Difference between revisions of "Accessibility"

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* '''Training Accessibility Guidelines (TAG) -- WCAG level check (self-evaluation questionnaire): http://www.cansomebodyhelpme.com/tag/'''
 
* '''Training Accessibility Guidelines (TAG) -- WCAG level check (self-evaluation questionnaire): http://www.cansomebodyhelpme.com/tag/'''
 
* The ''#NoMouse'' Challenge: http://nomouse.org/ (by UCSD A11Y Lab)
 
* The ''#NoMouse'' Challenge: http://nomouse.org/ (by UCSD A11Y Lab)
* UK HomeOffice - Designing for Accessibility: https://ukhomeoffice.github.io/accessibility-posters/ | [https://ukhomeoffice.github.io/accessibility-posters/posters/accessibility-posters.pdf POSTERS]
+
* UK HomeOffice - Designing for Accessibility: https://ukhomeoffice.github.io/accessibility-posters/ | [https://ukhomeoffice.github.io/accessibility-posters/posters/accessibility-posters.pdf POSTERS]<ref>Government testing identifies accessibility issues on 99% of public sector websites: https://www.publictechnology.net/articles/news/government-testing-identifies-accessibility-issues-99-public-sector-websites</ref>
 
* DISABILITY EQUALITY INDEX® (DEI®) 7th Annual / 2021 Benchmark: https://www.disabilityequalityindex.org/DEISurvey/Annual_DEI_Questions.pdf
 
* DISABILITY EQUALITY INDEX® (DEI®) 7th Annual / 2021 Benchmark: https://www.disabilityequalityindex.org/DEISurvey/Annual_DEI_Questions.pdf
 
* BOIA - Mobile A11Y checklist: https://www.boia.org/definitive-checklist-for-mobile-accessibility
 
* BOIA - Mobile A11Y checklist: https://www.boia.org/definitive-checklist-for-mobile-accessibility

Revision as of 10:01, 2 June 2022

Accessibility (commonly abbreviated as A11Y, also refered to as universal support) is the support for disabled or otherwise impaired persons.


Specifications

WCAG

Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (commonly abbreviated WCAG) is part of a series of accessibility guidelines, including the Authoring Tool Accessibility Guidelines (ATAG) and the User Agent Accessibility Guidelines (UAAG)[1][2].


                                           WCAG 1.0   |   WCAG 2.0
importance of the content A AA AAA A AA AAA
(closed) captionsXXXX*XX
(closed) audio descriptionXXXX*XX
full text alternativeX*X
sign languageX
  1. A = Priority 1, Web developers must satisfy these requirements, otherwise it will be impossible for one or more groups to access the Web content. Conformance to this level is described as A.
  2. AA = Priority 2, Web developers should satisfy these requirements, otherwise some groups will find it difficult to access the Web content. Conformance to this level is described as AA or Double-A.
  3. AAA = Priority 3, Web developers may satisfy these requirements, in order to make it easier for some groups to access the Web content. Conformance to this level is described as AAA or Triple-A.

[3] [4] [5]

POUR principles

In addition to the specific multimedia accessibility techniques, WCAG defines defines four key principles of accessibility:

  1. Perceivable - Information can be presented in different ways; for example, in braille, different text sizes, text-to-speech, or symbols, etc.
  2. Operable - Functionality can be used in different modalities; for example, keyboard, mouse, sip-and-puff, speech input, touch, etc.
  3. Understandable - Information and functionality is understandable; for example consistent navigation, simple language, etc.
  4. Robust - Content can be interpreted reliably by a wide variety of browsers, media players, and assistive technologies.

[6]

There are currently two stable versions of WCAG that are both supported by W3C:

WCAG 2.0 was published in December 2008, and has become widely adopted as the standard for web accessibility by many businesses and governments around the world. It defines 12 Guidelines under the four POUR principles. Under each Guideline there are more specific Success Criteria divided into three Conformance Levels: A, AA, and AAA. WCAG 2.0 defines 61 Success Criteria.


