Difference between revisions of "Accessibility"

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<ref>US Census Infograph on the Commonality of Specific Disabilities: http://www.disabilityresource.org/3-us-census-infograph-on-the-commonality-of-specific-disabilities</ref>
 
<ref>US Census Infograph on the Commonality of Specific Disabilities: http://www.disabilityresource.org/3-us-census-infograph-on-the-commonality-of-specific-disabilities</ref>
 
<ref>Recent U.S. Disability Statistics from the Census Bureau: https://www.disabled-world.com/disability/statistics/census-stats.php</ref>
 
<ref>Recent U.S. Disability Statistics from the Census Bureau: https://www.disabled-world.com/disability/statistics/census-stats.php</ref>
 
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<ref>Google Maps - Section 508 Compliance: https://developers.google.com/maps/premium/accessibility</ref>
  
 
== 12 categories ==
 
== 12 categories ==

Revision as of 15:14, 10 August 2022

Accessibility (commonly abbreviated as A11Y, also refered to as universal support) is the support for disabled or otherwise impaired persons.


Specifications

WCAG

Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (commonly abbreviated WCAG) is part of a series of accessibility guidelines, including the Authoring Tool Accessibility Guidelines (ATAG) and the User Agent Accessibility Guidelines (UAAG)[1][2].


                                           WCAG 1.0   |   WCAG 2.0
importance of the content A AA AAA A AA AAA
(closed) captionsXXXX*XX
(closed) audio descriptionXXXX*XX
full text alternativeX*X
sign languageX
  1. A = Priority 1, Web developers must satisfy these requirements, otherwise it will be impossible for one or more groups to access the Web content. Conformance to this level is described as A.
  2. AA = Priority 2, Web developers should satisfy these requirements, otherwise some groups will find it difficult to access the Web content. Conformance to this level is described as AA or Double-A.
  3. AAA = Priority 3, Web developers may satisfy these requirements, in order to make it easier for some groups to access the Web content. Conformance to this level is described as AAA or Triple-A.

[3] [4] [5]

POUR principles

In addition to the specific multimedia accessibility techniques, WCAG defines defines four key principles of accessibility:

  1. Perceivable - Information can be presented in different ways; for example, in braille, different text sizes, text-to-speech, or symbols, etc.
  2. Operable - Functionality can be used in different modalities; for example, keyboard, mouse, sip-and-puff, speech input, touch, etc.
  3. Understandable - Information and functionality is understandable; for example consistent navigation, simple language, etc.
  4. Robust - Content can be interpreted reliably by a wide variety of browsers, media players, and assistive technologies.

[6]

There are currently two stable versions of WCAG that are both supported by W3C:

WCAG 2.0 was published in December 2008, and has become widely adopted as the standard for web accessibility by many businesses and governments around the world. It defines 12 Guidelines under the four POUR principles. Under each Guideline there are more specific Success Criteria divided into three Conformance Levels: A, AA, and AAA. WCAG 2.0 defines 61 Success Criteria.


WCAG 2.1 was published in June 2018, to better address accessibility for people with cognitive and learning disabilities, people with low vision, and people with disabilities using mobile devices. WCAG 2.1 is fully backward compatible with WCAG 2.0, so that if your content conforms to WCAG 2.1 it also conforms to WCAG 2.0. WCAG 2.1 defines 13 Guidelines and 78 Success Criteria.

WCAG 2.0 – Quick Facts and Guide: https://www.hurix.com/wcag-quick-facts-and-guide/ [10] [11] [12] [13]

[14] [15]


WAI

Web Accessibility Initiative (commonly abbreviated WCAG).

[16]

ARIA

ARIA Landmarks Example: https://w3c.github.io/aria-practices/examples/landmarks/index.html [18] [19] [20] [21] [22] [23]

ATAG

UAAG

ARRM

[25] [26] [27] [28] [29] [30] [31] [32] [33]



Kiosks

[34] [35]

Printed Materials

  • Best Practices and Guidelines for Large Print Documents used by the Low Vision Community authored by the Council of Citizens with Low Vision: https://perma.cc/MQ2K-5UAQ

[36] [37] [38] [39] [40] [41] [42] [43]


a11y

Wordpress as of v4.3.x offers Accessibility prompts via JavaScript to communicate with Screen Reader software (where available natively in the client's browser or via Plugin). Simply

wp.a11y.speak('YOUR TEXT TO BE SPOKEN HERE'); 
  • a11y
  • The Accessibility (a11y) Project: https://www.a11yproject.com/ (aside from tons of great blogs/tutorials/resources, a nice visual explaining the 11 characters between "A" and "Y" of the word AccessibilitY)

AAM

ACC Name


Section 508

United States government initiative towards Accessibility for IT.

[44] [45] [46] [47] [48] [49] [50]

12 categories

Utilities

A person may for personal or financial reasons not have full access to modern society's common amenities including power/electricity, internet, telephone, mobile phone, heat, hot water, etc... they may also have some amenities such as power and internet or mobile data services but it may be limited or cost-prohibitively expensive to the point it needs to be rationed or only used sparingly at specific times, page loads should thus be small and fast; in general, there should be alternate ways to provide service to these customers as well.

Literacy & Numeracy

Ability to read and understand textual information on a screen or printed material, as well as issues that can arise for folks who have trouble reading text when layered on top of images or with insufficient spacing, color contrasts, etc - literacy in Canada is typically measured by levels ranging from 1 (illiterate) to 3 (basic literacy required to function independently in society) to 5 (highly proficient and capable of critical analysis); equally important to reading itself are "numerical literacy" considerations, as some folks may be perfectly capable of reading text but not of processing numbers, statistics, doing basic mathematics, or, may lack financial literacy in terms of sensibly managing their own money or the money of others in their household.

Cognitive

Reading comprehension, mental barriers to learning, or even cognitive realization of how one is expected to interact with a given screen or experience (checkout flow, registration/signup flow, login/logout flow, regular usage, etc) could be an issue, as could memory and information retention (or not remembering how to perform a task or processing/understanding the information that was successfully read or result of an action that was taken); problem-solving skills also fall into this category, which could be problematic for any of the more complex UI/UX expectations thrust upon the user.

[51] [52] [53]y [54] [55] [56]

Tactile

Having an inability or challenge to control the common Human Computer Interface (HCI) and related peripheral devices could be reduced, this includes a mouse/keyboard (for Desktop computers), directional pad and/or QWERT or numerical keys (for legacy or basic Mobile devices), or increasingly, on-screen/virtual keyboards and touch-based controls for Smartphones and Mobile Tablet-type devices (which introduce their own "fat finger" potential design issues), lastly there are those who can use none of the above and require a special stylus or pointing device for instance sometimes even using their mouth or feet to point rather than hands.

Vision

Not just full blindness, this category also includes "partially sighted" (legal blindness but still some vision at high zooms), "reduced vision" (near/far-sightedness), color-blindness, and similar categories of vision disabilities... Braille for print or Screen Readers for digital are the most common tools, and we to need to ensure compatibility of these assistive technologies with our systems.

Hearing

Inability or challenges to be able ot hear information in an audio delivery format such as a radio ad, podcast, music player, video, spoken word, presentations, phone calls, tele-confernces, etc.... correctly sequenced/timed captions should be provided for native language speakers with such issues, subtitles may need to be required for foreign or second language speakers, transcripts with timestamps can also help cover all folks' needs and have the added benefit of Search Engine Optimization and improved content discoverability. Sign language may be a requirement.

[57] [58] [59]

Speech

When intentionally designing Voice controls, there are those persons whom have a Speech impediment, disorder of the Vocal folds or throat, or other Speaking disabilities whom need special textual or audio representations for Voice controls to be usable in an accessible manner while interacting with a given system. This can pose a real challenge, so having a baseline experience that doesn't require complex vocal interaction can be a key design area to focus on whenever speech-related controls are intended to be used.

Physical & Mobility

As with any of the other categories these could be permanent (lifelong conditions, chronic illnesses) or temporary (injury which a person is recovering from or situational due to physical location/environment); just as building designers particularly need to think about wheelchair accessibility, as well as use of canes, walkers and other assisted mechanisms (bathroom/elevator emergency bells, hand-rails, safety barriers, curb heights & cuts, etc) or accommodate guided helpers (two-person hallways/doorways, seeing eye-dogs or other comfort/therapy animals, etc) software designers need to think about physical limitations that could impede use of a digital product/service. In addition, there are many mobility disabilities which could factor into accessibility concerns including one's ability to sit at a desk, angle one's head/neck/eyes and/or arms, those who may be bed-ridden; there are many in these groups and others whom need to use Voice controls, such as Speech-To-Text (STT) and/or Text-To-Speech (TTS) to control their screen rather than a keyboard, mouse and/or mobile device touch interface.

Vestibular

This category of disorders and personal challenges include seizures, migraines & disorientation or dizziness caused by any combination or isolated instance of flashing lights, suddenly changing color schemes, or, even basic animation motion trails and seemingly harmless "stylistic transitions" between screens or displayed sections; so these must be capable of being toggled on/off or permanently disabled via personalized settings; pausing/deactivation controls should also be available without a login/account requirement for things like auto-scrolling feeds, auto-transitioning carousels, carousel slide animations and other page-level or component-level transitions.

Vestibular Disorders and those who can become triggered into seizures are the major health concern here, but there are also simply those who do not like such "special effects" (or for whom it makes the content harder to read/understand or makes them dizzy, confused or otherwise uncomfortable); so we should respect their preferences and offer them an experience without such effects. The current way to communicate a preference not to be shown animations and related effects is the CSS3 markup "@prefers-reduced-motion".

[60] [61] [62] [63] [64] [65] [66] [67] [68] [69]

Device & Screen

A person may have a very old device and for financial or personal reasons be unwilling or unable to upgrade or replace that device, what is the lowest common experience we can guarantee to all such users? (perhaps it could be a bit better than "please get a new device and/or upgrade your browser" message); similarly, a person may have a smaller or less than optimal screen size or resolution available for displaying digital content, may be unable to view their screen due to viewing angles, reflections, lighting conditions, cracks/damage to screen, etc... so some baseline experience must be preserved, and on touch-enabled screens good UI/UX around "fat fingering must be followed.

Location

A person might not be able to access a given physical retail location or other facility, and needs a close proxy user experience via a combination of other medium (web and/or mobile typically being the first choice, packaged/offline software being another digital option). Traditionally companies are often also expected to ensure any service offered can also potentially be provided by telephone, email, chat, print materials, guided in-person help or traveling kiosks or customer service representatives that come to given neighbourhoods (not necessarily all of these for every offering, but a strategic combination to cover users' needs).

[70] [71]


Timing

A person may not be able to complete a given task within an alotted amount of time, or, on the flip side for those without blocking disabilities an otherwise "fully-abled" person may still not be able to access a physical or even digital service at a specific time (i.e. "get your purchase in before draw break") this could include workers stuck on the "night shift", those in remote areas with no internet access, temporarily out of mobile service area, etc.



Diversity & Inclusion

Concerns "Accessible employment" and workplace inclusivity (equal participation & opportunities).

[72] [73] [74] [75] [76] [77] [78] [79] [80] [81] [82] [83] [84] [85] [86]

Societal approaches

Equality-vs-Equity-vs-Justice.png

Equality


Equity

Justice


Information Architecture

Content Strategy

Accessibility Auditors

There are three "tiers" or types of 3rd-party Accessibility providers:

  1. Tier 1 - scan & overlay (no "preventive" coverage against lawsuits) $2-5k USD
  2. Tier 2 - hybrid, scan & overlay with wait & see approach (partial coverage) $6-12k USD
  3. Tier 3 - full legal coverage (guaranteed compliance & insurance coverage options against lawsuits) $12-25k USD

[94]

Over 10000 cases/year go to court, almost 100% go to court, average of over $20000 USD awarded to plaintiffs.


Desktop Technology-specific A11Y

PDF accessibility

[95] [96] [97]

PPT accessiblity

[98] [99] [100] [101] [102]

Email accessibility

Here are a few tips to help you send accessible emails:

  • Provide a clear, brief, and informative subject line
  • Choose a font style that is easy to read in at least 12-14 point font
  • Use spaces to break up paragraphs
  • Use plain text and avoid using lots of special characters and symbols
  • Avoid flashing or flickering content (think: gifs in your email signature

[103] [104]


Web Technology-specific A11Y

HTML accessibility

[106]

CSS accessibility

[107]

JS accessibility

[108]

Charts/Graphs/Diagrams/Tables


Special A11Y concerns

Visual

[109]

Motion preferences

A number of people may suffer from permanent/chronic, temporary/resolvable or situational/environmental issues around motion, flicker and related content changes (often categorized as "Vestibular Disorders"). These could be triggered through:

  • content animations
  • moving, growing or shrinking pictures/text
  • strobing effects
  • sudden color changes
  • screen transitions

[110] [111] [112] [113] [114] [115]

[116] [117] [118] [119] [120] [121]

[122] (MD) [123] [124] [125] [126] [127]


Contrast

Text & Images must have sufficient contrast between one another and their respective containers/backgrounds.

[128] [129]

Screen Reader

  • WebAIM -- Designing for Screen Reader compatibility: https://webaim.org/techniques/screenreader/ (similar considerations for all types of apps Desktop/Mobile/Web, but approaches slightly different depending on platform)

[130] [131] [132] [133] [134]

[135] [136] [137] [138] [139] [140] [141] [142] [143] [144]


Keyboard navigation

Keyboard Accessibility defines the ability to use a standard or custom (i.e. Braille, RSI positioned keys, etc) keyboard input device rather than any other HCI peripheral device (such as mouse, stylus, finger/touch, voice, etc) to interact with a given Website, WebApp, Desktop App or Mobile App.


When verifying "Keyboard Accessibility" you should check that:

  1. 'Tab to all - users can tab to all the active elements including links, form fields, buttons, and a media player control.
  2. Tab away - users can tab away from (out of) all elements that can be tabbed into.
  3. Tab order - the tab order follows the logical reading order according to the language on the page.
  4. Visual focus - the focus is clearly visible as users tab through the elements, and users can tell if navigating away to another application or tab upon returning, precisely which element has focus at any point in time.
  5. Functionality - users can do everything with the keyboard. That is you don't need to use a mouse to activate actions options, visible changes, and other functionality.
  6. Drop-downs - after users tab to a drop-down list using the arrow keys to move through the options without triggering another action.
  7. Image links - when images are links they have clear & visible focus and they can be activated using the keyboard.

The following table shows some common keyboard shortcuts and keymap conventions:

Interaction

Keystrokes

Navigate to most elements

  • Tab
  • Shift + Tab - navigate backward

Link

Enter

Button

Enter or Spacebar

Checkbox

Spacebar - check/uncheck a checkbox

Radio buttons

  • ↑/↓ or ←/→ - select an option
  • Tab - move to the next element

Select (dropdown) menu

  • ↑/↓ - navigate between menu options
  • Spacebar - expand

Autocomplete

  • Type to begin filtering
  • ↑/↓ - navigate to an option
  • Enter - select an option

Dialog

Esc - close

Slider

  • ↑/↓ or ←/→ - increase or decrease slider value
  • Home/End - beginning or end

Menu bar

  • ↑/↓ - Previous/next menu option
  • Enter - expand the menu (optional) and select an option.
  • ←/→ - expand/collapse submenu

Tab panel

  • Tab - once to navigate into the group of tabs and once to navigate out of the group of tabs
  • ↑/↓ or ←/→ - previous/next tab.

