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Radio is a 19th century invention which enabled communications over air without a physical media connecting the two (or more) parties communicating. It is important to note that multiple parties may tune into a Radio signal, which means that Radio is capable of being broadcast, but it is only uni-directional, meaning it does not allow simultaneous sending and receiving over the exact same range of radio spectrum.



MicroFM (also called MiniFM or simply Micro Radio) had no consistent name when the initial group of tinkerers and researchers started experiments on free radio broadcasting in the late 70s and 80s, thus originally the simple name "free radio" was used. For example, one of the most infamous groups lead by students of Japanese engineer and professor Tetsuo Kogawa started Radio Home Run because they needed a medium to re-connect them together (before the days of the internet) after student protest groups/movements were broken up or faded into obscurity in Japan. Through MicroFM they could share individualistic interests and information while still maintaining the "collective" characteristics they had grown accustomed to in a "collective society" like Japan. MiniFM as they eventually called it, created a comfortable (safer) distance between them, yet allowed them to safely share vital information on important issues.

Some examples of the many uses for a part 15 FM transmitter:

  1. Start your own 'Pirate Radio' show - Get a loyal userbase to install MicroFM repeaters tuned to your signal/frequency and slowly but surely increase your cover to take over a whole city.
  2. Broadcast all your Music CDs & Tapes - Put all your music on your computer or MP3 player and then broadcast it throughout your home or back yard.
  3. Fitness Centers love it - Broadcast your TV audio to customers on their FM radio for a fraction of the cost when compared to your other options.
  4. Your Satellite Radio - Connect the transmitter to your Sirius or XM radio and broadcast in your home or as you travel.
  5. Internet Radio, Podcasts, iTunes & music downloads - Broadcast your music downloads and streaming radio throughout your home. You are no longer tied to your computer.
  6. Correction Facilities - Several correction facilities use our transmitter to broadcast the audio from a TV in the main common area to inmates with FM Radios. They love the fact that the TV no longer has to be blaring throughout the day.
  7. Churches & Universities - They broadcast the speaker's message to people who are hard of hearing. They also use it to broadcast a translator to members/students in the audience.
  8. Neighborhood Block Parties - Some customers have used our product to broadcast music to FM transmitters on the street during a block party. They no longer have to blast the music for everyone to hear.
  9. Walk-A-Thons & Fund Raisers - This is great for those all night fund raisers & walk-a-thons. They can still communicate with the volunteers even during the midnight hours and not disturb local homeowners trying to sleep.
  10. While working in your back yard - Listen while working outside cutting the grass or cleaning up the yard.
  11. In your spa or hot tub - Send TV audio to your Spa or Pool while keeping the TV indoors.
  12. Your personal Drive-In Theater - Setup a screen, projector and DVD player then connect the transmitter to the DVD player's audio out port via the RCA jack adapter and begin broadcasting the audio to every car around the screen.
  13. At your High School Football Game - broadcasting play-by-play throughout an entire High School Football stadium to the fans in the bleachers where there is no large PA or Speaker system.
  14. As you drive - Listen on your vehicle's radio while driving in your car, truck, RV or boat.
  15. During the Holidays - Some customers play Christmas music to visitors as they drive by their home and view their decorations.
  16. As you are traveling - When traveling and staying in hotels/motels listen to your favorite audio on the room's radio
  17. When you wake up - Wake up to your favorite music by broadcasting to your bed's clock radio
  18. At your office - This one we found very ingenious. One customer has a Sirius Satellite Radio in their car and then broadcasts it from their car into their office so they can listen to Howard Stern. Other customers use the same concept when they want to listen to their Satellite Radio that is built into their car while in their home.
  19. As you relax on your deck or patio - Transmit your favorite music to your deck or patio and you now only need a small FM Radio instead of a bulky "boom box" or stereo system.
  20. From your computer - Take all your favorite music that is on your computer and broadcast it throughout your home.
  21. While you clean your home - carry a small FM receiver with you as you clean up around your home. It makes the time go much quicker.
  22. As you get ready for your day - Listen to what inspires you instead of all the day's bad news
  23. During your meals - Listen to what you whatever you want