WCAG 2.1 was published in June 2018, to better address accessibility for people with cognitive and learning disabilities, people with low vision, and people with disabilities using mobile devices. WCAG 2.1 is fully backward compatible with WCAG 2.0, so that if your content conforms to WCAG 2.1 it also conforms to WCAG 2.0. WCAG 2.1 defines 13 Guidelines and 78 Success Criteria.

WCAG 2.0 – Quick Facts and Guide: https://www.hurix.com/wcag-quick-facts-and-guide/ [10] [11] [12] [13]

[14] [15]


WAI

Web Accessibility Initiative (commonly abbreviated WCAG).

[16]

ARIA

ARIA Landmarks Example: https://w3c.github.io/aria-practices/examples/landmarks/index.html [18] [19] [20] [21] [22]

ATAG

UAAG

ARRM

[24] [25] [26] [27] [28] [29] [30] [31] [32]



Kiosks

[33] [34]

Printed Materials

  • Best Practices and Guidelines for Large Print Documents used by the Low Vision Community authored by the Council of Citizens with Low Vision: https://perma.cc/MQ2K-5UAQ

[35] [36] [37] [38] [39] [40] [41] [42]


a11y

Wordpress as of v4.3.x offers Accessibility prompts via JavaScript to communicate with Screen Reader software (where available natively in the client's browser or via Plugin). Simply

wp.a11y.speak('YOUR TEXT TO BE SPOKEN HERE'); 
  • a11y
  • The Accessibility (a11y) Project: https://www.a11yproject.com/ (aside from tons of great blogs/tutorials/resources, a nice visual explaining the 11 characters between "A" and "Y" of the word AccessibilitY)

AAM

ACC Name


Section 508

United States government initiative towards Accessibility for IT.

[43] [44] [45] [46] [47] [48]


12 categories

Utilities

A person may for personal or financial reasons not have full access to modern society's common amenities including power/electricity, internet, telephone, mobile phone, heat, hot water, etc... they may also have some amenities such as power and internet or mobile data services but it may be limited or cost-prohibitively expensive to the point it needs to be rationed or only used sparingly at specific times, page loads should thus be small and fast; in general, there should be alternate ways to provide service to these customers as well.

Literacy & Numeracy

Ability to read and understand textual information on a screen or printed material, as well as issues that can arise for folks who have trouble reading text when layered on top of images or with insufficient spacing, color contrasts, etc - literacy in Canada is typically measured by levels ranging from 1 (illiterate) to 3 (basic literacy required to function independently in society) to 5 (highly proficient and capable of critical analysis); equally important to reading itself are "numerical literacy" considerations, as some folks may be perfectly capable of reading text but not of processing numbers, statistics, doing basic mathematics, or, may lack financial literacy in terms of sensibly managing their own money or the money of others in their household.

Cognitive

Reading comprehension, mental barriers to learning, or even cognitive realization of how one is expected to interact with a given screen or experience (checkout flow, registration/signup flow, login/logout flow, regular usage, etc) could be an issue, as could memory and information retention (or not remembering how to perform a task or processing/understanding the information that was successfully read or result of an action that was taken); problem-solving skills also fall into this category, which could be problematic for any of the more complex UI/UX expectations thrust upon the user.

[49] [50] [51]y [52] [53] [54]

Tactile

Having an inability or challenge to control the common Human Computer Interface (HCI) and related peripheral devices could be reduced, this includes a mouse/keyboard (for Desktop computers), directional pad and/or QWERT or numerical keys (for legacy or basic Mobile devices), or increasingly, on-screen/virtual keyboards and touch-based controls for Smartphones and Mobile Tablet-type devices (which introduce their own "fat finger" potential design issues), lastly there are those who can use none of the above and require a special stylus or pointing device for instance sometimes even using their mouth or feet to point rather than hands.

Vision

Not just full blindness, this category also includes "partially sighted" (legal blindness but still some vision at high zooms), "reduced vision" (near/far-sightedness), color-blindness, and similar categories of vision disabilities... Braille for print or Screen Readers for digital are the most common tools, and we to need to ensure compatibility of these assistive technologies with our systems.