'Tree' menu

  • ↑/↓ - Navigate Previous/next menu option
  • ←/→ - expand/collapse submenu, move up/down one level

Scroll

  • ↑/↓ - scroll vertically
  • ←/→ - scroll horizontally
  • Spacebar/Shift + Spacebar - scroll by page

[145] [146]

[147] [148] [149]


Mobile technology-specific A11Y approaches

[150] [151] [152] [153] [154] [155] [156] [157] [158] [159]

Apple (iOS)

[160] [161] [162] [163] [164] [165] [166] [167]


Google (Android)

Touch Target

Minimum sizes for interactive areas are needed to prevent an inability to trigger required events or operate controls in the desired manner (aka. "Fat Fingering"). Most "Mobile design guidelines" encourage practices to prevent any issues here such as 32px padding on either side of any button or link, and use of labels tied to input fields within forms that cause the correct corresponding field to become in focus.

Accessibility Overlays

"Accessibility Overlays" are bolt-on solutions that attempt to "embed" accessibility features and options into an inaccessible or incompletely accessible website or mobile app with many or a specific few unfixed access barriers of certain types. While these can be slightly better than doing nothing, they are no substitute for building a fully accessible experience and often fall far short of primary accessibility and risk (lawsuit exposure, customer churn) reduction goals. Studies have shown that it is always better to "bake accessibility in" from the beginning.

The following issues aren't fully covered by Overlays (and can sometimes be worsened or made more confusing by having the extra layer):

  1. Unlabeled/mislabeled form fields
  2. Zoom disabled
  3. Minimum width
  4. Use of layout tables
  5. Ambiguous anchor text links
  6. Images of text
  7. Focus order
  8. Alt text[168][169][170]
  9. Consistent identification
  10. Keyboard only usage
  11. Error prevention
  12. Error suggestions
  13. Keyboard traps
  14. Incorrect heading structure
  15. Missing links
  16. No input change
  17. Parsing
  18. Misidentified language
  19. Closed captions
  20. Locked display orientation


[171] [172] [173] [174] [175] [176] [177] [178] [179] [180]


A11Y Lawsuits

  1. Winn-Dixie grocery: https://www.forbes.com/sites/legalnewsline/2017/06/13/first-of-its-kind-trial-goes-plaintiffs-way-winn-dixie-must-update-website-for-the-blind/?sh=a3b943f1b38a
  2. McDonald's self-serve kiosks: https://www.wsj.com/articles/mcdonalds-starts-making-self-service-easier-for-blind-diners-11631900280
  3. Harvard & MIT Universities: https://www.insidehighered.com/news/2019/04/08/mit-and-harvard-fail-get-out-video-captioning-court-case
  4. UC Berkley on textbooks: https://www.3playmedia.com/blog/dra-v-uc-berkeley-a-win-win-with-structured-negotiation/
  5. CVS Pharmacy: https://icharts.net/ada-compliance/
  6. Amazon: https://www.classaction.org/media/bishop-v-amazon-com-inc.pdf[181]
  7. Netflix: https://digitalcommons.law.scu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?referer=https://www.google.com/&httpsredir=1&article=1092&context=historical[182][183][184][185][186][187]
  8. Fox News: https://topclassactions.com/lawsuit-settlements/lawsuit-news/836448-fox-news-website-not-accessible-blind-class-action-says/
  9. Nike: https://www.accessiblemetrics.com/blog/4-key-takeaways-from-2018-web-accessibility-lawsuits/
  10. Burger King: https://www.classaction.org/media/mendizabal-v-burger-king-corporation.pdf[188][189]
  11. Five Guys': https://topclassactions.com/lawsuit-settlements/lawsuit-news/485124-five-guys-class-action-says-website-not-accessible-blind-users/
  12. Domino's: https://www.courthousenews.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/01/Dominos-Ruling.pdf[190][191][192][193][194][195][196][197][198][199][200][201][202][203][204]
  13. Winn-Dixie: https://www.courthousenews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/06/Winn-Dixie-ADA-verdict-.pdf[205][206][207][208][209]
  14. Blue Apron: https://www.levelaccess.com/new-hampshire-court-denies-blue-aprons-motion-dismiss-digital-accessibility-suit/
  15. Conair/CuisinArt: https://www.leagle.com/decision/infdco20201217g35[210]
  16. Amtrak: https://www.ada.gov/amtrak_sa.html[211][212]
  17. HCA hospitals: https://www.fredlaw.com/news__media/2017/01/18/1427/healthcare_sector_is_newest_target_for_website_accessibility_lawsuits/
  18. Hulu: https://www.3playmedia.com/blog/hulu-agrees-to-caption-100-percent-of-english-and-spanish-videos/[213]
  19. eBay: https://www.3playmedia.com/blog/earll-v-ebay-is-a-website-a-place-of-public-accommodation/
  20. Bank of America: https://www.lflegal.com/2015/06/bofa-travel-agreement/
  21. FedEx: https://www.3playmedia.com/blog/fedex-ground-sued-by-eeoc-nad-for-ada-violation/
  22. Hobby Lobby: https://lovata.com/blog/ada-website-compliance-lawsuits-recent-and-high-profile.html
  23. Bank of America (first major bank sued, all the way back in 2000): https://thefinancialbrand.com/27448/could-your-banking-website-be-the-target-of-a-lawsuit/
  24. Hard Rock Casino & Gulf Coast restaurant chains: https://www.sunherald.com/news/local/counties/harrison-county/article141331553.html
  25. NY city MTA: https://www.6sqft.com/judge-rules-that-an-accessibility-lawsuit-against-the-mta-in-queens-can-move-forward/
  26. Robinhood (stock trading platform): https://www.fredlaw.com/wp-content/uploads/2021/02/Website-Accessibility-Complaint-Sanchez-v-Robinhood-SDNY-2-3-2021.pdf[214]
  27. American Airlines: https://www.paddleyourownkanoo.com/2021/07/24/man-sues-american-airlines-because-its-website-discriminates-against-blind-people/ ($40 million)
  28. ViacomCBS: https://www.fiercevideo.com/video/fcc-slaps-viacomcbs-3-5m-fine-over-pluto-tv-closed-captions ($3.5 million)[215][216][217]
  29. Fox News: https://topclassactions.com/lawsuit-settlements/lawsuit-news/fox-news-website-not-accessible-blind-class-action-says/
  30. WWE: https://heelbynature.com/wrestling-news/wwe-news/wwe-settles-lawsuit-for-violation-of-americans-with-disabilities-act/ (settled out of court)[218][219]
  31. Dell: https://regmedia.co.uk/2021/03/04/giannaros_vs_dell_complaint.pdf[220]
  32. Apple: https://appleinsider.com/articles/18/08/20/apple-sued-over-claims-website-is-inaccessible-to-visually-impaired-users[221][222][223][224]
  33. Uber: https://www.docketalarm.com/cases/District_Of_Columbia_District_Court/1--17-cv-01272/EQUAL_RIGHTS_CENTER_v._UBER_TECHNOLOGIES_INC._et_al/55/[225][226][227][228][229]
  34. NBA: https://buckleyfirm.com/uploads/1082/doc/Complaint_for_Permanent_Injunction,_Jahoda_v_NBA.pdf
  35. eHarmony: https://www.pacermonitor.com/public/case/8982926/West_v_eHarmony,_Inc
  36. Rolex: https://www.pacermonitor.com/public/case/23729995/Thorne_v_Rolex_Watch_USA,_Inc
  37. Beyonce's music promotion website: https://www.impactbnd.com/blog/is-your-website-ada-compliant-what-beyonces-website-accessibility-lawsuit-taught-us[230][231]

[232] [233] [234] [235] [236] [237] [238] [239] [240] [241] [242] [243] [244] [245] [246] [247] [248] [249] [250] [251] [252] [253] [254] [255] [256] [257] [258] [259] [260] [261] [262] [263] [264] [265] [266] [267] [268] [269] [270] [271] [272] [273] [274] [275] [276] [277] [278] [279] [280] [281] [282] [283] [284] [285] [286] [287] [288]


Accessible Procurements

"A chain's only as strong as its weakest link". This is true of organizations and their products/services as well. If you've done all the hard work to make your own products/services fully accessible, but integrate with vendors that don't understand the importance of and prioritize accessibility properly, do accessibility testing with folks from various accessibility backgrounds, and regularly audit their own product/services, then you may still end up with an inaccessible product/service in the end.


Accessibility Testing

See also: Accessibility Testing

[292] [293] [294] [295] [296] [297] [298] [299] [300] [301] [302] [303]


Assistive Technologies

[304] [305] [306] [307] [308] [309] [310] [311] [312] [313] [314] [315] [316] [317] [318] [319] [320] [321] [322] [323] [324] [325]

[326] [327] [328] [329] [330] [331] [332] [333]

[334] [335] [336] [337] [338]



Tools

[344] [345] [346] [347] [348] [349] [350] [351] [352] [353] [354] [355] [356]

Screen Readers

Browse and focus modes: https://www.accessibility-developer-guide.com/knowledge/screen-readers/desktop/browse-focus-modes/

[362]

Voice Control


Resources

[364] [365] [366] [367] [368] [369]

[378]

[406] [407] [408] [409] [410]

[417] [418] [419] [420]

[422] [423] [424]

[425] [426] [427]

[436]

[445] [446] [447] [448] [449] [450] [451]

[461] [462] [463] [464] [465] [466] [467] [468] [469] [470]


Tutorials

[472][473]

  • Integrating Accessibility Throughout Design with User-Centered Design (UCD): uiaccess.com/accessucd/background.html#ucd[474]

[475] [476] [477]

[478]

[479] [480] [481] [482] [483] [484] [485] [486] [487] [488]

Don't disable outline, master it instead!: https://websightly.net/en/tutorial/dont-disable-outline-master-it-instead/

[498]

[499]

[500] [501] [502] [503] [504] [505] [506] [507] [508] [509] [510] [511] [512] [513] [514] [515] [516] [517] [518] [519] [520] [521] [522] [523] [524] [525] [526] [527] [528] [529] [530] [531] [532]

[533] [534] [535] [536]

[541] [542] [543] [544] [545] [546] [547] [548] [549] [550] [551]


External Links

[557] [558] [559] [560] [561]

[563] [564] [565] [566] [567] [568] [569] [570]

[572] [573] [574] [575]

[576] [577] [578] [579]

[580] [581] [582] [583]


[584] [585] [586] [587] [588] [589] [590] [591] [592] [593] [594] [595] [596] [597] [598] [599] [600] [601] [602] [603] [604] [605]

[610] [611] [612]


