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Technology is any tool, innovation or advancement which contributes something of value in terms of life simplification (most commonly automation of manual tasks) or enhancing humans with new abilities which were previously not possible.

Arthur C. Clarke famously said:

"Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic."[1][2]

The joke is that things which are "techie" in nature are "all things considered cool about technology, but in fact quite the opposite" (or another way of putting that is that techies deal in technologies which have either been abandoned by the not yet

Technical Debt

Technical Debt is defined differently depending on the organization/expert you ask, but the underlying commonality is that it represents "a difference between what (i.e. software/hardware) was promised (to users/customers) and what was actually delivered (i.e. incomplete software/hardware with bugs or errors)"[3]

Another way of looking at Technical Debt is anything the hinders the quality, performance or security of your technology (i.e. software/hardware). Such limitations will also limit the speed at which development can happen (and equivalently the "burndown rate" for closing bugs and/or "sprint pace" for adding new features). Business-wise, it makes sense to then tackle and remove Technical Debt as early and often as possible, in order to ensure your teams are operating at full capacity and maximum efficiency. Technical Debt is often the result of shortcuts, workarounds or temporary fixes to meet deadlines, that often never end up getting fixed due to new deadlines coming up and taking priority.

From the Quality Assurance perspective, strict adherence to DevOps' continuous improvement principles would dictate that any single piece of supporting software/hardware that's allowed to become out-of-date is in fact a form of Technical Debt. This means that a software/hardware stack should always be capable of operating with the highest "stable" version number of any dependencies (i.e. libraries, APIs or supporting platforms) in order to have the highest possible quality of software/hardware. This is important because many libraries, APIs or platforms are constantly receiving updates which result in major improvements such as security patches for critical vulnerabilities, user experience simplifications, feature enhancements, and/or performance optimizations.

[4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] [14] [15] [16] [17] [18]

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Big Tech

A term that typically refers derogatorily or disparagingly to FAANGS along with the most dominant players with presences in Silicon Valley like Microsoft, Oracle, IBM, Salesforce, Twitter, Palantir, etc. Often also expands out to the "hipper" or more hyped mid-sized Tech Startups in North America (beyond Silicon Valley). It could include some of the moderate influencer companies like Mozilla, Yahoo, AOL, etc. It can sometimes even more broadly include foreign technology companies like Samsung, LG, Lenovo, Huawei, Xiaomi, Baidu, Tencent (QQ), SoftBank, NTT, Panasonic, SONY, Fujitsu, Fujifilm (Fuji-Xerox), Hitachi, Toshiba, Konica-Minolta, Garmin, Philips, Siemens, Nokia, Canon; and to a far lesser extent some of the older, longer-term tech/electronics players such as 3M, Cisco, Intel, HP, Dell, Acer, etc.


Facebook Amazon Apple Netflix Google Spotify (FAANGS)