Hearing

Inability or challenges to be able ot hear information in an audio delivery format such as a radio ad, podcast, music player, video, spoken word, presentations, phone calls, tele-confernces, etc.... correctly sequenced/timed captions should be provided for native language speakers with such issues, subtitles may need to be required for foreign or second language speakers, transcripts with timestamps can also help cover all folks' needs and have the added benefit of Search Engine Optimization and improved content discoverability. Sign language may be a requirement.

[55] [56] [57]

Speech

When intentionally designing Voice controls, there are those persons whom have a Speech impediment, disorder of the Vocal folds or throat, or other Speaking disabilities whom need special textual or audio representations for Voice controls to be usable in an accessible manner while interacting with a given system. This can pose a real challenge, so having a baseline experience that doesn't require complex vocal interaction can be a key design area to focus on whenever speech-related controls are intended to be used.

Physical & Mobility

As with any of the other categories these could be permanent (lifelong conditions, chronic illnesses) or temporary (injury which a person is recovering from or situational due to physical location/environment); just as building designers particularly need to think about wheelchair accessibility, as well as use of canes, walkers and other assisted mechanisms (bathroom/elevator emergency bells, hand-rails, safety barriers, curb heights & cuts, etc) or accommodate guided helpers (two-person hallways/doorways, seeing eye-dogs or other comfort/therapy animals, etc) software designers need to think about physical limitations that could impede use of a digital product/service. In addition, there are many mobility disabilities which could factor into accessibility concerns including one's ability to sit at a desk, angle one's head/neck/eyes and/or arms, those who may be bed-ridden; there are many in these groups and others whom need to use Voice controls, such as Speech-To-Text (STT) and/or Text-To-Speech (TTS) to control their screen rather than a keyboard, mouse and/or mobile device touch interface.

Vestibular

This category of disorders and personal challenges include seizures, migraines & disorientation or dizziness caused by any combination or isolated instance of flashing lights, suddenly changing color schemes, or, even basic animation motion trails and seemingly harmless "stylistic transitions" between screens or displayed sections; so these must be capable of being toggled on/off or permanently disabled via personalized settings; pausing/deactivation controls should also be available without a login/account requirement for things like auto-scrolling feeds, auto-transitioning carousels, carousel slide animations and other page-level or component-level transitions.

Vestibular Disorders and those who can become triggered into seizures are the major health concern here, but there are also simply those who do not like such "special effects" (or for whom it makes the content harder to read/understand or makes them dizzy, confused or otherwise uncomfortable); so we should respect their preferences and offer them an experience without such effects. The current way to communicate a preference not to be shown animations and related effects is the CSS3 markup "@prefers-reduced-motion".

[58] [59] [60] [61] [62] [63] [64] [65] [66] [67] [68]

Device & Screen

A person may have a very old device and for financial or personal reasons be unwilling or unable to upgrade or replace that device, what is the lowest common experience we can guarantee to all such users? (perhaps it could be a bit better than "please get a new device and/or upgrade your browser" message); similarly, a person may have a smaller or less than optimal screen size or resolution available for displaying digital content, may be unable to view their screen due to viewing angles, reflections, lighting conditions, cracks/damage to screen, etc... so some baseline experience must be preserved, and on touch-enabled screens good UI/UX around "fat fingering must be followed.

Location

A person might not be able to access a given physical retail location or other facility, and needs a close proxy user experience via a combination of other medium (web and/or mobile typically being the first choice, packaged/offline software being another digital option). Traditionally companies are often also expected to ensure any service offered can also potentially be provided by telephone, email, chat, print materials, guided in-person help or traveling kiosks or customer service representatives that come to given neighbourhoods (not necessarily all of these for every offering, but a strategic combination to cover users' needs).

Timing

A person may not be able to complete a given task within an alotted amount of time, or, on the flip side for those without blocking disabilities an otherwise "fully-abled" person may still not be able to access a physical or even digital service at a specific time (i.e. "get your purchase in before draw break") this could include workers stuck on the "night shift", those in remote areas with no internet access, temporarily out of mobile service area, etc.



Diversity & Inclusion

Concerns "Accessible employment" and workplace inclusivity (equal participation & opportunities).