References

  1. W3C working group on WCAG: http://www.w3.org/WAI/intro/wcag.php
  2. Accessibility Principles of WAI: https://www.w3.org/WAI/fundamentals/accessibility-principles/
  3. Essential Components of Web Accessibility: https://www.w3.org/WAI/fundamentals/components/
  4. The WCAG-EM Web Accessibility Evaluation Process: https://www.boia.org/blog/what-is-wcag-em-an-introduction-to-accessibility-evaluation-methodology (5 Steps: #1-Scope, #2-Test, #3-Sample, #4-Audit, #5-Report)
  5. W3C -- WCAG 2.0 - Understanding Conformance: https://www.w3.org/TR/UNDERSTANDING-WCAG20/conformance.html
  6. WCAG 2.0 – The 4 POUR Principles and 12 Guidelines: https://www.tngconsulting.ca/wcag-2-0-the-4-pour-principles-and-12-guidelines/
  7. wikipedia: Web Content Accessibility Guidelines
  8. What’s new in WCAG 2.1?: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=f5qv7AnTUHk
  9. WCAG 2.1 techniques/examples: https://www.w3.org/WAI/WCAG21/Techniques/
  10. First Public Draft of WCAG 2.2 Published: https://www.boia.org/blog/first-public-draft-of-wcag-2-2-published
  11. WCAG 2.2 Overview and Feedback: https://webaim.org/blog/wcag-2-2-overview-and-feedback/
  12. Latest Public Draft of WCAG 2.2 Features Nine New Success Criteria, Other Updates: https://www.boia.org/blog/latest-public-draft-of-wcag-2.2-features-nine-new-success-criteria-other-updates
  13. WCAG 2.2 Release Impacts 2021 Web Accessibility: https://www.essentialaccessibility.com/blog/new-wcag-22-release-impacts-2021-web-accessibility
  14. Understanding the Differences Between WCAG 2.2 and WCAG 3.0: https://www.boia.org/blog/understanding-the-differences-between-wcag-2.2-and-wcag-3.0
  15. What to Expect From The First Public Working Draft of WCAG 3.0: https://www.deque.com/blog/first-public-working-draft-wcag-3/
  16. Essential Component parts of (achieving) Web Accessibility: https://www.w3.org/WAI/fundamentals/components/
  17. W3C -- full listing of WAI-ARIA standards: https://www.w3.org/WAI/standards-guidelines/aria/
  18. wikipedia: Web Accessibility Initiative
  19. Mozilla Dev Docs -- ARIA: https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/Accessibility/ARIA
  20. Google Developers -- Introduction to ARIA: https://developers.google.com/web/fundamentals/accessibility/semantics-aria/
  21. MozDev -- Using ARIA - Roles, States & Properties: https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/Accessibility/ARIA/ARIA_Techniques
  22. WebAIM - Alternative Text guideines: https://webaim.org/techniques/alttext/
  23. Should I use an aria-label or screen-reader only text?: https://accessible360.com/accessible360-blog/use-aria-label-screen-reader-text/
  24. Authoring Tool Accessibility Guidelines (ATAG) 2.0: http://www.w3.org/TR/ATAG20/
  25. Accessibility Roles and Responsibilities Mapping (ARRM) project: https://www.w3.org/WAI/EO/wiki/ARRM_Project_-_Accessibility_Roles_and_Responsibilities_Mapping
  26. W3C -- ARRM - overview: https://www.w3.org/WAI/EO/wiki/ARRM_overview
  27. W3C -- ARRM - framework: https://www.w3.org/WAI/EO/wiki/ARRM_framework_introduction
  28. W3C -- ARRM - Success criteria: https://deploy-preview-3--wai-arrm.netlify.app/planning/arrm/sc-map/
  29. W3C -- ARRM - Role definition document:https://deploy-preview-3--wai-arrm.netlify.app/planning/arrm/ | WIKI | DOCS
  30. W3C -- ARRM - UX Designer Responsibilities Mapping: https://www.w3.org/WAI/EO/wiki/UX_Designer_Responsibilities_Mapping
  31. W3C -- ARRM - Visual Designer Responsibilities Mapping: https://www.w3.org/WAI/EO/wiki/Visual_Designer_Responsibilities_Mapping
  32. W3C -- ARRM - Content Author Responsibilities Mapping: https://www.w3.org/WAI/EO/wiki/Content_Author_Responsibilities_Mapping
  33. W3C -- ARRM - Front-End Developer Responsibilities Mapping: https://www.w3.org/WAI/EO/wiki/Front-End_Developer_Responsibilities_Mapping
  34. Does WCAG Apply to Kiosks?: https://www.tpgi.com/does-wcag-apply-to-kiosks/
  35. McDonald’s Starts Making Self-Service Easier for Blind Diners: https://www.wsj.com/articles/mcdonalds-starts-making-self-service-easier-for-blind-diners-11631900280
  36. Downloadable Disability Access Symbols: https://perma.cc/TFZ7-BKFV
  37. Braille Transcription Resource List: https://perma.cc/DPU9-944D
  38. Accessibility Guidelines for Print Materials: https://perma.cc/JN75-2WDQ
  39. Creating Accessible Print Materials -- Tip Sheet (Oct. 2017): https://www.vera.org/downloads/publications/print_materials_101617.pdf
  40. Accessibility Guidelines for Print Materials: https://perma.cc/JN75-2WDQ
  41. Appropriate Terms to Use for those with "Accessibility challenges" (which is preferred over "Handicapped" or "Disabled"): https://www.nda.ie/Publications/Attitudes/Appropriate-Terms-to-Use-about-Disability/
  42. Clear Print Accessibility Guidelines: https://perma.cc/HS6Q-LUM7
  43. A Guide to Making Documents Accessible to People Who Are Blind or Visually Impaired: https://perma.cc/9W4Y-SAFK
  44. wikipedia: Section 508 Amendment to the Rehabilitation Act of 1973
  45. Information & Communication Technology (ICT) - Revised 508 Standards & 255 Guidelines: https://www.access-board.gov/ict/
  46. Guide to the ADA Accessibility Standards -- Chapter 3 - Clear Floor or Ground Space and Turning Space: https://www.access-board.gov/ada/guides/chapter-3-clear-floor-or-ground-space-and-turning-space/ | PDF
  47. ADA checklist -- SURVEY FORM 24 - MEDICAL CARE FACILITIES (includes wheelchair physical spacing requirements for turning/maneuverability): https://web.archive.org/web/20090508103508/https://www.access-board.gov/adaag/checklist/Medical.html
  48. US Census Infograph on the Commonality of Specific Disabilities: http://www.disabilityresource.org/3-us-census-infograph-on-the-commonality-of-specific-disabilities
  49. Recent U.S. Disability Statistics from the Census Bureau: https://www.disabled-world.com/disability/statistics/census-stats.php
  50. Google Maps - Section 508 Compliance: https://developers.google.com/maps/premium/accessibility
  51. Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) - Concussion (INFOGRAPHIC): https://visual.ly/community/Infographics/health/brain-injury-concussion-infographic
  52. UK gov -- Health statistics - TBI (INFOGRAPHIC): https://www.pinterest.ca/pin/legal-infographic--463378249151088021/
  53. Traumatic Brain Injuries in California: https://visual.ly/community/Infographics/health/traumatic-brain-injuries-california
  54. An Overview of Cognitive Impairment in Multiple Sclerosis: https://www.verywellhealth.com/cognitive-impairment-in-ms-2440794
  55. Empathy in Accessibility Design - A Focus on Cognitive Disability Persona Spectrum: https://medium.com/@chinemeozumba/empathy-in-accessibility-design-e0360746fed8
  56. Why Analytics, Accessibility Are Essential for Designing Digital Customer Experiences: https://www.cmswire.com/digital-experience/why-analytics-accessibility-is-essential-for-designing-digital-customer-experiences/
  57. Johns Hopkins -- All Children's Hospital - Audiology Types of Hearing Disorders: https://www.hopkinsallchildrens.org/Services/Rehabilitation/Audiology/Types-of-Hearing-Disorders
  58. (What’d You Say?) 7 Common Types of Hearing Disorders: https://www.soundrelief.com/common-hearing-disorders/
  59. Do All Deaf People Use Sign Language?: https://www.accessibility.com/blog/do-all-deaf-people-use-sign-language
  60. A11Y 101 -- Reduced motion: https://a11y-101.com/development/reduced-motion
  61. MozDev -- A11Y - @media "prefers-reduced-motion": https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/CSS/@media/prefers-reduced-motion
  62. Revisiting "prefers-reduced-motion", the reduced motion media query: https://css-tricks.com/revisiting-prefers-reduced-motion-the-reduced-motion-media-query/
  63. prefers-reduced-motion -- Sometimes less movement is more: https://web.dev/prefers-reduced-motion/
  64. How to Insert an Animated GIF into a Word Document (and make it more Accessible with "alt" text description): https://www.howtogeek.com/718985/how-to-insert-an-animated-gif-into-a-word-document/
  65. Short note on prefers-reduced-motion and puzzled (Windows & Mac) users: https://www.tpgi.com/short-note-on-prefers-reduced-motion-and-puzzled-windows-users/
  66. New in Chrome 74 (2019-05-03) Prefers-reduced-motion media query: https://blog.logrocket.com/new-in-chrome-74-prefers-reduced-motion-media-query-50cd89d3e769/
  67. How to prevent "prefers-reduced-motion" OS setting from impacting animations on the browser (such as FF/Chrome): https://superuser.com/questions/1532014/how-to-prevent-prefers-reduced-motion-setting-from-ever-working-on-chrome
  68. Reduced Motion Setting: https://support.discord.com/hc/en-us/articles/360040613412-Reduced-Motion-Setting
  69. How Light Sensitivity & Photophobia Affect Vestibular Disorders: https://vestibular.org/how-light-sensitivity-photophobia-affect-vestibular-disorders/
  70. Association of Convenience Stores (ACS) - Everyone Welcome Guide: https://www.acs.org.uk/everyone-welcome-guide
  71. ACS launches guide to help stores deal better with disabled customers: https://www.talkingretail.com/news/industry-news/acs-launches-guide-to-help-stores-deal-better-with-disabled-customers-18-05-2022/
  72. Employer Assistance and Resource Network (EARN) on "Disability Inclusion" -- Encouraging applicants with disabilities - job descriptions & announcements, employer assistance, and resource network on "Disability Inclusion": https://production-askearn-org.s3.amazonaws.com/EARN_Explainer_Job_Descriptions_Checklist_ab47437635.pdf
  73. What are "land acknowledgements" to (First Nations) and why do they matter?: https://locallove.ca/issues/what-are-land-acknowledgements-and-why-do-they-matter/
  74. Implicit Age Cues in Resumes - Subtle Effects on Hiring Discrimination: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5554369/
  75. When an “Educated” Black Man Becomes Lighter in the Mind’s Eye - Evidence for a Skin Tone Memory Bias: https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/2158244013516770#ref-32
  76. Do We Need Safe or Brave Spaces?: https://alternativebreaks.org/safe-or-brave-spaces/
  77. From Safe Spaces to Brave Spaces: https://tlss.uottawa.ca/site/perspective-autochtone/1d-_From-Safe-Spaces-to-Brave-Spaces.pdf
  78. Biden Signs Executive Order (EO) to Advance Diversity, Equity in Federal Workforce (DEIA): https://www.meritalk.com/articles/biden-signs-eo-to-advance-diversity-equity-in-federal-workforce/
  79. Americans and ‘Cancel Culture’ - Where Some See Calls for Accountability, Others See Censorship, Punishment: https://www.pewresearch.org/internet/2021/05/19/americans-and-cancel-culture-where-some-see-calls-for-accountability-others-see-censorship-punishment/
  80. 10 Best Name Pronunciation Tools: https://beebom.com/name-pronunciation-tools/ (because a name is worth pronouncing properly)
  81. New Brunswick appoints independent commissioner on systemic racism: https://www.msn.com/en-ca/news/canada/new-brunswick-appoints-independent-commissioner-on-systemic-racism/ar-AAOMEGx
  82. Here are the N.B. beaches that have accessibility features: https://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/new-brunswick/new-brunswick-accessible-beaches-1.6465760
  83. Swansea model with Down's syndrome, Beth Matthews, signs with agency: https://www.bbc.com/news/uk-wales-60140181
  84. Scholarship for Black students launched at King’s School of Journalism by Global News: https://globalnews.ca/news/8582893/global-news-j-school-scholarship-halifax/
  85. The Importance of Diversity in the Workplace: https://perelson.com/the-importance-of-diversity-in-the-workplace/
  86. Why Your Employees Don't Report Hidden Disabilities: https://www.accessibility.com/blog/why-your-employees-dont-report-hidden-disabilities
  87. Content Strategists: What Do They Do?: http://contentini.com/content-strategists-what-do-they-do/
  88. Context As A Content Strategy: Creating More Meaningful Web Experiences Through Contextual Filtering: https://www.slideshare.net/danieleizans/context-as-a-content-strategy-creating-more-meaningful-web-experiences-through-contextual-filtering
  89. Complete Beginner’s Guide to Content Strategy: https://www.uxbooth.com/articles/complete-beginners-guide-to-content-strategy/
  90. The Discipline of Content Strategy: https://alistapart.com/article/thedisciplineofcontentstrategy/
  91. A Checklist for Content Work: https://alistapart.com/article/a-checklist-for-content-work/
  92. To Hell With Bad Browsers: https://alistapart.com/article/tohell/
  93. Content Strategy - The Philosophy of Data: http://boxesandarrows.com/content-strategy-the-philosophy-of-data/
  94. US Dept Justice WCAG PeaPod case: https://www.justice.gov/opa/pr/justice-department-enters-settlement-agreement-peapod-ensure-peapod-grocery-delivery-website
  95. Siteimprove FAQ -- What do you check for in PDFs?: https://files.nwesd.org/website/Accessbility/PDFChecker Info Sheet.pdf
  96. 5 key steps to a successful "Document Accessibility Program": https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/20140903163244-6856374-5-key-steps-to-a-successful-document-accessibility-program/
  97. Introduction To Creating Accessible PDFs (WEBINAR): https://www.tpgi.com/on-demand-webinar-important-aspects-of-pdf-remediation/
  98. Make your PowerPoint presentations accessible to people with disabilities: https://support.microsoft.com/en-us/office/make-your-powerpoint-presentations-accessible-to-people-with-disabilities-6f7772b2-2f33-4bd2-8ca7-dae3b2b3ef25
  99. How to Make an Accessible PowerPoint Presentation: https://business.tutsplus.com/tutorials/accessible-powerpoint-presentations--cms-30018
  100. How to Create 508 Compliant Microsoft PowerPoint Presentations: https://www.dau.edu/sites/governance-and-training/SitePages/How to Create 508 Compliant PowerPoint Presentations.aspx
  101. Creating Accessible Presentations in Microsoft PowerPoint: https://www.washington.edu/accessibility/documents/creating-accessible-presentations-in-microsoft-powerpoint/
  102. Accessible Presentations: https://ottawaheart.ca/document/accessible-presentations-slide-deck
  103. One Trick To Make Your HTML Emails More Accessible: https://www.boia.org/blog/one-trick-to-make-your-html-emails-more-accessible
  104. Why Accessibility in Email Marketing matters: https://www.responsemedia.com/why-accessibility-in-email-marketing-matters/
  105. Writing CSS with A11Y in mind: https://medium.com/@matuzo/writing-css-with-accessibility-in-mind-8514a0007939
  106. Writing HTML with A11Y in mind: https://medium.com/alistapart/writing-html-with-accessibility-in-mind-a62026493412
  107. Writing CSS with A11Y in mind: https://medium.com/@matuzo/writing-css-with-accessibility-in-mind-8514a0007939
  108. Writing JS with A11Y in mind: https://medium.com/@matuzo/writing-javascript-with-accessibility-in-mind-a1f6a5f467b9
  109. Improving The Color Accessibility For Color-Blind Users: https://www.smashingmagazine.com/2016/06/improving-color-accessibility-for-color-blind-users/
  110. Associations among Strength, Steadiness, and Hand Function across the Adult Life Span: https://journals.lww.com/acsm-msse/Fulltext/2011/04000/Associations_among_Strength,_Steadiness,_and_Hand.2.aspx