External Links


  2. wikipedia: Clarke's three laws
  3. Escaping the black hole of technical debt:
  4. The Solution to Technical Debt:
  5. On technical debt:
  6. Technical Debt - What It Is & Isn't:
  7. Technical Debt -- What Is It and How Does It Actually Affect Your Startup? :
  8. ProductPlan -- Technical Debt explainer:
  9. Get out of Technical Debt Now! (PRESENTATION):
  10. Ward Cunningham Explains Debt Metaphor:
  11. Technical Debt:
  12. Technical Debt:
  13. Technical Debt "Quadrant":
  14. 5 ways to pay down your software security debt:
  15. The Cost of Technical Debt in Analytics:
  16. The UX of Technical Debt:
  17. 8 Top Metrics for Measuring Your Technical Debt:
  18. Measuring Technical Debt:
  19. wikipedia: OODA loop (Observe–Orient–Decide–Act)
  20. Introduction to the "Technical Debt" concept: | PDF
  21. The CIO-CFO Conversation - Technical Debt—An Apt Term?:
  22. The Developer Coefficient -- Software engineering efficiency and its $3 trillion impact on global GDP (WHITEPAPER):
  23. Managing Technical Debt (WHITEPAPER): Technical Debt.pdf
  24. Does code decay? Assessing the evidence from change management data (REPORT):
  25. Technical Debt -- Part 1 - Definition:
  26. Technical Debt -- Part 2 - Identification:
  27. Technical Debt -- Part 3 - Quantifying :
  28. Technical Debt -- Part 4 - Remediation:
  29. Technical Debt -- Part 5 - Governance:
  30. Understand the High Cost of Technical Debt by Ward Cunningham:
  31. An Overview of Technical Debt:
  32. Avoiding Technical Debt with These "Core Four" Practices: | VIDEO
  33. The Engineer’s Complete Guide to Technical Debt:
  34. How to avoid the technical debt 'kiss of death':
  35. Tech debt - Reclaiming tech equity:
  36. Technical Debt - How much is it Really Costing you?: (supposedly as much as "$3.61 per line of code")
  37. Understand the High Cost of Technical Debt by Ward Cunningham:
  38. (Maybe it should be called) Technical Liabilities, not Technical Debt:
  39. Technical Debt – When Do You Have To Pay It Off?:–-when-do-you
  40. Paying Off Your Technical Debt:
  41. Letting Go of Technical Debt:
  42. Don’t buy into the Technical Debt Illusion:
  43. The One Thing Every Company Can Do to Reduce Technical Debt:
  44. Don't Waste Time Tracking Technical Debt:
  45. Infrastructure Debt Harder to "Pay Off" Than Technical Debt:
  46. 5 Tips On Working With Technical Debt: (1.Automated Testing, 2.Leave code better than found, 3.Allow/Encourage improvements, 4.Code Reviews, 5.Use "why-and" comments for intentional debt)
  47. Dice of Debt Game:
  48. Technical Debt is a Systemic Problem:
  49. Technical Debt:
  50. How To Use Technical Debt In Your Favor:
  51. Equifax Issues Continue - Technical Debt at the Core:
  52. Technical Debt and Supporting Prior Decisions:
  53. How great Product Managers deal with Technical Debt:
  54. The 4 Types of "CODE" Technical Debt:
  55. There are 3 main types of technical debt. Here’s how to manage them:
  56. Technical Debt Explained -- The Complete Guide to Understanding and Dealing with Technical Debt:
  57. Types of Technical Debt:
  58. SAFe -- Nonfunctional Requirements:
  59. CISQ Standards for Measuring Software Risk, Security, and Technical Debt (2018):
  60. A Position Study to Investigate Technical Debt Associated withSecurityWeaknesses:
  61. Technical Debt Will Kill Your Agile Dreams (if you let it):
  62. Should You Declare Bankruptcy on Your Technical Debt?:
  63. Technical Debt Is Like Tetris:
  64. There are 3 main types of technical debt - here’s how to manage them:
  65. Let’s Replace the Term “Technical Debt”: (how about Technical Liabilities .vs. Technical Asset)
  66. Why You Should Learn to Stop Worrying and Love Technical Debt (but at least measure/account/plan for it properly):
  67. PIE -- The 3 letters that saved my project's Tech Debt:
  68. DevOps and automating the repayment of technical debt:
  69. ‘Organizational Debt’ is hurting my company:
  70. The True Cost of Technical Debt:
  71. Three Tips for Managing Technical Debt - While Maintaining Developer Velocity (and Sanity):
  72. Technical Debt Management with Feature Flags -- Strategy & Best Practices:
  73. Technical Debt is REAL debt:
  74. What Technical Debt Is And How It’s Measured:
  75. Reflections on code quality. Confession of a CTO:
  76. Code Quality matters to the customers - A lot:
  77. Why code quality matters:
  78. The 23 Patterns of Software Negligence:
  79. The True Cost of Technical Debt:
  80. Technical debt as an asset:
  81. The High Cost of Technical Debt:
  82. Technical Debt Is The High Cost Of Future Change:
  83. Technical Debt - The Silent Company Killer:
  84. Technical Debt Visualised using Cost of Delay:
  85. Finally I visualized in hard cash the cost of Technical Debt:
  86. The Cost of Technical Debt (focused on Dev Hours):
  87. The Real Cost of Technical Debt:
  88. The Real Cost of One Trillion Dollars in IT Debt -- Part II – The Performance Paradox:
  89. The Growing Threat of Technical Debt:
  90. (How we approach) Technical Debt at Teamworks:
  91. Three Strategies for Fitting Refactoring into Your Sprints:
  92. Escape the Permission Trap with Healthy Habits:
  93. Developer's Guide to Open Source Spring Cleaning:
  94. The “State of Technical Debt 2021”:
  95. What Do Engineers Really Think About Technical Debt?:
  96. The “State of Technical Debt 2021” -- Engineers weigh in on Technical Debt and Its Impact on Team Morale, Velocity, and Customer Experience:
  97. How to deal with tech debt — Lessons learned from the best engineering teams (WEBINAR):
  98. The Engineer's Complete Guide to Legacy Code:
  99. 5 arguments to make managers care about Technical Debt:
  100. Some Technical Debt is Self-Resolving:
  101. Delicate Art of Bureacracy (BOOK): | POSTER (remember that bureaucracy/red-tape/process is typically put in place by perfectly fine people for specific reasons, your job to improve the situation they instill is: #1-prove why their reasons are no longer important, #2-show there are better ways to satisfy those reasons, #3-demonstrate more important reasons i.e. coprorate/department goals, objective, directives that override them)
  102. Hunting TechDebt via "Org charts":
  103. A Pandemic Side Effect -- Rampant Technical Debt:
  104. Enterprises Face Growing Technical Debt:
  105. Tech debt gets worse before it gets better:
  106. Accumulation of Tech Debt; experiments and shortcuts are core components:
  107. The 3 Best Tactics to Prevent Technical Debt:
  108. How to convince people to deal with tech debt:
  109. The Software AG Situation Report - 2022: (IT survey of 738 IT Director-level decision makers US-218, Germany-184, UK-179, France-157 in a company with >= 250 employees now identify TechDebt as top concern and majority aware it slows them down, but becoming increasingly accepted to launch new products/services as long as plan in place to pay down)
  110. Technical Debt with Adam Tornhill & Alex Omeyer (WEBINAR):
  111. Survey Shows Increased Focus on Modernizing IT, Retiring Apps:
  112. Avoiding Technical Debt with These "Core Four" Practices:
  113. Alex (Stepsize) & Bryan Copeland (Atlantic Lottery) -- IDE Issue Tracking:
  114. The KPIs of improved "Reliability":
  115. Jules Ehrhardt presentation at "The State of the Digital Nation" 2018:

See Also

IT | Software | Hardware | Information Technology | Mobile Technology | PM | Business | Energy