[69] [70] [71] [72] [73] [74] [75] [76] [77] [78] [79] [80] [81] [82] [83]

Societal approaches

Equality-vs-Equity-vs-Justice.png

Equality


Equity

Justice


Information Architecture

Content Strategy

Accessibility Auditors

There are three "tiers" or types of 3rd-party Accessibility providers:

  1. Tier 1 - scan & overlay (no "preventive" coverage against lawsuits) $2-5k USD
  2. Tier 2 - hybrid, scan & overlay with wait & see approach (partial coverage) $6-12k USD
  3. Tier 3 - full legal coverage (guaranteed compliance & insurance coverage options against lawsuits) $12-25k USD

[91]

Over 10000 cases/year go to court, almost 100% go to court, average of over $20000 USD awarded to plaintiffs.


Desktop Technology-specific A11Y

PDF accessibility

[92] [93] [94]

PPT accessiblity

[95] [96] [97] [98] [99]

Email accessibility

Here are a few tips to help you send accessible emails:

  • Provide a clear, brief, and informative subject line
  • Choose a font style that is easy to read in at least 12-14 point font
  • Use spaces to break up paragraphs
  • Use plain text and avoid using lots of special characters and symbols
  • Avoid flashing or flickering content (think: gifs in your email signature

[100] [101]

Web Technology-specific A11Y

HTML accessibility

[103]


CSS accessibility

[104]


JS accessibility

[105]


Special A11Y concerns

Visual

[106]

Motion preferences

A number of people may suffer from permanent/chronic, temporary/resolvable or situational/environmental issues around motion, flicker and related content changes (often categorized as "Vestibular Disorders"). These could be triggered through:

  • content animations
  • moving, growing or shrinking pictures/text
  • strobing effects
  • sudden color changes
  • screen transitions

[107] [108] [109] [110] [111] [112]

[113] [114] [115] [116] [117]

[118] (MD) [119] [120] [121] [122] [123]


Contrast

Text & Images must have sufficient contrast between one another and their respective containers/backgrounds.

[124] [125]

Screen Reader

  • WebAIM -- Designing for Screen Reader compatibility: https://webaim.org/techniques/screenreader/ (similar considerations for all types of apps Desktop/Mobile/Web, but approaches slightly different depending on platform)

[126] [127] [128] [129] [130]

[131] [132] [133] [134] [135] [136] [137] [138] [139] [140]


Keyboard navigation

Keyboard Accessibility defines the ability to use a standard or custom (i.e. Braille, RSI positioned keys, etc) keyboard input device rather than any other HCI peripheral device (such as mouse, stylus, finger/touch, voice, etc) to interact with a given Website, WebApp, Desktop App or Mobile App.


When verifying "Keyboard Accessibility" you should check that:

  1. 'Tab to all - users can tab to all the active elements including links, form fields, buttons, and a media player control.
  2. Tab away - users can tab away from (out of) all elements that can be tabbed into.
  3. Tab order - the tab order follows the logical reading order according to the language on the page.
  4. Visual focus - the focus is clearly visible as users tab through the elements, and users can tell if navigating away to another application or tab upon returning, precisely which element has focus at any point in time.
  5. Functionality - users can do everything with the keyboard. That is you don't need to use a mouse to activate actions options, visible changes, and other functionality.
  6. Drop-downs - after users tab to a drop-down list using the arrow keys to move through the options without triggering another action.
  7. Image links - when images are links they have clear & visible focus and they can be activated using the keyboard.

The following table shows some common keyboard shortcuts and keymap conventions:

Interaction

Keystrokes

Navigate to most elements

  • Tab
  • Shift + Tab - navigate backward

Link

Enter

Button

Enter or Spacebar

Checkbox

Spacebar - check/uncheck a checkbox

Radio buttons

  • ↑/↓ or ←/→ - select an option
  • Tab - move to the next element

Select (dropdown) menu

  • ↑/↓ - navigate between menu options
  • Spacebar - expand

Autocomplete

  • Type to begin filtering
  • ↑/↓ - navigate to an option
  • Enter - select an option

Dialog

Esc - close

Slider

  • ↑/↓ or ←/→ - increase or decrease slider value
  • Home/End - beginning or end

Menu bar

  • ↑/↓ - Previous/next menu option
  • Enter - expand the menu (optional) and select an option.
  • ←/→ - expand/collapse submenu

Tab panel

  • Tab - once to navigate into the group of tabs and once to navigate out of the group of tabs
  • ↑/↓ or ←/→ - previous/next tab.