  111. Top 5 Reasons to Address Gross Motor Skills of Children with ASD: https://www.seekfreaks.com/index.php/2019/02/13/article-review-top-5-reasons-to-address-gross-motor-skills-of-children-with-asd/
  112. What is Dyspraxia?: www.lourdeswellnessspa.com/dyspraxia-motor-skills.html
  113. Disorders of Childhood - Motor Skills Disorders and tests to indentify & evaluate severity: https://www.mentalhelp.net/disorders-of-childhood/motor-skills-disorders/
  114. Motor Skills Disorders: https://www.emedicinehealth.com/motor_skills_disorder/article_em.htm#motor_skills_disorder_causes
  115. Fine Motor Disability: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK563266/
  116. wikipedia: Cerebral Palsy
  117. Cerebral Palsy (CP) awareness (INFOGRAPHICS): https://www.gillettechildrens.org/get-involved/cerebral-palsy-awareness#infographics
  118. Cerebral Palsy lawyers: https://www.abclawcenters.com/practice-areas/types-of-birth-injuries/cerebral-palsy/
  119. Cerebral Palsy - Stats And Facts: https://assistivetechnologyblog.com/2016/08/cerebral-palsy-stats-and-facts.html
  120. What is "Cerebral Palsy" and how many people suffer through it (INFOGRAPHIC): https://globalstemcells.com/new-version/wp-content/uploads/2016/10/cerebral-palsy-infographic.png
  121. University of Sydney researchers create sensor bracelet for hand-impaired persons: https://www.mobihealthnews.com/news/anz/university-sydney-researchers-create-sensor-bracelet-hand-impaired-persons (particularly aimed at helping folks with Cerebral Palsy but could help folks with other conditions as well, works using Bluetooth & ML to recognize gesture intentions from wrist and/or finger movements)
  122. wikipedia: Muscular Dystrophy
  123. Muscular Dystrophy symptoms & causes: https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/muscular-dystrophy/symptoms-causes/syc-20375388
  124. Muscular Dystrophy - What Causes This Disabling Condition?: https://universityhealthnews.com/daily/aging-independence/muscular-dystrophy/
  125. DART Therapeutics Completes Study of New Biomarker for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Treatment: https://clinicounselor.com/dart-therapeutics-completes-study-of-new-biomarker-for-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy-treatment/
  126. CDC -- Disease facts - What is Muscular Dystrophy?: https://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/musculardystrophy/facts.html
  127. Muscular Dystrophy info & graphics: https://arthritis-rheumatism.com/muscular-dystrophy/
  128. CSS Working Group resolved to begin working on a spec to standardize "High Contrast" based on MS Edge's implementation story: https://twitter.com/gregwhitworth/status/1100515214355648513
  129. 86 Percent of Websites Fail this Accessibility Basic (color contrast): https://www.boia.org/blog/86-percent-of-websites-fail-this-accessibility-basic
  130. The difference between keyboard and screen reader navigation: https://tink.uk/the-difference-between-keyboard-and-screen-reader-navigation/
  131. Reading Efficiently with a Screen Reader -- JAWS - Headings: https://www.perkinselearning.org/technology/blog/reading-efficiently-screen-reader-headings
  132. Testing with Screen Readers: http://webaim.org/articles/screenreader_testing/
  133. HTML For Screen Readers - Labelling Elements: https://bitsofco.de/html-for-screen-readers-labelling-elements/
  134. Screen reader support for HTML5 sections: https://tink.uk/screen-reader-support-for-html5-sections/
  135. BBC News - Accessibility & Testing with JAWS Screen Reader (guideline): https://bbc.github.io/accessibility-news-and-you/accessibility-and-testing-with-jaws.html
  136. WebAIM - ScreenReader survey: https://webaim.org/projects/screenreadersurvey8/#used (includes OS/ScreenReader/Browser combos)
  137. Global Screen Reader Market Size Status and Forecast 2019-2025: https://www.orbismarketreports.com/global-screen-reader-market-size-status-and-forecast-2019-2025
  138. Configuring Your Machine For Testing With A Screen Reader: http://yuiblog.com/blog/2008/12/30/configuring-screen-readers/
  139. SmashingTV shows How a Screen Reader user surfs the web (WEBINAR): https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OUDV1gqs9GA | Excerpt - Léonie Watson on why semantic HTML document landmarks assist her using a screenreader
  140. Optimizing Pages for Screen Reader Accessibility: http://www.webbie.org.uk/Veli-Pekka/web_access.html
  141. Setting up a screen reader test environment: http://www.iheni.com/screen-reader-testing/
  142. Deque - Why Don’t Screen Readers Always Read What’s on the Screen? Part 1: Punctuation and Typographic Symbols: https://www.deque.com/blog/dont-screen-readers-read-whats-screen-part-1-punctuation-typographic-symbols/
  143. Should I use an aria-label or screen-reader only text?: https://accessible360.com/accessible360-blog/use-aria-label-screen-reader-text/
  144. 5 Myths About Screen Readers That Can Hurt Accessibility: https://www.boia.org/blog/5-myths-about-screen-readers-that-can-hurt-accessibility
  145. Keyboard-based navigation compatibility (even on mobile): https://a11y-guidelines.orange.com/en/web/develop/keyboard-navigation/
  146. WCAG 2.1 -- Understanding Success Criterion 2.4.3 - Focus Order: https://www.w3.org/WAI/WCAG21/Understanding/focus-order.html#examples
  147. Keyboard-Only Navigation for Improved Accessibility: https://www.nngroup.com/articles/keyboard-accessibility/
  148. US government -- Social Security Administration (SSA) - Use the Keyboard to Navigate Screens: https://www.ssa.gov/accessibility/keyboard_nav.html
  149. Give Yourself an Accessibility Test - Don't Use a Mouse: https://www.boia.org/blog/give-yourself-an-accessibility-test-dont-use-a-mouse
  150. How to Test Touch Target Size (buttons, links, …) to Meet UX & Accessibility Standards in 4 Steps: https://medium.com/sketch-app-sources/how-to-test-touch-target-size-buttons-links-to-meet-ux-accessibility-standards-in-4-steps-f1efead7590
  151. Hand tremors and the giant-button-problem: https://axesslab.com/hand-tremors/
  152. Focus Trapping for Accessibility (A11Y) - NOTE: this is a dangerous double-edged sword so use carefully: https://medium.com/@im_rahul/focus-trapping-looping-b3ee658e5177
  153. Focus Trapping - Trap focus inside an element: https://dev.to/r3l_k3r/focus-trappinglooping-for-keyboard-navigation-l6m
  154. Perfecto -- Automated Mobile Accessibility Tseting: https://www.perfecto.io/blog/automated-accessibility-testing
  155. Experitest -- How to incorporate Accessibility into Mobile App Testing: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=d3HpCKNv8Ew
  156. 6-STEP MOBILE APP ACCESSIBILITY CHECKLIST: https://blog.usablenet.com/mobile-app-accessibility-techniques-for-inclusive-design-part-1
  157. App Accessibility is The New Must in Mobile Development: https://buildfire.com/app-accessibility-mobile-development/
  158. Building apps for everyone; why inclusivity & accessibility truly matter: https://appsgamesinsights.libsyn.com/building-apps-for-everyone-why-inclusivity-and-accessibility-truly-matter-episode-6
  159. Flutter -- a11y & i18n: https://docs.flutter.dev/development/accessibility-and-localization/accessibility
  160. HP Notebook PCs - Using the Touchpad, Pointer, and Keyboard in Mobile Internet Experience: https://support.hp.com/us-en/document/c01633349
  161. Getting Started with Touchscreen UIs in Java Platform, Micro Edition (JME, on legacy Mobile devices or tiny screens): https://www.oracle.com/technical-resources/articles/javame/touchscreen-ui.html
  162. How to detect touch screen device using CSS?: https://www.geeksforgeeks.org/how-to-detect-touch-screen-device-using-css/
  163. Extendable Pointer Presenter Whiteboard PPT Point Stick Touch Screen Pen: https://www.walmart.com/ip/Extendable-Pointer-Presenter-Whiteboard-PPT-Point-Stick-Touch-Screen-Pen/710925497
  164. Staples Slim Stylus Pen - Black: https://www.staples.ca/products/2618968-en-staples-slim-stylus-pen-black
  165. Telescopic Teachers Pointer (Extendable/Retractable Presenter Classroom Whiteboard Pointer): https://www.amazon.ca/Telescopic-Extendable-Retractable-Presenter-Whiteboard/dp/B07K5W2DTZ/
  166. Testing for Accessibility on OS X: https://developer.apple.com/library/archive/documentation/Accessibility/Conceptual/AccessibilityMacOSX/OSXAXTestingApps.html
  167. Writing Great iOS Accessibility Labels: https://medium.com/macoclock/writing-great-ios-accessibility-labels-6d903ba17f7f
  168. WebAIM - Alternative Text: https://webaim.org/techniques/alttext/
  169. How Do I Know If an Image Needs "Alt Text"?: https://www.boia.org/blog/how-do-i-know-if-an-image-needs-alt-text
  170. Writing great alt text -- Emotion matters: https://jakearchibald.com/2021/great-alt-text/
  171. Overlay Fact Sheet: https://overlayfactsheet.com
  172. Why Accessibility Overlay Solutions Fail to Protect or Serve: https://www.accessibility.works/blog/avoid-accessibility-overlay-tools-toolbar-plugins/
  173. The Many Pitfalls of Accessibility Overlays: https://www.essentialaccessibility.com/blog/the-many-pitfalls-of-accessibility-overlays
  174. Honor the ADA - Avoid Web Accessibility Quick-Fix Overlays: https://www.lflegal.com/2020/08/quick-fix/
  175. Are ADA Overlays a Liability? Here’s What Accessibility Experts Had to Say: https://216digital.com/ada-website-overlays/
  176. The Problem with Not Making Websites Accessible by Default: https://www.boia.org/blog/the-problem-with-not-making-websites-accessible-by-default
  177. Why Accessibility Overlays On Your Website Can Make Things Worse: https://www.boia.org/blog/why-accessibility-overlays-on-your-website-can-make-things-worse
  178. US Supreme Court verdict -- Sole reliance on accessiBe will not be sufficient in ensuring full and equal access to a website (Exhibit A For 21-cv-00017, 2020-11-01): https://www.scribd.com/document/490740167/Exhibit-A-for-21-cv-00017
  179. People With Disabilities Say This AcessiBe "AI A11Y Tool" Is Making the Web Worse for Them: https://www.vice.com/en/article/m7az74/people-with-disabilities-say-this-ai-tool-is-making-the-web-worse-for-them
  180. This Company Tapped AccessiBe and its "Overlay + AI" solution for Its Website — and Landed in Court for its troubles: https://www.wired.com/story/company-tapped-ai-website-landed-court/
  181. Amazon Class Action Lawsuit Says Website Not Accessible to the Blind: https://topclassactions.com/lawsuit-settlements/lawsuit-news/amazon-class-action-lawsuit-says-website-not-accessible-blind/
  182. NAD v. Netflix ADA Lawsuit Requires Captioning for Streaming Video: https://www.3playmedia.com/blog/nad-v-netflix-ada-lawsuit-requires-closed-captioning-on-streaming-video/
  183. NAD Calls Out Netflix on “Deaf Tax”: https://www.nad.org/2010/12/17/nad-calls-out-netflix-on-deaf-tax/
  184. Disability History, Part 4: NAD v. Netflix -- A lawsuit that shook the internet: https://listenuptodisabilities.com/2021/04/25/disability-history-part-4-nad-v-netflix/
  185. NAD Files Disability Civil Rights Lawsuit Against Netflix: https://www.disabled-world.com/communication/broadcasts/netflix.php
  186. NAD Files Disability Civil Rights Lawsuit against Netflix: https://www.nad.org/2011/06/16/nad-files-disability-civil-rights-lawsuit-against-netflix/
  187. NAD v. Netflix: https://dredf.org/legal-advocacy/nad-v-netflix/
  188. Burger King Class Action Says Fast Food Chain’s Website Violates ADA : https://topclassactions.com/lawsuit-settlements/lawsuit-news/burger-king-class-action-says-fast-food-chains-website-violates-ada/
  189. : https://topclassactions.com/lawsuit-settlements/lawsuit-news/831860-burger-king-class-action-says-fast-food-chains-website-violates-ada/
  190. Domino's A11Y case: http://cdn.ca9.uscourts.gov/datastore/opinions/2019/01/15/17-55504.pdf
  191. Court Says Domino’s Pizza Website Must Be Accessible to the Blind" https://www.courthousenews.com/court-says-dominos-pizza-website-must-be-accessible-to-the-blind/
  192. Accessibility, the future, and why Domino’s matters: https://arstechnica.com/tech-policy/2019/10/accessibility-the-future-and-why-dominos-matters/
  193. Domino's Website Violated Americans With Disabilities Act, Judge Finds: https://www.mediapost.com/publications/article/364699/dominos-website-violated-americans-with-disabilit.html
  194. Domino’s accessibility lawsuit update: https://sheribyrnehaber.medium.com/dominos-accessibility-lawsuit-update-a66e7e592eab
  195. Lexis-Nexus legal news -- Domino’s, Blind Patron Settle ADA, Website Accessibility Suit: https://www.lexislegalnews.com/mealeys-cyber-tech-e-commerce/articles/69324?nl_pk=741a37e7-1565-473f-baaa-0984144b9f07
  196. California Federal Court Holds Domino’s Website Violates the ADA, Limits Penalties Under Unruh Act to $4,000 : https://www.bclplaw.com/en-US/insights/california-federal-court-holds-dominos-website-violates-the-ada-limits-penalties-under-unruh-act-to-dollar4000.html
  197. Federal Website Access Lawsuit Numbers Increase 7 Percent in 2019, With Possible Bump from Supreme Court Denial of Cert in Domino’s: https://www.adatitleiii.com/2019/11/federal-website-access-lawsuit-numbers-increase-7-percent-in-2019-with-possible-bump-from-supreme-court-denial-of-cert-in-dominos/
  198. The Impact of the Robles V. Domino’s Pizza Lawsuit on Hearing-Impaired Community: https://cielo24.com/2019/11/domino-v-robles-lawsuit-accessibility/
  199. How your small business website can get you sued : https://www.inquirer.com/business/small-business-website-sued-suits-ada-20200211.html
  200. What does the Domino’s ADA case mean for small-medium-businesses: https://accessibe.com/blog/trends/what-does-the-dominos-ada-case-mean-for-small-medium-businesses
  201. Blind man sued Domino's over its website. Here's what the Supreme Court had to say: https://mashable.com/article/supreme-court-reject-dominos-inaccessible-website
  202. Supreme Court hands victory to blind man who sued Domino’s over site accessibility: https://www.cnbc.com/2019/10/07/dominos-supreme-court.html
  203. Another Big Win in the Domino’s Pizza Accessibility Saga: https://www.lflegal.com/2021/06/dominos-june-2021/
  204. Court finds Domino’s Pizza Violated the ADA by Having an Inaccessible Website and Orders WCAG Compliance: https://www.adatitleiii.com/2021/06/court-finds-dominos-pizza-violated-the-ada-by-having-an-inaccessible-website-and-orders-wcag-compliance/
  205. Gil .vs. Winn-Dixie -- D.C. Docket No. 1:16-cv-23020-RNS: https://media.ca11.uscourts.gov/opinions/pub/files/201713467.pdf
  206. D.C. Docket No. 1:16-cv-23020-RNS: https://www.employmentlawspotlight.com/wp-content/uploads/sites/18/2021/04/ADA.pdf
  207. Judge Holds Winn-Dixie Supermarket’s Website Violates the ADA: https://www.courthousenews.com/judge-holds-winn-dixie-supermarkets-website-violates-ada/
  208. Court rules grocery store’s inaccessible website isn’t an ADA violation: https://arstechnica.com/tech-policy/2021/04/appeals-court-rules-stores-dont-need-to-make-their-websites-accessible/
  209. Eleventh Circuit Holds Websites Are Not Places of Public Accommodation and Rejects Commonly Relied-Upon Nexus Standard: https://www.jdsupra.com/legalnews/eleventh-circuit-holds-websites-are-not-1083843/