Pirate Radio

Pirate radio is illegal or unregulated radio transmission for entertainment or political purposes. While pirate just refers to the illegal nature of the broadcasts (unlicensed use of radio spectrum), there have also been notable pirate offshore radio transmissions attempting to skirt Piracy laws via basing broadcasting transmitters from International Waters. Pirate Radio may be broadcasted via FM radio, AM radio, or short wave signals over a wide range; it is this wide-range distribution that differentiates Pirate Radio from MicroFM. Pirate Radio would utilize high-powered transmitters or illegal radio towers (i.e. those which transmit 500m to 100km or more), for example, while MicroFM relies on personal repeaters (typically from listeners) to cover wider areas, otherwise transmission of MicroFM would be limited to a single room, building or block (i.e. 100 to 500 m).

In some cases radio stations are deemed legal where the signal is transmitted, but illegal where the signals are received; especially when the signals cross a national or regional (i.e. state/provincial/prefectural) boundary. In other cases, a broadcast may be considered "pirate" due to the nature of its content (such as not paying for music being played in the signal), its transmission format (especially a failure to transmit a station identification according to regulations), or the transmit power (wattage) of the station, even if the transmission is not technically illegal (such as a web cast or an amateur radio transmission).

Pirate radio stations are sometimes called bootleg stations (a term especially associated with two-way radio), clandestine stations (associated with heavily politically motivated operations) or also lumped in with MicroFM and referred to as "free radio" stations.

CB Radio



Analog Radio

Digital Terrestrial

[11] [12] [13]

Satellite Radio

In most countries, Satellite Radio has been dominated by XM/Sirius since the two largest players in this market merged in 2008.[14][15][16][17][18][19]


Radio Locator

Radio Locator is the most comprehensive radio station search engine on the internet, with links to over 10,000 radio station web pages and over 2500 audio streams from radio stations in the U.S. and around the world.









CBS Radio


Direct link to Pandora Music player (could be used as a Flash Widget):

Embed code:

 <OBJECT classid="clsid:D27CDB6E-AE6D-11cf-96B8-444553540000"
  <PARAM NAME=movie VALUE="">
  <PARAM NAME=quality VALUE=high>
  <PARAM NAME=allowscriptaccess VALUE=always>
  <PARAM NAME=menu VALUE=false>
  <PARAM NAME=wmode VALUE=opaque>
  <PARAM NAME="FlashVars" VALUE="_tunervar_port=80&">
   <EMBED src=""
     NAME="radio" ALIGN="" TYPE="application/x-shockwave-flash"
  • Pandora - The Largest selection of Mainstream Radio Stations streamed online (available in US only):














Middle East





External Links


  1. What is MiniFM (MicroFM)?:
  2. Micro FM to counter maintstream media:
  3. Mr Kogawa's Micro FM Transmitter in Boing Boing Bazaar:
  4. CS student builds Tetsuo Kogawa's MicroFM transmitter:
  5. (Too Simple) MicroFM transmitter on a breadboard:
  6. Tetsuo Kogawa - ou la Radio à mains nues:
  7. Tetsuo Kogawa at Shimokitazawa train station:
  8. Interview with Japanese radio maker Tetsuo Kogawa:
  9. Hobbyist Micro FM Stereo Transmitter:
  10. You Can Still Use a Pager in 2021 -- How a Raspberry Pi will help you resurrect this classic communications device:
  11. Digital Audio Broadcasting Systems and Their Impact on the Terrestrial Radio Broadcast Service:
  12. What Is a Digital Terrestrial Receiver?:
  13. SAF3560 -- Terrestrial Digital Radio Processor:
  14. Federal Communications Commission (FCC) -- XM & Sirius:
  15. FCC approves Sirius-XM satellite radio merger:
  16. XM, Sirius announce merger:
  17. Sirius and XM close merger:
  18. The XM-Sirius Merger:
  19. SIRIUS and XM Complete Merger:
  20. Pandora -- Streaming Everywhere on Everything:
  21. Listen to Grooveshark Radio for Free on Your Supported Smartphone!:
  22. Mr Kogawa's Micro FM Transmitter:
  23. Schematic for the Micro FM transmitter:
  24. Single Transistor FM Transmitter:

See Also

Online Radio | Audio | Music | News | Playlist | iPhone | TV | WiFi | Bluetooth