'Tree' menu

  • ↑/↓ - Navigate Previous/next menu option
  • ←/→ - expand/collapse submenu, move up/down one level

Scroll

  • ↑/↓ - scroll vertically
  • ←/→ - scroll horizontally
  • Spacebar/Shift + Spacebar - scroll by page

[141] [142]

[143] [144] [145]


Mobile technology-specific A11Y approaches

[146] [147] [148] [149] [150] [151] [152] [153] [154] [155]

Apple (iOS)

[156] [157] [158] [159] [160] [161] [162] [163]


Google (Android)

Touch Target

Minimum sizes for interactive areas are needed to prevent an inability to trigger required events or operate controls in the desired manner (aka. "Fat Fingering"). Most "Mobile design guidelines" encourage practices to prevent any issues here such as 32px padding on either side of any button or link, and use of labels tied to input fields within forms that cause the correct corresponding field to become in focus.

Accessibility Overlays

"Accessibility Overlays" are bolt-on solutions that attempt to "embed" accessibility features and options into an inaccessible or incompletely accessible website or mobile app with many or a specific few unfixed access barriers of certain types. While these can be slightly better than doing nothing, they are no substitute for building a fully accessible experience and often fall far short of primary accessibility and risk (lawsuit exposure, customer churn) reduction goals. Studies have shown that it is always better to "bake accessibility in" from the beginning.

The following issues aren't fully covered by Overlays (and can sometimes be worsened or made more confusing by having the extra layer):

  1. Unlabeled/mislabeled form fields
  2. Zoom disabled
  3. Minimum width
  4. Use of layout tables
  5. Ambiguous anchor text links
  6. Images of text
  7. Focus order
  8. Alt text[164][165]
  9. Consistent identification
  10. Keyboard only usage
  11. Error prevention
  12. Error suggestions
  13. Keyboard traps
  14. Incorrect heading structure
  15. Missing links
  16. No input change
  17. Parsing
  18. Misidentified language
  19. Closed captions
  20. Locked display orientation


[166] [167] [168] [169] [170] [171] [172] [173] [174] [175]