  210. Conair Website For CuisinArt Is Sued For Excluding Visual Impaired: http://www.innercitypress.com/sdny36steincuisineartwebicp120920.html
  211. $2.25 Million Fund Available in Justice Department Settlement with Amtrak: https://www.justice.gov/opa/pr/225-million-fund-available-justice-department-settlement-amtrak
  212. Amtrak Settles ADA Claims For Stations in Connecticut and Rhode Island: https://ctexaminer.com/2021/01/29/amtrak-settles-ada-claims-for-stations-in-connecticut-and-rhode-island/
  213. The NAD and Hulu Reach Agreement: https://www.nad.org/2016/09/06/the-nad-and-hulu-reach-agreement/
  214. Robinhood Sued in Class Action, Alleging Website Inaccessibility and Discrimination Against Blind Users: https://www.fredlaw.com/news__media/robinhood-sued-in-class-action-alleging-website-inaccessibility-and-discrimination-against-blind-users/
  215. FCC Settles Accessibility Rules Violation With Pluto, ViacomCBS: https://news.bloomberglaw.com/tech-and-telecom-law/fcc-settles-accessibility-rules-violation-with-pluto-viacomcbs
  216. Pluto & ViacomCBS Will Pay $3.5M for Violation of Accessibility Rules: https://www.fcc.gov/document/pluto-viacomcbs-will-pay-35m-violation-accessibility-rules
  217. ViacomCBS and Pluto TV Fined $3.5 Million by FCC for Violating Closed-Caption Rules: https://variety.com/2021/digital/news/pluto-tv-fcc-closed-captioning-rules-1235077364/
  218. WWE Settles Legal Dispute on Accessibility for Blind & Visually Impaired for Online Shop: https://411mania.com/wrestling/wwe-settles-legal-dispute-online-website-blind-ada/
  219. WWE Settles Lawsuit Over Shop Website: https://www.wrestlinginc.com/news/2020/12/wwe-settles-lawsuit-over-shop-website-677800/
  220. Screen access technology has existed for decades': Visually impaired man sues Dell over 'inaccessible' website: https://www.theregister.com/2021/03/05/giannaros_v_dell/
  221. Apple Store accessibility lawsuit (Robert Shaw vs. Apple): https://blog.fawny.org/2020/02/20/shawvapple/
  222. Mendez v. Apple Inc.: https://www.pacermonitor.com/public/case/25398561/Mendez_v_Apple_Inc
  223. Apple sued over claims website is inaccessible to visually impaired users: https://appleinsider.com/articles/18/08/20/apple-sued-over-claims-website-is-inaccessible-to-visually-impaired-users
  224. The Apple Park Visitor's Center is a demonstration of an accessible building when cost is no object. 1/?: https://threadreaderapp.com/thread/967652885604450305.html
  225. Court Denies Uber’s Motion to Dismiss ADA Discrimination Complaint: https://lawstreetmedia.com/news/tech/court-denies-ubers-motion-to-dismiss-ada-discrimination-complaint/
  226. Justice Department Sues Uber for Overcharging People with Disabilities: https://www.justice.gov/opa/pr/justice-department-sues-uber-overcharging-people-disabilities
  227. An Uber fee unfairly impacts riders with disabilities, a DOJ lawsuit says: https://www.npr.org/2021/11/10/1054407560/justice-department-uber-wait-time-riders-disabilities
  228. Justice Department Sues Uber Over Charging Wait-Time Fees for Disabled People: https://www.wsj.com/articles/justice-department-sues-uber-over-charging-wait-times-fees-for-physically-disabled-people-11636570208
  229. Uber manager sobs on stand during trial over wheelchair accessibility: https://www.courthousenews.com/uber-manager-sobs-on-stand-during-trial-over-wheelchair-accessibility/
  230. What You Should Know About the Beyoncé Website Accessibility Lawsuit: https://www.diacedesigns.com/beyonce-website-accessibility-lawsuit/
  231. Beyonce's Website the Focus of an Accessibility Lawsuit: https://www.boia.org/blog/beyonces-website-the-focus-of-an-accessibility-lawsuit
  232. 2021 Website Accessibility Lawsuit Recap (REPORT): https://f.hubspotusercontent30.net/hubfs/6576634/2021 Accessibility Lawsuit Complete Report.pdf
  233. September 2021 recap - A11Y Lawsuits landscape: https://www.accessibility.com/digital-lawsuits/recap/september-2021
  234. 2020 Full Year Report Digital Accessibility Lawsuits: https://info.usablenet.com/2020-report-on-digital-accessibility-lawsuits
  235. Digital Accessibility Year in Review -- 2019: https://www.boia.org/blog/digital-accessibility-year-in-review-2019
  236. 2018 ADA Web Accessibility Lawsuit Recap Report: https://blog.usablenet.com/2018-ada-web-accessibility-lawsuit-recap-report
  237. Recent Web Accessibility Lawsuits: http://www.webaxe.org/recent-web-accessibility-lawsuits/
  238. Are you next? Trends in Digital Accessibility Lawsuits: https://www.accessibility.com/event/2022/trends-in-digital-accessibility-lawsuits
  239. Overview of the Financial Penalties of AODA Non-Compliance (in Canada): https://www.boia.org/blog/overview-of-the-financial-penalties-of-aoda-non-compliance
  240. US House Bill H.R.8478 Could Finally Offer Businesses Clarity on Web Accessibility: https://builtin.com/operations/web-accessibility-ADA-compliance
  241. Now Is the Time to Make Your Entire Sales Funnel Accessible: https://www.boia.org/blog/now-is-the-time-to-make-your-entire-sales-funnel-accessible
  242. Brands Are Losing Billions by Not Being Digitally Accessible: https://www.boia.org/blog/brands-are-losing-billions-by-not-being-digitally-accessible
  243. Looking Ahead to Potential Developments in Online Accessibility Law: https://www.natlawreview.com/article/looking-ahead-to-potential-developments-online-accessibility-law
  244. Practice website accessibility (or get ready to practice law) -- A new wave of AwDA litigation: https://www.cda.org/Home/News-and-Events/Newsroom/Article-Details/practice-website-accessibility-a-new-wave-of-awda-litigation
  245. A11Y Attorneys' opinion statement -- DOJ's years-long delay on regulations hurting companies facing disabilities lawsuits over their websites: https://legalnewsline.com/stories/510698224-attorneys-doj-s-years-long-delay-on-regulations-hurting-companies-facing-disabilities-lawsuits-over-their-websites
  246. Fact Sheet -- Class Actions Are Critical to Remedy Disability Discrimination: http://centerjd.org/content/fact-sheet-class-actions-are-critical-remedy-disability-discrimination
  247. Lawsuits Over Digital Accessibility for People With Disabilities Are Rising: https://www.wsj.com/articles/lawsuits-over-digital-accessibility-for-people-with-disabilities-are-rising-11626369056
  248. Equality Act Could Undermine Business Defendants In Web Access Suits: https://www.cato.org/blog/equality-act-would-spell-defeat-businesses-publishers-web-accessibility-debate
  249. New York District Court Issues Important Opinion on the Inapplicability of Title III of the ADA to Consumer-Facing Websites: https://www.blankrome.com/publications/new-york-district-court-issues-important-opinion-inapplicability-title-iii-ada
  250. NY State Court -- Title III legal position statement: https://www.blankrome.com/sites/default/files/2021-11/computerinternetlawyer_-_novdec2021_-_blankromellp.pdf (meant to take some "bite" out of frivolous Digital Accessibility lawsuits)
  251. ADP Settlement Offers Framework for Future Digital-Accessibility Agreements: https://www.wsj.com/articles/adp-settlement-offers-framework-for-future-digital-accessibility-agreements-11642699462
  252. Digital Accessibility Takes Center Stage in ADA Lawsuit: https://www.law.com/nationallawjournal/2022/01/14/11th-circuits-ada-reversal-curbed-florida-litigation-in-2021-but-digital-accessibility-suits-are-here-to-stay-398-82063/?slreturn=20220101154317
  253. The Importance of Having a Letter of "Reasonable Accessibility" to show intent: https://www.boia.org/blog/the-importance-of-having-a-letter-of-reasonable-accessibility
  254. Accessibility in the News, Legal Edition - Updates on ADA Title III News and More: https://www.microassist.com/digital-accessibility/accessibility-news-legal/
  255. Federal Courts Disagree Over Accessibility Online: https://www.theregreview.org/2021/06/16/mcdonough-federal-courts-disagree-accessibility-online/
  256. Web Accessibility Lawsuits dramatically rose in 2021... here’s why: https://www.boia.org/blog/web-accessibility-lawsuits-dramatically-rose-in-2021.-heres-why
  257. Florida Courts Rule ADA Covers Websites With Nexus To Physical Store: https://www.adatitleiii.com/2017/04/florida-courts-rule-ada-covers-websites-with-nexus-to-physical-store/
  258. Builders, Architects, Owners of 5 NC Housing Complexes Settle Discrimination Cases; Agree to Make $1.3 million in Accessibility Modifications: https://www.fairhousingnc.org/2020/builders-architects-owners-of-5-nc-housing-complexes-settle-discrimination-cases-agree-to-make-1-3-million-in-accessibility-modifications/
  259. Strategies for Defending ADA Accessibility “Tester” Lawsuits: http://www.jaburgwilk.com/news-publications/strategies-for-defending-ada-accessibility-lawsuits
  260. The State of Website Accessibility, Serial-plaintiffs, & the lack of new ADA Legislation: https://www.oomphinc.com/notes/2019/06/the-state-of-website-accessibility-2019/
  261. The Real Reason Local Governments are Facing More ADA Non-Compliance Fines: https://www.civicplus.com/blog/ce/local-governments-facing-ada-accessibility-fines
  262. Five Things Every Lawyer Needs to Know About Digital Accessibility: https://www.lawtechnologytoday.org/2018/06/digital-accessibility/
  263. Why Are More Digital Accessibility Suits Being Filed as Class Actions (And What Does It Mean?): https://www.lexology.com/library/detail.aspx?g=dbfb2323-2b58-400e-b39c-d7ef6107bff6
  264. ADA Lawsuits Are on the Rise, Website Complaints Biggest Targets: https://www.law.com/legaltechnews/2019/01/24/ada-lawsuits-are-on-the-rise-website-complaints-biggest-targets/
  265. How To Prevent a Web Accessibility Lawsuit: https://www.boia.org/blog/how-to-prevent-a-web-accessibility-lawsuit
  266. Why Websites Need an Accessibility Statement: https://www.boia.org/blog/why-websites-need-an-accessibility-statement
  267. ElementsCasino -- ACCESSIBILITY POLICY: http://www.elementscasinoflamboro.com/accessibility/
  268. Rideau Carleton Raceway Casino -- Accessibility Statement: https://www.rideaucarletoncasino.com/accessibility.htm
  269. LA Times -- Lawsuits targeting business websites over ADA violations are on the rise (Hotels, Restaurants, Entertainment destinations & Government websites targeted by lawsuits): https://www.latimes.com/business/la-fi-hotels-ada-compliance-20181111-story.html
  270. “Worldwide Web Accessibility - cases from the USA”: http://www.clickawaypound.com/bgarticle1.html
  271. New York State Division of Human Rights announces settlements of accessibility complaints against Redbox, Coinstar, ecoATM: https://www.wnypapers.com/news/article/current/2021/05/26/146782/new-york-state-division-of-human-rights-announces-settlements-of-accessibility-complaints-against-redbox-coinstar-ecoatm
  272. Lawsuit Provides Blind Individuals with Access to New York State’s Emergency Mass Notification System: https://www.legalreader.com/lawsuit-provides-blind-individuals-with-access-to-new-york-states-emergency-mass-notification-system/
  273. Judge Approves ADA Class Action Settlement Against Eyewear Company Over Website's Lack of Visibility: https://www.law.com/thelegalintelligencer/2021/10/07/judge-approves-ada-class-action-settlement-against-eyewear-company-over-websites-lack-of-visibility/
  274. CBD firms facing lawsuits over website accessibility: https://hempindustrydaily.com/cbd-firms-facing-lawsuits-over-website-accessibility/
  275. Appellate Court Finds Websites Not Covered Under ADA, Sets Up Circuit Split: https://bankingjournal.aba.com/2021/04/appellate-court-finds-websites-not-covered-under-ada-sets-up-circuit-split/
  276. 10 awesome companies you didn’t know were sued for ADA website compliance: https://augustafreepress.com/ten-awesome-companies-you-didnt-know-were-sued-for-ada-website-compliance/
  277. Title III Lawsuits - 10 Big Companies Sued Over Website Accessibility: https://www.essentialaccessibility.com/blog/title-iii-lawsuits-10-big-companies-sued-over-website-accessibility
  278. 4 Healthcare Companies Sued Over ADA Website Compliance (and Why it Matters!): https://healthcareweekly.com/ada-compliance-healthcare-websites/
  279. Roadmap to Web Accessibility in Higher Education: https://www.3playmedia.com/blog/white-paper-roadmap-web-accessibility-in-higher-education/
  280. Is Your WordPress Site an Accessibility Lawsuit Waiting to Happen?: https://mediatemple.net/blog/web-development-tech/is-your-wordpress-site-an-accessibility-lawsuit-waiting-to-happen/
  281. Federal Website Accessibility Lawsuits Increased in 2021 Despite Mid-Year Pandemic Lull: https://www.adatitleiii.com/2022/03/federal-website-accessibility-lawsuits-increased-in-2021-despite-mid-year-pandemic-lull/
  282. Website Access And Other ADA Title III Lawsuits Hit Record Numbers: https://www.jdsupra.com/legalnews/website-access-and-other-ada-title-iii-48088/
  283. ADA Title III Federal Lawsuit Filings Hit An All Time High: https://www.adatitleiii.com/2022/02/ada-title-iii-federal-lawsuit-filings-hit-an-all-time-high/
  284. ADA turns 30, evolves with The Digital Age: https://www.accessibility.works/blog/ada-turns-30-standards-for-ada-compliance/
  285. A Look at the Legal Landscape of Web Accessibility Compliance : https://monsido.com/blog/web-accessibility-compliance
  286. Can You Afford $25,000? Website Accessibility Lawsuits Cost Money: https://krisrivenburgh.medium.com/can-you-afford-25-000-website-accessibility-lawsuits-cost-money-21987cd913f3
  287. International Web Accessibility Laws - An Overview: https://www.boia.org/blog/international-web-accessibility-laws-an-overview
  288. Who Enforces Accessibility of Online and Digital Content?: https://www.boia.org/blog/who-enforces-accessibility-in-online-and-digital-content
  289. 5 things I learned about web accessibility by testing a screen reader: https://yellowpencil.com/articles/things-learned-about-accessibility-using-screen-reader/
  290. Woman helping teach child who has speech language disorder 10 Most Common Speech-Language Disorders & Impediments: https://www.speechpathologygraduateprograms.org/2018/01/10-most-common-speech-language-disorders/
  291. Experitest’s Web and Mobile Accessibility Testing Explained in Full: https://experitest.com/mobile-app-testing/experitests-web-and-mobile-accessibility-testing-explained-in-full/
  292. Why Automated Web Accessibility Testing Tools Aren’t Enough: https://www.essentialaccessibility.com/blog/automated-accessibility-testing-tools-how-much-do-scans-catch
  293. Performing an accessibility self-audit: https://www.dundee.ac.uk/guides/performing-accessibility-self-audit
  294. Working Together - People with Disabilities and Computer Technology: https://www.washington.edu/doit/working-together-people-disabilities-and-computer-technology
  295. 12 Facts And Figures About Having A Disability In Canada: https://www.cbc.ca/strombo/news/by-the-numbers-international-day-of-persons-with-disabilities
  296. Is The “Accessible Icon” Wheelchair Logo Due For A Redesign?: https://www.cbc.ca/strombo/news/is-the-accessible-icon-wheelchair-logo-due-for-a-redesign.html
