ECMA

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European Computer Manufacturers Association, international (commonly abbreviated ECMA) is a standards body and the owners of a famously popular and often referenced scripting language specification.

Widely used languages such as JavaScript, JScript and ActionScript have all been based on the original ECMA standard (among others). ECMA has also published a large number of other major technical specifications adopted across a wide array of industries.[1]


Specifications

EcmaScript

JavaScript

See: JavaScript

TypeScript

Microsoft's "strongly-typed" version of the JavaScript language.

[2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7]

CoffeeScript

Apple's version of the JavaScript language.

[8] [9]

ES

Each year the EcmaScript (ES) standard is scheduled to receive significant updates, but major versions will only be launched every 2 years.

[10] [11] [12]

ES5

ECMAscript 5 (also known as ES2009 based on its year of release).

[13] [14]

ES6

ECMAscript 6 (also known as ES2015 based on its year of release).

[15] [16] [17] [18] [19] [20]

ES7

ECMAscript 7 (also known as ES2016 based on its year of release).

[21] [22] [23] [24]

ES8

ECMAscript 8 (also known as ES2017 based on its year of release).

[25]

ES9

ECMAscript 9 (also known as ES2018 based on its year of release).

[26]

ES10

ES2020 (11)

ES2021 (12)

[27]

ES Next

ECMAscript evolving spec is commonly referred to as ES.next, however further versions may be listed as groupings of changes or some specific years' functionality logically flow/coalesce into a new versioned standard. In the meantime, everything else is considered ES Next (or the Beta/WIP upcoming features of the "living specification").

[28] [29] [30]

Tools


Resources


Tutorials

External Links


References

  1. wikipedia: List of Ecma standards
  2. wikipedia: TypeScript
  3. TypeScript - Quick Guide: https://www.tutorialspoint.com/typescript/typescript_quick_guide.htm
  4. A Proposal For Type Syntax in JavaScript: https://devblogs.microsoft.com/typescript/a-proposal-for-type-syntax-in-javascript/
  5. How Microsoft Wants To Change TypeScript = Better Programming: https://betterprogramming.pub/how-microsoft-wants-to-destroy-typescript-1f1a53b18de6
  6. 10 TypeScript features you might not be using yet or didn't understand: https://obaranovskyi.medium.com/10-typescript-features-you-might-not-be-using-yet-or-didnt-understand-d1f28888ea45
  7. TypeScript - Use polymorphism in place of the switch and other conditionals: https://obaranovskyi.medium.com/typescript-use-polymorphism-in-place-of-the-switch-and-other-conditionals-1cfcc705bcc1
  8. wikipedia: CoffeeScript
  9. CoffeeScript - Quick Guide: https://www.tutorialspoint.com/coffeescript/coffeescript_quick_guide.htm
  10. ES modules -- A cartoon deep-dive: https://hacks.mozilla.org/2018/03/es-modules-a-cartoon-deep-dive/
  11. ES5, ES6, ES2016, ES.Next: What's going on with JavaScript versioning?: https://benmccormick.org/2015/09/14/es5-es6-es2016-es-next-whats-going-on-with-javascript-versioning
  12. How to follow the JavaScript roadmap: https://benmccormick.org/2017/07/10/how-to-follow-the-javascript-roadmap/
  13. ECMAScript 2009 - ES5 feature summary: https://www.w3schools.com/js/js_es5.asp
  14. Learn ES5: https://babeljs.io/docs/en/learn
  15. ES6 feature summary: https://www.w3schools.com/Js/js_es6.asp
  16. Understanding the differences between ES5 and ES6: http://developmentr.com/javascript/2015/12/31/javascript-es6.html
  17. Understanding ECMAScript 6: https://leanpub.com/understandinges6
  18. Exploring JS -- JavaScript books for programmers: http://exploringjs.com | []
  19. ES6 compatibility table: https://kangax.github.io/compat-table/es6/
  20. These are the features in ES6 that you should know: https://medium.com/programming-essentials/these-are-the-features-in-es6-that-you-should-know-1411194c71cb
  21. ECMAScript 2016 - ES7 feature summary: https://www.w3schools.com/js/js_2016.asp
  22. ES 7 and ES8 Features: https://webapplog.com/es7-es8/
  23. The final feature set of ECMAScript 2016 (ES7): http://2ality.com/2016/01/ecmascript-2016.html
  24. ECMAScript 2016 or ES2016 or Es7 introduction: https://www.cloudhadoop.com/2018/08/learn-es7-features-es2016-javascript.html
  25. 2Javascript – ES7 , ES8 New Features: https://www.cronj.com/blog/javascript-es7-es8-new-features/
  26. JavaScript for impatient programmers (E-BOOK): http://exploringjs.com/impatient-js/toc.html
  27. What’s new in the ES2021 standard for JavaScript?: https://www.cloudsavvyit.com/12234/whats-new-in-the-es2021-standard-for-javascript/
  28. ECMAScript Next support in Mozilla: https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/JavaScript/New_in_JavaScript/ECMAScript_Next_support_in_Mozilla
  29. ES5 to ESNext  (2019) —  here’s every feature added to JavaScript since 2015: https://medium.freecodecamp.org/es5-to-esnext-heres-every-feature-added-to-javascript-since-2015-d0c255e13c6e
  30. Exploring ES2018 and ES2019 (E-BOOK): http://exploringjs.com/es2018-es2019/toc.html
  31. ES6 plans: https://wiki.mozilla.org/ES6_plans
  32. Es6 Features: http://es6-features.org/#Constants
  33. An introduction to ES6 Part 1 of 10 -- Using ES6 Today: http://dev.venntro.com/2013/09/es6-part-1/
  34. ES6 -- The Awesome Parts : https://www.slideshare.net/domenicdenicola/es6-the-awesome-parts
  35. Javascript ES6 -- Learn important features in a few minutes: https://www.frontendjournal.com/javascript-es6-learn-important-features-in-a-few-minutes/
  36. ES6 for everyone: https://es6.io/


See Also

JavaScript | JScript | ActionScript