A11Y Lawsuits

  1. Winn-Dixie grocery: https://www.forbes.com/sites/legalnewsline/2017/06/13/first-of-its-kind-trial-goes-plaintiffs-way-winn-dixie-must-update-website-for-the-blind/?sh=a3b943f1b38a
  2. McDonald's self-serve kiosks: https://www.wsj.com/articles/mcdonalds-starts-making-self-service-easier-for-blind-diners-11631900280
  3. Harvard & MIT Universities: https://www.insidehighered.com/news/2019/04/08/mit-and-harvard-fail-get-out-video-captioning-court-case
  4. UC Berkley on textbooks: https://www.3playmedia.com/blog/dra-v-uc-berkeley-a-win-win-with-structured-negotiation/
  5. CVS Pharmacy: https://icharts.net/ada-compliance/
  6. Amazon: https://www.classaction.org/media/bishop-v-amazon-com-inc.pdf[176]
  7. Netflix: https://digitalcommons.law.scu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?referer=https://www.google.com/&httpsredir=1&article=1092&context=historical[177][178][179][180][181][182]
  8. Fox News: https://topclassactions.com/lawsuit-settlements/lawsuit-news/836448-fox-news-website-not-accessible-blind-class-action-says/
  9. Nike: https://www.accessiblemetrics.com/blog/4-key-takeaways-from-2018-web-accessibility-lawsuits/
  10. Burger King: https://www.classaction.org/media/mendizabal-v-burger-king-corporation.pdf[183][184]
  11. Five Guys': https://topclassactions.com/lawsuit-settlements/lawsuit-news/485124-five-guys-class-action-says-website-not-accessible-blind-users/
  12. Domino's: https://www.courthousenews.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/01/Dominos-Ruling.pdf[185][186][187][188][189][190][191][192][193][194][195][196][197][198][199]
  13. Winn-Dixie: https://www.courthousenews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/06/Winn-Dixie-ADA-verdict-.pdf[200][201][202][203][204]
  14. Blue Apron: https://www.levelaccess.com/new-hampshire-court-denies-blue-aprons-motion-dismiss-digital-accessibility-suit/
  15. Conair/CuisinArt: https://www.leagle.com/decision/infdco20201217g35[205]
  16. Amtrak: https://www.ada.gov/amtrak_sa.html[206][207]
  17. HCA hospitals: https://www.fredlaw.com/news__media/2017/01/18/1427/healthcare_sector_is_newest_target_for_website_accessibility_lawsuits/
  18. Hulu: https://www.3playmedia.com/blog/hulu-agrees-to-caption-100-percent-of-english-and-spanish-videos/[208]
  19. eBay: https://www.3playmedia.com/blog/earll-v-ebay-is-a-website-a-place-of-public-accommodation/
  20. Bank of America: https://www.lflegal.com/2015/06/bofa-travel-agreement/
  21. FedEx: https://www.3playmedia.com/blog/fedex-ground-sued-by-eeoc-nad-for-ada-violation/
  22. Hobby Lobby: https://lovata.com/blog/ada-website-compliance-lawsuits-recent-and-high-profile.html
  23. Bank of America (first major bank sued, all the way back in 2000): https://thefinancialbrand.com/27448/could-your-banking-website-be-the-target-of-a-lawsuit/
  24. Hard Rock Casino & Gulf Coast restaurant chains: https://www.sunherald.com/news/local/counties/harrison-county/article141331553.html
  25. NY city MTA: https://www.6sqft.com/judge-rules-that-an-accessibility-lawsuit-against-the-mta-in-queens-can-move-forward/
  26. Robinhood (stock trading platform): https://www.fredlaw.com/wp-content/uploads/2021/02/Website-Accessibility-Complaint-Sanchez-v-Robinhood-SDNY-2-3-2021.pdf[209]
  27. American Airlines: https://www.paddleyourownkanoo.com/2021/07/24/man-sues-american-airlines-because-its-website-discriminates-against-blind-people/ ($40 million)
  28. ViacomCBS: https://www.fiercevideo.com/video/fcc-slaps-viacomcbs-3-5m-fine-over-pluto-tv-closed-captions ($3.5 million)[210][211][212]
  29. Fox News: https://topclassactions.com/lawsuit-settlements/lawsuit-news/fox-news-website-not-accessible-blind-class-action-says/
  30. WWE: https://heelbynature.com/wrestling-news/wwe-news/wwe-settles-lawsuit-for-violation-of-americans-with-disabilities-act/ (settled out of court)[213][214]
  31. Dell: https://regmedia.co.uk/2021/03/04/giannaros_vs_dell_complaint.pdf[215]
  32. Apple: https://appleinsider.com/articles/18/08/20/apple-sued-over-claims-website-is-inaccessible-to-visually-impaired-users[216][217][218][219]
  33. Uber: https://www.docketalarm.com/cases/District_Of_Columbia_District_Court/1--17-cv-01272/EQUAL_RIGHTS_CENTER_v._UBER_TECHNOLOGIES_INC._et_al/55/[220][221][222][223][224]
  34. NBA: https://buckleyfirm.com/uploads/1082/doc/Complaint_for_Permanent_Injunction,_Jahoda_v_NBA.pdf
  35. eHarmony: https://www.pacermonitor.com/public/case/8982926/West_v_eHarmony,_Inc
  36. Rolex: https://www.pacermonitor.com/public/case/23729995/Thorne_v_Rolex_Watch_USA,_Inc
  37. Beyonce's music promotion website: https://www.impactbnd.com/blog/is-your-website-ada-compliant-what-beyonces-website-accessibility-lawsuit-taught-us[225][226]