  297. How to Effectively Support Employees With Disabilities: https://www.healthworkscollective.com/how-to-effectively-support-employees-with-disabilities/ | Example of alternative mouse for A11Y needs
  298. How can screen readers be used in Accessibility Testing?: https://www.tpgi.com/screen-readers-accessibility-testing/
  299. Top 20 Accessibility Testing Tools for Web Applications: https://www.softwaretestinghelp.com/accessibility-testing-tools/
  300. UsabelNet offers "A11Y User Testing" with members of the Disability Community: https://info.usablenet.com/digital-accessibility-support-services/user-testing
  301. 10 Accessible Web Design Examples to Model Your Site After: https://blog.usablenet.com/accessible-web-design-examples-to-model-your-site-after
  302. The Ultimate Guide to Achieving Website ADA Compliance: https://www.digitalauthority.me/resources/ada-compliance-website/
  303. Manual Accessibility Testing - Keyboard and Screen Reader Navigation: https://www.telerik.com/blogs/manual-accessibility-testing-keyboard-and-screen-reader-navigation
  304. Assistive Technology intro (WEBINAR): https://monsido.com/services/webinars?wchannelid=qoc8k846tm&wmediaid=n66od6tthz | SLIDES
  305. What is Assistive Technology? : https://star-center.org/what-is-assistive-technology/
  306. Assistive Technology for Visually Impaired -- Making a Difference: https://verbit.ai/assistive-technology-for-visually-impaired/
  307. Assistive Technology for Visually Impaired Individuals - What to Choose and How: https://esighteyewear.com/assistive-technology-visually-impaired/
  308. Refreshable Braille Displays: https://www.afb.org/node/16207/refreshable-braille-displays
  309. Braille Alphabet & Numbers: https://www.wonderbaby.org/sites/wonderbaby2.perkinsdev1.org/files/braille-letters-numbers.pdf
  310. DIY ‘smart’ white cane works like a self-driving car: https://www.futurity.org/blindness-white-cane-smart-technology-robotics-2643062/
  311. Multimodal sensing and intuitive steering assistance improve navigation and mobility for people with impaired vision: https://www.science.org/doi/10.1126/scirobotics.abg6594
  312. Engineers 3D-Print Personalized, Wireless Wearables That Never Need a Charge: https://news.arizona.edu/story/engineers-3d-print-personalized-wireless-wearables-never-need-charge
  313. UN guide to Assistive technology: https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/assistive-technology
  314. Rethinking Assistive Technology: https://www.edutopia.org/article/rethinking-assistive-technology
  315. Assistive Technology and Low Vision Open House: http://blog.watap.org/2013/08/assistive-technology-and-low-vision.html
  316. Understanding Assistive Technology - How Do People with Mobility Disabilities Use Technology?: https://www.levelaccess.com/understanding-assistive-technology-how-do-people-with-mobility-disabilities-use-technology/
  317. Making assistive technology better through user-centricity: https://trexorobotics.com/user-centric-assistive-technology/
  318. Back-to-School Transition with Augmentative Communication and Assistive Technology: https://franciscanchildrens.org/blog/back-to-school-augmentative-comm-assistive-tech/
  319. Devices that Empower: Celebrating Assistive Technology: https://chicagolighthouse.org/blog/celebrating-assistive-technology/
  320. Assistive Technology Can Benefit All Students: https://www.edutopia.org/blog/assistive-technology-can-benefit-all-students-jenny-grabiec
  321. 7 STEPS THAT WILL HELP YOU DECIDE ON THE BEST DIGITAL ASSISTIVE TECHNOLOGY FOR YOUR CLIENTS: https://pterrer.com/2013/07/01/7-steps-that-will-help-you-decide-on-the-best-digital-technology-for-your-clients/
  322. Craig Hospital - The Don & Melba Rugg Assistive Technology Lab: https://craighospital.org/services/assistive-technology
  323. Assistive Technology Professional (ATP) : https://www.thoughtco.com/assistive-technology-professional-198921
  324. 5 Assistive Technology Stores for your Techie with Special Needs : https://www.friendshipcircle.org/blog/2013/12/12/5-assistive-technology-stores-for-your-techie-with-special-needs/
  325. What is the relationship between Assistive Technology and Universal Design? : https://sulaimanhpu.blogspot.com/2016/08/what-is-relationship-between-assistive.html
  326. US Library of Congress (LoC) – Devices & Aids: https://www.loc.gov/nls/resources/blindness-and-vision-impairment/devices-aids/
  327. US LoC – Braille Displays and Notetakers: https://www.loc.gov/nls/resources/blindness-and-vision-impairment/devices-aids/braille-displays-notetakers/
  328. Assistive Technology for Visually Impaired: https://lighthouseeducationcenter.org/program/assistive-technology/
  329. What is Digital Braille? https://www.electronicink.com/what-is-electronic-braillie/ (see video at bottom of article)
  330. What Is Electronic Braillie?: https://www.electronicink.com/what-is-electronic-braillie/
  331. Bonocle - Braille pocket tool: https://www.bonocle.co/en/
  332. Orbit Reader 20: https://www.orbitresearch.com/product/orbit-reader-20/
  333. Innovision - BrailleMe: http://innovisiontech.co/brailleme/
  334. Mobile assistive technologies for the visually impaired: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24054999/
  335. 10 Free Screen Readers For Blind Or Visually Impaired Users: https://medium.com/usabilitygeek/10-free-screen-readers-for-blind-or-visually-impaired-users-45a45c757617
  336. 6 best screen readers for the blind or visually impaired people: https://tecoreviews.com/reviews/6-best-screen-readers-for-the-blind-or-visually-impaired-people/
  337. Assistive Technology for Visually Impaired and Blind People: https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/bfm%3A978-1-84628-867-8/1.pdf
  338. Sensor-Based Assistive Devices for Visually-Impaired People: Current Status, Challenges, and Future Directions: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5375851/
  339. Old Cynthia URL: http://www.contentquality.com/mynewtester/cynthia.exe?rptmode=1&url1=https://www.alc.ca | Cynthia - Section 508 checker
  340. Android Accessibility scanner guide: https://support.google.com/accessibility/android/faq/6376582
  341. How to use PA11Y: https://bitsofco.de/pa11y/
  342. Microsoft -- Supplier Accessibility toolkit: https://www.microsoft.com/en-us/accessibility/supplier-toolkit-resources
  343. Colorblind Web Page Filter: http://www.color-blindness.com/2006/04/10/colorblind-web-page-filter/
  344. HTML CodeSniffer - A11Y bookmarklet: http://squizlabs.github.io/HTML_CodeSniffer/
  345. Automated Accessibility Testing Tool (AATT): https://github.com/paypal/AATT (free service from PayPal that wraps HTML CodeSniffer & Axe with hooks to SeLion, Nemo, Nightwatch)
  346. PA11Y: https://pa11y.org/
  347. TPGi -- Website Accessibility Scan: https://www.tpgi.com/free-website-accessibility-scan/
  348. JavaScript Bookmarklets for Accessibility Testing: https://pauljadam.com/bookmarklets/
  349. CKEditor -- Accessibility Checker: https://ckeditor.com/ckeditor-4/accessibility-checker/
  350. PowerMapper - SortSite: https://www.powermapper.com/products/sortsite/
  351. Tenon - Accessibility as a Service: https://tenon.io
  352. CommonLook: https://commonlook.com/accessibility-software/pdf/ (best "PDF document" A11Y scanning)
  353. 5 Website Accessibility Checkers You Need Today: https://www.mediacurrent.com/blog/5-website-accessibility-checkers/
  354. Top 25 Awesome Accessibility Testing Tools for Websites: https://dynomapper.com/blog/27-accessibility-testing/246-top-25-awesome-accessibility-testing-tools-for-websites
  355. What are the best and free tools to perform Web accessibility testing?: https://www.quora.com/What-are-the-best-and-free-tools-to-perform-Web-accessibility-testing
  356. Website Accessibility Software Market is Booming Worldwide By Top Emerging Key Players -- Google, Siteimprove, DYNO Mapper, Deque, BoIA, Crownpeak, Level Access, DubBot, Monsido, Silktide: https://weeklywall.com/website-accessibility-software-market-is-booming-worldwide-by-top-emerging-key-playersgoogle-siteimprove-dyno-mapper-deque-boia-crownpeak-level-access-dubbot-monsido-silktide/
  357. wikipedia: JAWS (screen_reader)
  358. NVDA -- Keyboard Commands - Quick Reference Guide: https://dequeuniversity.com/assets/pdf/screenreaders/nvda.pdf
  359. Quick Reference Guide -- NVDA for Windows Keyboard Commands: https://dequeuniversity.com/assets/pdf/screenreaders/nvda-guide.pdf
  360. Quick Reference Guide -- NVDA Keyboard Commands: https://dequeuniversity.com/assets/pdf/screenreaders/screen-reader-nvda.pdf
  361. VoiceOver - Vision: http://www.apple.com/accessibility/macosx/vision.html
  362. 10 Free Screen Readers For Blind Or Visually Impaired Users: https://usabilitygeek.com/10-free-screen-reader-blind-visually-impaired-users/
  363. DARE Index 2020 - Top Performing Countries: https://g3ict.org/publication/dare-index-2020-top-performing-countries
  364. Global Accessibility Awareness Day (GAAD): https://globalaccessibilityawarenessday.org/ (3rd Thu. in May)
  365. CHALLENGE -- Accessibility know-how needs to go mainstream with developers - NOW: https://mysqltalk.wordpress.com/2011/11/27/challenge-accessibility-know-how-needs-to-go-mainstream-with-developers-now/
  366. Deque -- GAAD 2021 - Basic Accessibility Fundamentals bootcamp: https://accessibility.deque.com/thanks-for-signing-up-gaad-bootcamp
  367. Deque -- GAAD 2021 Workshop - Translating Design Wireframes into Accessible HTML/CSS: https://accessibility.deque.com/thanks-for-signing-up-wireframes-workshop
  368. UC San Diego -- GAAD 2021- Global Accessibility Awareness Fair 2021: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jjFngHfx__A (walkthrough of Screen Reader usage and blockers starts 39:05)
  369. T12t meetup - accessibility mindset at your workplace - GAAD 2021: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2pQA50oGrJU | GAAD 2021 discussions
  370. World Health Organization(WHO) -- International Day of Persons with Disabilities 2020 - A Day for All: https://www.who.int/campaigns/international-day-of-persons-with-disabilities/2020
  371. United Nations (UN) - International Day of Persons with Disabilities: https://www.un.org/en/observances/day-of-persons-with-disabilities
  372. How GAAD Started: https://globalaccessibilityawarenessday.org/about/
  373. Disability Rights after Amsterdam - the way forward: https://disability-studies.leeds.ac.uk/wp-content/uploads/sites/40/library/richard-whittle-Disability-Rights-after-Amsterdam.pdf
  374. UN -- Ageing & disability: https://www.un.org/development/desa/disabilities/disability-and-ageing.html
  375. World Health Organization (WHO) - "world report on disability" (2011): https://www.who.int/disabilities/world_report/2011/report.pdf
  376. 15% worldwide have physical or mental disability: https://www.cbsnews.com/news/15-worldwide-have-physical-or-mental-disability/
  377. Dawkins is wrong – grossly wrong – about Down’s syndrome: https://www.tortoisemedia.com/2021/06/01/dawkins-is-wrong-grossly-wrong-about-downs-syndrome/
  378. What is the European Union’s Web Accessibility Directive?: https://www.boia.org/blog/what-is-the-european-unions-web-accessibility-directive-1
  379. Guidance on Web Accessibility and the ADA: https://beta.ada.gov/web-guidance/
  380. Make 2020 the year your company stops waiting for an Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) letter/lawsuit to take action on A11Y: https://www.boia.org/blog/waiting-for-ada-demand-letter-to-take-accessibility-seriously
  381. ADA Best Practices Tool Kit for State/Local Governments -- Chapter 6 - Curb Ramps & Pedestrian Crossings (Title II of ADA): https://www.ada.gov/pcatoolkit/chap6toolkit.htm
  382. Auditing Your Website for Accessibility Compliance and Understanding How ADA Applies: https://cynthiang.ca/2018/08/16/presentation-auditing-your-website-for-accessibility-compliance-and-understanding-how-ada-applies/
  383. Congress Did Not Pass ADA Amendment Clarifying Web Accessibility Standards: https://www.boia.org/blog/congress-did-not-pass-ada-amendment-clarifying-web-accessibility-standards
  384. White House Embraces WCAG with Accessibility Updates: https://www.boia.org/blog/white-house-embraces-wcag-with-accessibility-updates (Dark mode, Font size options, more Spanish support, Inclusivity features)
  385. Centers for Disease Control and prevention (CDC) -- Disability Impacts All of Us (INFOGRAPHIC): https://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/disabilityandhealth/infographic-disability-impacts-all.html
  386. Act on the Elimination of Disability Discrimination in Japan: https://inclusion-international.org/act-on-the-elimination-of-disability-discrimination-in-japan/
  387. New law bans bias against people with disabilities, but shortcomings exist, say experts: https://www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2016/05/02/reference/new-law-bans-bias-against-people-with-disabilities-but-shortcomings-exist-say-experts/#.Xb8Dz5JKg0o
  388. Disabled train passengers left disconnected in age of digital smart card use: https://japantoday.com/category/national/feature-disabled-passengers-left-disconnected-in-age-of-digital-smart-card-use
  389. Japan's older population hits record high: https://www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2021/09/20/national/japans-older-population-hits-record-high/
  390. An Overview of Canada’s Accessibility Laws - A Look at the Old and the New: https://www.essentialaccessibility.com/blog/canadian-accessibility-laws/
  391. Summary of the Accessible Canada Act: https://www.canada.ca/en/employment-social-development/programs/accessible-people-disabilities/act-summary.html#section3-9
  392. Accessible Canada Act (INFOGRAPHICS) - Making an accessible Canada for persons with disabilities: https://www.canada.ca/en/employment-social-development/programs/accessible-canada.html
  393. Government of Canada announces appointments to the Canadian Accessibility Standards Development Organization: https://www.canada.ca/en/employment-social-development/news/2019/08/government-of-canada-announces-appointments-to-the-canadian-accessibility-standards-development-organization.html
  394. Accessibility in the (Canadian) public service: https://www.canada.ca/en/government/publicservice/wellness-inclusion-diversity-public-service/diversity-inclusion-public-service/accessibility-public-service.html
  395. TTC -- 2020 Accessibility Plan Status Update: http://ttc.ca/About_the_TTC/Commission_reports_and_information/Commission_meetings/2020/July_14/Reports/6_2020_Accessibility_Plan_Status_Update.pdf
  396. People with disabilities around B.C. to benefit from new accessibility programs: https://news.gov.bc.ca/releases/2017SDPR0062-001760
  397. High-Speed Access for All: Canada's Connectivity Strategy: https://www.ic.gc.ca/eic/site/139.nsf/eng/h_00002.html
  398. Rollout of RHFAC continues cross-Canada: https://www.reminetwork.com/articles/rollout-rhfac-continues-cross-canada/
  399. Best provinces for accessibility in Canada: https://www.zolo.ca/blog/best-provinces-accessibility
