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Photos are an image-based representation of the real world and may be of any number of objects (i.e. a person, place, landscape, plant, animal, ocean, sky, stars, anything!!!).


There are a number of competing and compatible/complimentary standards in Digital Photography and Camera technology. A nice summary is provided in the Venn diagram below:


[1] [2] [3]



[6] [7] [8] [9] [10]


International Press Telecommunications Council (commonly abbreviated as IPTC), is the leading metadata standards body for Press Agencies and News Media wires/feeds.


IPTC Information Interchange Model (commonly abbreviated as IIMor IPTC-IIM), is the main photograph image media metadata format, from the IPTC.


[11] [12]


Extensible Metadata Platform (commonly abbreviated as XMP), is a competing OSS image media metadata format.


[13] [14] [15]

IPTC Core for XMP


Storage/Sharing sites


Purikura are a uniquely Japanese invention of adding many "kawaii" (cute, by Japanese standards that is) images, caricatures, words/sayings, logos and/or color patterns to one's own photography (typically self-portrait photographs or "selfies", but could also be as simple as a landscape photo or pictures of one's prepared food).[27][28]



External Links


  1. What Is Photo Metadata?:
  2. Guidelines For Handling Image Metadata:
  3. Making Metadata Work:
  4. Standard of the Camera & Imaging Products Association -- CIPA DC-008-Translation-2012 - Exchangeable image file format for digital still cameras, Exif Version 2.3:
  5. Exchangeable image file format for digital still cameras, Exif Version 2.2:
  6. Overview of the revisions to the DCF and Exif standards:
  7. TIFF Tag Reference, Exif Tags:
  8. JPEG Rotation and EXIF Orientation:
  9. libexif C EXIF library:
  10. C++ metadata library and tools -- Exif, IPTC & XMP metadata and ICC Profile:
  11. IPTC - NAA Information Interchange Model Version 4:
  12. Quick guide to IPTC Photo Metadata and Google Images:
  13. Guide to XMP:
  14. CreativeCommons' usage of XMP:
  15. Metadata Working Group Introduces First Specification for Interoperability and Preservation of Metadata in Digital Photography:
  16. Flickr API:
  17. Flickr API - Upload:
  18. Flickr Feeds:
  19. Flickr API clients:
  20. SmugMug API:
  21. SmugMug API - Upload:
  22. phpSmug - PHP client SDK for SmugMug API:
  23. PhotoBucket API:
  24. PhotoBucket API docs:
  25. Picasa API:
  26. ImageShack API:
  27. Trends in Japan - Purikura Photo Booths:
  28. What is Purikura?:

See Also

Mobile | Content | Image | Gallery | Camera | Video | Audio | SVG