[227] [228] [229] [230] [231] [232] [233] [234] [235] [236] [237] [238] [239] [240] [241] [242] [243] [244] [245] [246] [247] [248] [249] [250] [251] [252] [253] [254] [255] [256] [257] [258] [259] [260] [261] [262] [263] [264] [265] [266] [267] [268] [269] [270] [271] [272] [273] [274] [275] [276] [277] [278] [279] [280] [281] [282] [283]


Accessible Procurements

"A chain's only as strong as its weakest link". This is true of organizations and their products/services as well. If you've done all the hard work to make your own products/services fully accessible, but integrate with vendors that don't understand the importance of and prioritize accessibility properly, do accessibility testing with folks from various accessibility backgrounds, and regularly audit their own product/services, then you may still end up with an inaccessible product/service in the end.


Accessibility Testing

See also: Accessibility Testing

[287] [288] [289] [290] [291] [292] [293] [294] [295] [296] [297] [298]


Assistive Technologies

[299] [300] [301] [302] [303] [304] [305] [306] [307] [308] [309] [310] [311] [312] [313] [314] [315] [316] [317] [318] [319] [320]

[321] [322] [323] [324] [325] [326] [327] [328]

[329] [330] [331] [332] [333]



Tools

[339] [340] [341] [342] [343] [344] [345] [346] [347] [348] [349] [350] [351]

Screen Readers

Browse and focus modes: https://www.accessibility-developer-guide.com/knowledge/screen-readers/desktop/browse-focus-modes/

[357]

Voice Control


Resources

[359] [360] [361] [362] [363] [364]

[373]

[401] [402] [403] [404] [405]

[412] [413] [414] [415]

[417] [418] [419]

[420] [421] [422]

[431]

[440] [441] [442] [443] [444] [445] [446]

[456] [457] [458] [459] [460] [461] [462] [463] [464] [465]


Tutorials

[467][468]

  • Integrating Accessibility Throughout Design with User-Centered Design (UCD): uiaccess.com/accessucd/background.html#ucd[469]

[470] [471] [472]

[473]

[474] [475] [476] [477] [478] [479] [480] [481] [482] [483]

Don't disable outline, master it instead!: https://websightly.net/en/tutorial/dont-disable-outline-master-it-instead/

[492]

[493]

[494] [495] [496] [497] [498] [499] [500] [501] [502] [503] [504] [505] [506] [507] [508] [509] [510] [511] [512] [513] [514] [515] [516] [517] [518] [519] [520] [521] [522] [523] [524] [525] [526]