  400. Blind New Brunswickers hopeful legislature bill offering free transit fares gets passed: https://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/new-brunswick/blind-new-brunswick-free-transit-bill-1.6382535
  401. Statistics Canada (StatsCan) - Accessibility info/figures: https://www.statcan.gc.ca/en/topics-start/accessibility
  402. Disability-related employment benefits: https://www.canada.ca/en/revenue-agency/services/tax/businesses/topics/payroll/benefits-allowances/disability-related-employment-benefits.html
  403. A Complete Overview of Canada’s Accessibility Laws: https://siteimprove.com/en-ca/blog/a-complete-overview-of-canada-s-accessibility-laws/
  404. Minister Bains announces Canada’s Digital Charter: https://www.canada.ca/en/innovation-science-economic-development/news/2019/05/minister-bains-announces-canadas-digital-charter.html (Charter’s 10 principles will build a foundation of trust for Canadians in the digital sphere)
  405. wikipedia: CNIB Foundation
  406. Accessibility for Ontarians with Disabilities Act (AODA) compliance -- A Primer on Canadian Web Accessibility Standards: https://www.3playmedia.com/2016/06/03/aoda-compliance-a-primer-on-canadian-accessibility-standards/
  407. eSSENTIAL Accessibility -- AODA Frequently Asked Questions: https://www.essentialaccessibility.com/blog/faqs-about-aoda
  408. New Accessibility Requirements Fast Approaching Under AODA: https://www.mondaq.com/canada/discrimination-disability-sexual-harassment/986958/new-accessibility-requirements-fast-approaching-under-aoda
  409. Government accessibility standards and WCAG 2 by country:https://www.powermapper.com/blog/government-accessibility-standards/
  410. About the HTML Epidemic, WebAIM “Million” Report, and Teach Access: http://www.webaxe.org/html-epidemic-webaim-millions-report-teach-access/
  411. WCAG 2.1 -- UX Checklist - items broken down into POUR headings: https://github.com/JenniKobylskiUX/WCAG-Accessibility-UX-Checklist
  412. WCAG 2.1 - Exploring the New Success Criteria: https://www.accessibility.dev/this-is-the-second-of-a-three-part-series-about-wcag/
  413. Introducing WCAG 2.1 AA guidelines to Spree Commerce 4.2 UX: https://spreecommerce.org/introducing-wcag-guidelines-to-spree-commerce/
  414. User1st creates web accessibility testing solution (Press Release): https://www.kmworld.com/Articles/News/News/User1st-creates-web-accessibility-testing-solution-141946.aspx
  415. Government testing identifies accessibility issues on 99% of public sector websites: https://www.publictechnology.net/articles/news/government-testing-identifies-accessibility-issues-99-public-sector-websites
  416. ADA Standards for Accessible Design : https://www.ada.gov/2010ADAstandards_index.htm
  417. IBM Launches Open Source Equal Access Toolkit: https://www.forbes.com/sites/stevenaquino/2020/05/19/ibm-launches-open-source-equal-access-toolkit/?sh=7fb050d1f776
  418. IBM launches Equal Access Toolkit to help developers build accessible websites and applications: https://developer.ibm.com/blogs/ibm-launches-equal-access-toolkit-developers-accessible-apps-and-websites/
  419. IBM introduces Agent Building and Learning Environment (ABLE): https://researcher.watson.ibm.com/researcher/view_group.php?id=979
  420. Designing for accessibility - Dos and don'ts (UK - Home Office Digital): https://imgur.com/gallery/f2vj5
  421. wikipedia: International Symbol of Access (ISA)
  422. What You Can Do to Remove Barriers on the Web: https://de.ryerson.ca/games/accessibility/_/accessibility_guidelines.pdf
  423. Game Accessibility Feature Tags are now Available on Microsoft Store for Xbox: https://news-xbox-com.cdn.ampproject.org/c/s/news.xbox.com/en-us/2021/11/16/game-accessibility-feature-tags-now-available/amp/
  424. Technical Language, Advice Understandability, and Perceptions of Expertise and Trustworthiness - The Case of the Financial Planner (WHITEPAPER): https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/031289620202700102
  425. Egghead courses -- Develop Accessible Web Apps with React: https://egghead.io/courses/develop-accessible-web-apps-with-react
  426. WAI -- Before, After, Demo (BAD) website: https://www.w3.org/WAI/demos/bad/a>fter/home.html (great reference for how a website without A11Y was able to fix most of their issues)
  427. A Beginner's Guide to Web Accessibility: https://webdesign.tutsplus.com/courses/a-beginners-guide-to-web-accessibility/lessons/pa11y-and-pa11y-dashboard
  428. Legacy version of Google's Web Accessibility course: https://web.archive.org/web/20160327154224/https://webaccessibility.withgoogle.com/course
  429. Google's Accessibility guide for Android/Chrome developers: https://www.google.com/accessibility/for-developers/ | Accessible Styles | Semantic HTML | A11Y overview
  430. A11ycasts with Google Sr. Accessibility Engineer Rob Dodson: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLNYkxOF6rcICWx0C9LVWWVqvHlYJyqw7g
  431. Perkins -- eLearning, School for the Blind - App Accessibility Checklist: https://www.perkinselearning.org/technology/blog/app-accessibility-checklist
  432. A Quick Primer On The WCAG 2.0 Accessibility Standard: https://www.thrivewebdesigns.com/wcag20-accessibility-standard/
  433. WCAG 2.0 — Accessibility Principles And Guidelines: vanseodesign.com/web-design/wcag-principles-guidelines/
  434. Common Types Of Learning Disabilities: http://learningdisabilitiesnekanso.blogspot.com/2015/10/common-types-of-learning-disabilities.html
  435. The impact of motion animation on cognitive disability: https://www.tpgi.com/the-impact-of-motion-animation-on-cognitive-disability/
  436. Inclusive user testing - and empathy - are core to inclusive design: https://sdtimes.com/softwaredev/inclusive-user-testing-and-empathy-are-core-to-inclusive-design/?activecampaign_id=123002
  437. Increasing our Focus on Inclusive Technology: https://blogs.microsoft.com/accessibility/increasing-our-focus-on-inclusive-technology/
  438. Microsoft launches new lab for building inclusive tech, unveils new adaptive accessoriesL https://sdtimes.com/msft/microsoft-launches-new-lab-for-building-inclusive-tech-unveils-new-adaptive-accessories/
  439. Xbox Accessibility Guidelines Provide Best Practices So More Gamers Can Play: https://www.boia.org/blog/xbox-accessibility-guidelines-provide-best-practices-so-more-gamers-can-play
  440. Xbox One and Windows 10 Add In-Game Transcription: https://www.boia.org/blog/xbox-one-and-windows-10-add-in-game-transcription
  441. Microsoft starts new program to help (game developers) make more accessible games: https://www.theverge.com/2021/2/16/22286216/microsoft-xbox-games-tested-accessibility-guidelines
  442. XBox's new "Adaptive Controller": https://www.xbox.com/en-US/accessories/controllers/xbox-adaptive-controller
  443. Microsoft’s new Xbox controller is designed entirely for players with disabilities: https://www.polygon.com/2018/5/17/17363528/xbox-adaptive-controller-disability-accessible
  444. Microsoft is testing Xbox party chat accessibility features: https://www.engadget.com/xbox-party-chat-previews-text-to-speech-and-speech-transcription-102644434.html
  445. Low Vision .vs. Legally Blind: https://www.2020detroit.com/low-vision-vs-legal-blindness/
  446. IALVS -- What’s the Difference Between Low Vision and Blindness?: https://ialvs.com/whats-the-difference-between-low-vision-and-being-legally-blind/
  447. Low Vision -- Definition, Causes and Disability: https://wecapable.com/low-vision-disability/
  448. Low Vision and Legal Blindness Terms and Descriptions: https://www.afb.org/blindness-and-low-vision/eye-conditions/low-vision-and-legal-blindness-terms-and-descriptions
  449. Revision of visual impairment definitions in the International Statistical Classification of Diseases: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1435919/
  450. What is Macular Degeneration?: https://www.macular.org/what-macular-degeneration
  451. What is Macular Degeneration (alternate/additional info)?: https://www.macular.org/what-macular-degeneration-alt
  452. Android -- Test your app's accessibility: https://developer.android.com/guide/topics/ui/accessibility/testing
  453. Android -- Using Espresso for automated Accessibility Checking: https://developer.android.com/training/testing/espresso/accessibility-checking#java
  454. Microsoft Inclusive Toolkit wins 2017's "Best Empowering category" in the annual "World Changing Ideas" competition: https://awards.ixda.org/entry/2017/microsoft-inclusive-toolkit-2/
  455. Microsoft - our approach to Accessibility: https://www.microsoft.com/en-us/accessibility/approach
  456. Microsoft Is 'Doubling Down' on Accessibility to Help Close Disability Divide: https://www.boia.org/blog/microsoft-is-doubling-down-on-accessibility-to-help-close-disability-divide
  457. Apple A11Y features landing page: https://www.apple.com/accessibility/
  458. Apple introduces SignTime... ASL for iOS, more accessibility features for people with disabilities: https://www.usatoday.com/story/tech/2021/05/19/apple-new-software-signtime-feature-iphone-ipad-watch-hearing-impaired/5162279001/
  459. Accessibility in SwiftUI: https://developer.apple.com/videos/play/wwdc2019/238/
  460. The Business Case for an Accessible Website: https://www.boia.org/blog/the-business-case-for-an-accessible-website
  461. American Institutes for Reasearch (AIR) -- Hidden Market - The Purchasing Power of Working-Age Adults With Disabilities: https://www.air.org/system/files/downloads/report/Hidden-Market-Spending-Power-of-People-with-Disabilities-April-2018.pdf
  462. Canadian Survey on Disability Reports: https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/en/catalogue/89-654-X
  463. The 2006 Participation and Activity Limitation Survey: Disability in Canada: https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/en/catalogue/89-628-X
  464. eCH -- 0059 - Accessibility Standard for European Union (German): https://www.ech.ch/de/dokument/45a5ea94-5955-4206-a647-0f795b5f72b2
  465. "How Accessible Are We?" -- Digital India report (2020): https://my.visme.co/view/vdjjm3dp-how-accessible-are-we
  466. SiteImprove -- CX strategy - Drive ROI with Accessibility (E-BOOK): https://hello.siteimprove.com/en-us/content/ebook/empathyroi
  467. The ROI of Accessibility: http://www.accessibilitypartners.com/the-roi-of-accessibility/
  468. Optimizing Your eCommerce Site? Accessibility is a Must-Have!: https://www.essentialaccessibility.com/uncategorized/trends-and-impact-of-digital-accessibility-on-ecommerce-in-2021
  469. 6 companies that boosted business with accessibility: https://bighack.org/business-case-accessibility-6-companies-who-boosted-business-with-accessibility/
  470. Valuable Truth Report (2022): https://www.thevaluable500.com/wp-content/uploads/2022/05/The-Valuable-Truth-2022.pdf
  471. Avoid "Keyboard Traps" To Make Your Site More Accessible: https://www.boia.org/blog/avoid-keyboard-traps-to-make-your-site-more-accessible
  472. Accessibility compliance deadline looms in Ontario: https://betakit.com/as-accessibility-compliance-deadline-looms-cnib-ottawa-firm-partner-to-offer-website-audits-to-businesses/
  473. Ontario Making Public Spaces More Accessible: https://news.ontario.ca/en/release/1001367/ontario-making-public-spaces-more-accessible
  474. MIT -- The role of accessibility in a universal web (WHITEPAPER): http://dspace.mit.edu/handle/1721.1/88013
  475. Accessible jQuery-ui Components Demonstration: http://hanshillen.github.io/jqtest/#goto_dialog
  476. Accessible Icon Buttons: https://www.sarasoueidan.com/blog/accessible-icon-buttons/
  477. HTMHell special - close buttons: https://www.htmhell.dev/20-close-buttons/
  478. Implementing A Pure CSS Collapsible (that can still have keyboard support via a tiny bit of JS): https://www.digitalocean.com/community/tutorials/css-collapsible
  479. MozDev -- WAI-ARIA roles - Using the aria-live property:: https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/Accessibility/ARIA/ARIA_Live_Regions
  480. Getting screen reader to read new content added (post-pageload) with JavaScript: https://stackoverflow.com/questions/3670570/getting-screen-reader-to-read-new-content-added-with-javascript
  481. ARIA -- "Live" Region Playground: http://schne324.github.io/live-region-playground/ (testing aria-live="" attribute variations: off, polite, assertive... .vs. default/non-present)
  482. WAI-ARIA -- roles: https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/Accessibility/ARIA/Roles
  483. MozDev -- WAI-ARIA roles - Using the timer role: https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/Accessibility/ARIA/Roles/ARIA_timer_role
  484. MozDev -- WAI-ARIA roles - Using the Navigation role: https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/Accessibility/ARIA/Roles/Navigation_Role
  485. MozDev -- WAI-ARIA roles - Using the region role: https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/Accessibility/ARIA/Roles/Region_role
  486. MozDev -- WAI-ARIA roles - Using the complimentary role: https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/Accessibility/ARIA/Roles/Complementary_role
  487. DigitalA11Y -- overview of aria-atomic property: https://www.digitala11y.com/aria-atomic-properties/
  488. Study on aria-atomic & aria-relevant on aria-live regions: https://pauljadam.com/demos/aria-atomic-relevant.html
  489. Why Are iFrame Titles Important for Accessibility?: https://www.boia.org/blog/why-are-iframe-titles-important-for-accessibility
  490. Color Blindness & Web Design: https://www.usability.gov/get-involved/blog/2010/02/color-blindness.html
  491. Color Contrast for Better Readability: https://www.viget.com/articles/color-contrast/
  492. Ensure High Contrast for Text Over Images: https://www.nngroup.com/articles/text-over-images/
  493. NIH -- Types of Color Blindness: https://www.nei.nih.gov/learn-about-eye-health/eye-conditions-and-diseases/color-blindness/types-color-blindness
  494. wikipedia: Ishihara test
  495. Getting Typography Right in Digital Design: https://medium.springboard.com/the-guide-to-getting-typography-right-in-digital-design-bb61214ff3ad
  496. Web Design is 95% Typography: https://ia.net/topics/the-web-is-all-about-typography-period
  497. Best Fonts To Use for Website Accessibility: https://www.boia.org/blog/best-fonts-to-use-for-website-accessibility
  498. Tricks for ARIA on the iPad/iOS: http://blog.codinginparadise.org/2010/12/tricks-for-aria-on-ipadios.html
  499. Building a Universally Accessible Blog: https://whatsortsofpeople.wordpress.com/2008/07/28/building-a-universally-accessible-blog/
  500. MozDev -- ARIA - live regions: https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/Accessibility/ARIA/ARIA_Live_Regions
  501. MozDev -- ARIA - alertdialog role: https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/Accessibility/ARIA/Roles/alertdialog_role
  502. MozDev -- ARIA - dialog role: https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/Accessibility/ARIA/Roles/dialog_role
  503. ARIA Dialog role example (Modal): http://accessibility.athena-ict.com/aria/examples/dialog.shtml
  504. W3C -- Making a Dialog Modal: https://www.w3.org/TR/2010/WD-wai-aria-practices-20100916/#modal_dialog
