw Reportedly Exploited in Equifax Hack:
  403. Struts Flaw behind Equifax Breach Disclosed and Patched in March: (patched in March in Struts, hacked in May in Equifax app)
  404. Equifax says data from 143 million people exposed in hack:
  405. Equifax website hack exposes data for ~143 million US consumers:
  406. Three Equifax Managers Sold Stock Before Cyber Hack Revealed:
  407. Equifax execs sold stock before hack was disclosed:
  408. Equifax credit file monitoring -- Cybersecurity Incident & Important Consumer Information:
  409. After Massive Data Breach, Equifax Directed Customers To Fake Site:
  410. Equifax will pay up to $700 million to settle data breach lawsuits:
  411. FTC Finalizes Zoom Settlement, Despite Acting Chair's Dissent:
  412. Microsoft -- Beware Phishing Attacks with Open Redirect Links:
  413. Microsoft warns of widespread open redirection phishing attack – which Defender can block, coincidentally:
  414. Security audit raises severe warnings on Chinese smartphone models:
  415. NSA, Allies Issue Cybersecurity Advisory on Weaknesses that Allow Initial Access:

See Also

WebApp | Web Service | Penetration Testing | Surveillance | Identification | Authentication | Authorization | Encryption | HTTPS | SSL | TLS | XSS | PGP | VPN | P2P | Network Firewall | TechDebt | DarkWeb | Quantum Computing