  505. Modal dialogs: https://accessuse.eu/en/modal-dialogs.html
  506. Dialog (Modal): http://www.html5accessibility.com/dhtmlStyleGuide.html#dialogmodal
  507. Creating An Accessible Modal Dialog: https://bitsofco.de/accessible-modal-dialog/ | DEMO | SRC
  508. CodePen Home Some Accessible Modal Techniques: https://codepen.io/noahblon/pen/yJpXZa
  509. jQuery simple and accessible modal window, using ARIA: https://a11y.nicolas-hoffmann.net/modal/
  510. Building better accessibility primitives: https://robdodson.me/posts/building-better-accessibility-primitives/
  511. Making Elements Focusable with Tabindex: https://snook.ca/archives/accessibility_and_usability/elements_focusable_with_tabindex
  512. Is there a way to do an accessible modal?: https://stackoverflow.com/questions/10016433/is-there-a-way-to-do-an-accessible-modal
  513. Keep tabbing within modal pane only: https://stackoverflow.com/questions/14572084/keep-tabbing-within-modal-pane-only
  514. Best Practices for Modal Windows: https://uxmovement.com/forms/best-practices-for-modal-windows/
  515. Popups -- 10 Problematic Trends and Alternatives: https://www.nngroup.com/articles/popups/
  516. Semantically-Accurate HTML5 Element for a Modal Dialog: https://stackoverflow.com/questions/3072597/semantically-accurate-html5-element-for-a-modal-dialog
  517. Best Practices for Modals / Overlays / Dialog Windows: https://uxplanet.org/best-practices-for-modals-overlays-dialog-windows-c00c66cddd8c
  518. The a11y Monthly - Making modals accessible: https://developer.yoast.com/blog/the-a11y-monthly-making-modals-accessible/
  519. Inclusive components -- making modals accessible: https://dev.to/alenanik/inclusive-components-making-modals-accessible-1hn9
  520. Web Accessibility Guidelines v1.0: http://web-accessibility.carnegiemuseums.org/code/dialogs/
  521. How to trap focus inside modal to make it ADA compliant: https://uxdesign.cc/how-to-trap-focus-inside-modal-to-make-it-ada-compliant-6a50f9a70700
  522. Considerations for Styling a Modal: https://css-tricks.com/considerations-styling-modal/
  523. Demonstration of a keyboard- and screen-reader accessible modal dialog: http://ncamftp.wgbh.org/sp/tests/dialog/modalDialog.html
  524. Benefits and drawbacks of modal windows: https://ux.stackexchange.com/questions/39778/benefits-and-drawbacks-of-modal-windows
  525. How To Make Modal Windows Better For Everyone: https://www.smashingmagazine.com/2014/09/making-modal-windows-better-for-everyone/
  526. Is there a way to do an accessible modal?: https://stackoverflow.com/questions/10016433/is-there-a-way-to-do-an-accessible-modal
  527. Creating An Accessible Modal Dialog: http://bitsofco.de/accessible-modal-dialog/
  528. Accessible modal window using ARIA and Vanilla JS: https://van11y.net/downloads/modal/demo/index.html
  529. jQuery simple and accessible modal window, using ARIA: https://a11y.nicolas-hoffmann.net/modal/
  530. jQuery trap input plugin: https://github.com/julienw/jquery-trap-input
  531. React Modals: https://react-bootstrap.github.io/components/modal/
  532. React-Bootstrap Modal Accessibility Warnings from React-A11y: https://stackoverflow.com/questions/38596675/react-bootstrap-modal-accessibility-warnings-from-react-a11y
  533. Notes On Client-Rendered Accessibility: https://www.smashingmagazine.com/2015/05/client-rendered-accessibility/
  534. ReactJS docs - Accessibility: https://reactjs.org/docs/accessibility.html
  535. Deque - React Accessiblity best practices (WEBINAR): https://accessibility.deque.com/react-accessibility-webinar
  536. Getting Started with Web Accessibility in React: https://medium.com/@emilymears/getting-started-with-web-accessibility-in-react-9e591fdb0d52
  537. Accessibility -- Never Remove the Outlines: https://medium.com/better-programming/a11y-never-remove-the-outlines-ee4efc7a9968
  538. Outline NONE in CSS -- a { outline: none; } - DON'T DO IT!: http://www.outlinenone.com/
  539. The plague of outline:0: https://webaim.org/blog/plague-of-outline-0/
  540. The Friendly Inbox - Making Emails Accessible For Subscribers With Disabilities: https://www.mediapost.com/publications/article/367871/the-friendly-inbox-making-emails-accessible-for-s.html
  541. WCAG 2.0 -- Link Purpose (In Context): https://www.w3.org/TR/UNDERSTANDING-WCAG20/navigation-mechanisms-refs.html
  542. Accessibility -- Web Links Should Be Links, and Web Buttons Should Be Buttons: https://medium.com/better-programming/accessibility-web-links-should-be-links-and-web-buttons-should-be-buttons-182ff042d087
  543. WebAIM -- Link A11Y best practices: https://webaim.org/techniques/hypertext/#link_to_link
  544. WebAIM -- Links and Hypertext: https://webaim.org/techniques/hypertext/link_text
  545. Text Links - Best Practices for Screen Readers: https://www.deque.com/blog/text-links-practices-screen-readers/
  546. Don't Rely on the Title Attribute for Accessibility: https://www.mediacurrent.com/blog/dont-rely-title-attribute-accessibility-seo/
  547. Create accessible social media content: https://accessibility.iu.edu/creating-content/social-media/index.html | VIDEO
  548. Improving the Accessibility of Social Media in Government: https://digital.gov/resources/improving-the-accessibility-of-social-media-in-government/
  549. YouTube Expands Speech Recognition and Translation AI Features: https://voicebot.ai/2021/10/11/youtube-expands-speech-recognition-and-translation-ai-features/
  550. Facebook's Accessibility help page: https://www.facebook.com/help/273947702950567?cms_id=141636465971794
  551. Twitter’s web redesign isn’t as accessible as it should be, experts say: https://techcrunch.com/2021/08/13/twitters-web-redesign-isnt-as-accessible-as-it-should-be-experts-say/
  552. Seiichi Miyake: 5 Brilliantly Simple Uses for His "Tenji Blocks": https://www.inverse.com/article/54134-seiichi-miyake-google-doodle-tactile-paving
  553. The Unexpected Benefits of Web Accessibility: Why It’s More Than Just “The Right Thing To Do”: https://www.essentialaccessibility.com/blog/the-unexpected-benefits-of-web-accessibility-why-its-more-than-just-the-right-thing-to-do
  554. History of Assistive Technology: https://www.sutori.com/story/history-of-assistive-technology--RJ35ffpub31fn4qokozTFtNg
  555. Assistive Technology timeline: https://earshot103.wixsite.com/assistive-technology/history
  556. To Hell with WCAG 2: http://www.alistapart.com/articles/tohellwithwcag2
  557. Creating Accessible Menus and Mega Menus: https://www.levelaccess.com/challenges-mega-menus-standard-menus-make-accessible/
  558. Accessible Mega Menu: https://adobe-accessibility.github.io/Accessible-Mega-Menu/#accessible-megamenu-1638280592218-1
  559. Creating an animated Menu indicator with CSS Selectors: https://css-tricks.com/creating-an-animated-menu-indicator-with-css-selectors/ (bottom)
  560. Line Menu "currently active" indicator styles: https://tympanus.net/Development/LineMenuStyles/ (many examples if you don't mind scrolling through them all hah)
  561. Bootstrap - subtle but sufficient indicator on dynamic "Mega Menu": https://preview.colorlib.com/theme/bootstrap/website-menu-03/index.html
  562. Moz dev docs -- FireFox - Accessibility Inspector: https://firefox-source-docs.mozilla.org/devtools-user/accessibility_inspector/index.html
  563. A Deep Dive on Skipping to Content: https://css-tricks.com/a-deep-dive-on-skipping-to-content/
  564. How to Create a “Skip to Content” Link : https://css-tricks.com/how-to-create-a-skip-to-content-link/
  565. Skip to Main Content – Accessibility for AEM Web-applications (AEM 6.5.9 & AEMaaCs): https://aemsimplifiedbynikhil.wordpress.com/2021/07/16/skip-to-main-content-accessibility-for-aem-web-applications-aem-6-5-9-aemaacs/
  566. How to skip some content from screen reader: https://stackoverflow.com/questions/22932134/how-to-skip-some-content-from-screen-reader
  567. WebAIM - Skip Navigation Links: https://webaim.org/techniques/skipnav/
  568. What Is Skip Navigation Link and Why Is It Useful? : https://pineco.de/what-is-skip-navigation-link-and-why-is-it-useful/
  569. Carnegie Museum -- Skip Link: web-accessibility.carnegiemuseums.org/code/skip-link/
  570. I found a hidden youtube button (SKIP NAVIGATION). To see it, open youtube and hit tab twice: https://www.reddit.com/r/interestingasfuck/comments/hwii59/i_found_a_hidden_youtube_button_skip_navigation/fyzt4st/
  571. WCAG 2.0 AA is the new Accessibility standard for any "Federal Agency" websites: https://www.adatitleiii.com/2017/01/wcag-2-0-aa-is-the-new-accessibility-standard-for-federal-agency-websites/
  572. Translating Design Wireframes Into Accessible HTML/CSS: https://www.smashingmagazine.com/2020/07/design-wireframes-accessible-html-css/
  573. Disability 3Barriers in Customer Service: https://www.aoda.ca/disability-barriers-in-customer-service/
  574. Accessibility - Definition, Meaning, Examples and Types of Barriers: https://wecapable.com/accessibility-definition-meaning-examples-barriers/
  575. Public Education Campaign on the Business Case for Accessibility: https://aoda.ca/public-education-campaign-on-the-business-case-for-accessibility/
  576. Top 5 Most Common Web Accessibility Mistakes: https://www.mcdpartners.com/news/top-5-common-web-accessibility-mistakes/
  577. Top Ten Most Common Web Accessibility issues: https://www.tpgi.com/ten-common-web-accessibility-issues/ (1.Image ALT text, 2.KeyboardNav visual focus indicator, 3.Use of proper labels, 4.Links without descriptive text, 5.Links/Buttons too small, 6.Tables without proper markup, 7.Headings hierarchy & Section nesting, 8.Color Contrast, 9.Embedding or Linking to inaccessible docs & media, 10.Identical descriptive text for content - multiple related or separate unrelated)
  578. 6 easy ways to make your projects more accessible: https://www.richmedia.com/richideas/articles/6-ways-to-make-your-projects-accessible
  579. Beyond the screenreader - Online accessibility for assistive devices: https://www.richmedia.com/richideas/articles/beyond_the_screenreader_online_accessibility_for_assistive_devices
  580. Unit in Developing Literacy Skills with Assistive Technology: https://dyslexiaaction.org.uk/developing-literacy-skills-with-assistive-technology/
  581. Do Dyslexia Fonts Improve Accessibility?: https://www.boia.org/blog/do-dyslexia-fonts-improve-accessibility
  582. AUSTRALIAN CURRICULUM – NUMERACY CAPABILITIES: https://mrscovichsclassroom.com/numeracy-capabilities/
  583. How a Glasgow, Scotland school celebrated "National Numeracy Day" (2020): https://blogs.glowscotland.org.uk/ea/hillsideprimaryamain2019/2020/05/10/weekly-challenge-numeracy/
  584. UX Planet -- Color, psychology and design: https://uxplanet.org/how-color-can-effect-emotion-ccab0431b1d
  585. An argument for incorporating color early on in UX design: https://uxhacker.co/an-argument-for-incorporating-color-early-on-in-ux-design/
  586. Color meanings and the art of using color symbolism (in UI/UX Design): https://99designs.ca/blog/tips/color-meanings/
  587. Ishihara’s Test for Colour Deficiency - 38 Plates Edition: https://www.color-blindness.com/ishiharas-test-for-colour-deficiency-38-plates-edition/
  588. Color Meanings – The Power and Symbolism of Colors: https://www.color-meanings.com
  589. Real People, Real Stories Episode #9 (2021) -- Charlotte Dales from Inclusively and Aubrey Northam from Mobelux: https://www.tpgi.com/real-people-real-stories-episode-9-2021-charlotte-dales-from-inclusively-and-aubrey-northam-from-mobelux/
  590. What is a screen reader, and why are they important?: https://www.tpgi.com/what-is-a-screen-reader-and-why-are-they-important/
  591. Canadians with disabilities face barriers to financial security, researchers find: https://phys.org/news/2020-08-canadians-disabilities-barriers-financial.html
  592. How America failed students with disabilities during the pandemic: https://www.washingtonpost.com/education/2021/05/20/students-disabilities-virtual-learning-failure/
  593. Australian study shows "those with disability are disproportionally affected by COVID" – New Report From CBM: https://www.96five.com/stories/life/news/2021/those-with-a-disability-disproportionally-affected-by-covid-new-report/
  594. COVID closures disproportionately affecting those with disabilities: https://health.ucdavis.edu/health-news/newsroom/covid-closures-disproportionately-affecting-those-with-disabilities-/2020/10
  595. The pandemic isn’t over — particularly for people with disabilities: https://www.health.harvard.edu/blog/the-pandemic-isnt-over-particularly-for-people-with-disabilities-202105252464
  596. COVID-19's Impact on People with Disabilities: https://www.massgeneral.org/news/coronavirus/Covid-19s-impact-on-people-with-disabilities
  597. Impacts of COVID-19 disproportionately affect poor and vulnerable - UN chief: https://news.un.org/en/story/2020/06/1067502
  598. COVID-19 has disproportionately impacted those living with developmental disabilities: https://www.cnn.com/2020/08/28/health/covid-19-intellectual-development-disabilities-impact-wellness/index.html
  599. COVID-19 Outbreak and Persons with Disabilities: https://www.un.org/development/desa/disabilities/covid-19.html
  600. Impact of COVID-19 on people with physical disabilities - A rapid review: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7603994/
  601. Policy Brief -- A "Disability-Inclusive" Response to COVID-19: https://www.un.org/sites/un2.un.org/files/sg_policy_brief_on_persons_with_disabilities_final.pdf
  602. Workers With Disabilities Disproportionately Impacted By Covid-19 Pandemic: https://www.forbes.com/sites/allisonnorlian/2020/06/22/workers-with-disabilities-disproportionately-impacted-by-covid-19-pandemic/
  603. Role of Governor in promoting disability employment in COVID-19 recovery strategies: https://www.nga.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/03/SEED_Memo.pdf
  604. How to Use Color Blind Friendly Palettes to Make Your Charts Accessible: https://venngage.com/blog/color-blind-friendly-palette/
  605. Microsoft Working on System That Could Benefit Color-blind Gamers: https://gamerant.com/microsoft-patent-system-benefit-color-blind-gamers/
  606. BBC - Accessibility for Products: https://www.bbc.co.uk/accessibility/forproducts/
  607. Personas with Disabilities: https://medium.com/swlh/personas-with-disabilities-9da8d12f1255
  608. Persona Spectrums - Building for Inclusion and Accessibility: https://www.uxbooth.com/articles/persona-spectrums-building-for-inclusion-and-accessibility/
  609. How to Add Alt Text to Images on Facebook: https://www.howtogeek.com/761718/how-to-add-alt-text-to-images-on-facebook/
  610. 5 ways to make websites more accessible for deaf people: https://www.hearinglikeme.com/5-ways-to-make-websites-more-accessible-for-deaf-people/
  611. How to make a website accessible for the deaf and hearing impaired: https://www.paradigmmarketinganddesign.com/how-to-make-a-website-accessible-for-the-deaf-and-hearing-impaired/
  612. Web accessibility for hearing impairments: https://uxdesign.cc/web-accessibility-for-hearing-impairment-3f49fc7b5a34

See Also

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