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References

  1. W3C working group on WCAG: http://www.w3.org/WAI/intro/wcag.php
  2. Accessibility Principles of WAI: https://www.w3.org/WAI/fundamentals/accessibility-principles/
  3. Essential Components of Web Accessibility: https://www.w3.org/WAI/fundamentals/components/
  4. The WCAG-EM Web Accessibility Evaluation Process: https://www.boia.org/blog/what-is-wcag-em-an-introduction-to-accessibility-evaluation-methodology (5 Steps: #1-Scope, #2-Test, #3-Sample, #4-Audit, #5-Report)
  5. W3C -- WCAG 2.0 - Understanding Conformance: https://www.w3.org/TR/UNDERSTANDING-WCAG20/conformance.html
  6. WCAG 2.0 – The 4 POUR Principles and 12 Guidelines: https://www.tngconsulting.ca/wcag-2-0-the-4-pour-principles-and-12-guidelines/
  7. wikipedia: Web Content Accessibility Guidelines
  8. What’s new in WCAG 2.1?: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=f5qv7AnTUHk
  9. WCAG 2.1 techniques/examples: https://www.w3.org/WAI/WCAG21/Techniques/
  10. First Public Draft of WCAG 2.2 Published: https://www.boia.org/blog/first-public-draft-of-wcag-2-2-published
  11. WCAG 2.2 Overview and Feedback: https://webaim.org/blog/wcag-2-2-overview-and-feedback/
  12. Latest Public Draft of WCAG 2.2 Features Nine New Success Criteria, Other Updates: https://www.boia.org/blog/latest-public-draft-of-wcag-2.2-features-nine-new-success-criteria-other-updates
  13. WCAG 2.2 Release Impacts 2021 Web Accessibility: https://www.essentialaccessibility.com/blog/new-wcag-22-release-impacts-2021-web-accessibility
  14. Understanding the Differences Between WCAG 2.2 and WCAG 3.0: https://www.boia.org/blog/understanding-the-differences-between-wcag-2.2-and-wcag-3.0
  15. What to Expect From The First Public Working Draft of WCAG 3.0: https://www.deque.com/blog/first-public-working-draft-wcag-3/
  16. Essential Component parts of (achieving) Web Accessibility: https://www.w3.org/WAI/fundamentals/components/
  17. W3C -- full listing of WAI-ARIA standards: https://www.w3.org/WAI/standards-guidelines/aria/
  18. wikipedia: Web Accessibility Initiative
  19. Mozilla Dev Docs -- ARIA: https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/Accessibility/ARIA
  20. Google Developers -- Introduction to ARIA: https://developers.google.com/web/fundamentals/accessibility/semantics-aria/
  21. MozDev -- Using ARIA - Roles, States & Properties: https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/Accessibility/ARIA/ARIA_Techniques
  22. WebAIM - Alternative Text guideines: https://webaim.org/techniques/alttext/
  23. Authoring Tool Accessibility Guidelines (ATAG) 2.0: http://www.w3.org/TR/ATAG20/
  24. Accessibility Roles and Responsibilities Mapping (ARRM) project: https://www.w3.org/WAI/EO/wiki/ARRM_Project_-_Accessibility_Roles_and_Responsibilities_Mapping
  25. W3C -- ARRM - overview: https://www.w3.org/WAI/EO/wiki/ARRM_overview
  26. W3C -- ARRM - framework: https://www.w3.org/WAI/EO/wiki/ARRM_framework_introduction
  27. W3C -- ARRM - Success criteria: https://deploy-preview-3--wai-arrm.netlify.app/planning/arrm/sc-map/
  28. W3C -- ARRM - Role definition document:https://deploy-preview-3--wai-arrm.netlify.app/planning/arrm/ | WIKI | DOCS
  29. W3C -- ARRM - UX Designer Responsibilities Mapping: https://www.w3.org/WAI/EO/wiki/UX_Designer_Responsibilities_Mapping
  30. W3C -- ARRM - Visual Designer Responsibilities Mapping: https://www.w3.org/WAI/EO/wiki/Visual_Designer_Responsibilities_Mapping
  31. W3C -- ARRM - Content Author Responsibilities Mapping: https://www.w3.org/WAI/EO/wiki/Content_Author_Responsibilities_Mapping
  32. W3C -- ARRM - Front-End Developer Responsibilities Mapping: https://www.w3.org/WAI/EO/wiki/Front-End_Developer_Responsibilities_Mapping
  33. Does WCAG Apply to Kiosks?: https://www.tpgi.com/does-wcag-apply-to-kiosks/
  34. McDonald’s Starts Making Self-Service Easier for Blind Diners: https://www.wsj.com/articles/mcdonalds-starts-making-self-service-easier-for-blind-diners-11631900280
  35. Downloadable Disability Access Symbols: https://perma.cc/TFZ7-BKFV
  36. Braille Transcription Resource List: https://perma.cc/DPU9-944D
  37. Accessibility Guidelines for Print Materials: https://perma.cc/JN75-2WDQ
  38. Creating Accessible Print Materials -- Tip Sheet (Oct. 2017): https://www.vera.org/downloads/publications/print_materials_101617.pdf
  39. Accessibility Guidelines for Print Materials: https://perma.cc/JN75-2WDQ
  40. Appropriate Terms to Use for those with "Accessibility challenges" (which is preferred over "Handicapped" or "Disabled"): https://www.nda.ie/Publications/Attitudes/Appropriate-Terms-to-Use-about-Disability/
  41. Clear Print Accessibility Guidelines: https://perma.cc/HS6Q-LUM7
  42. A Guide to Making Documents Accessible to People Who Are Blind or Visually Impaired: https://perma.cc/9W4Y-SAFK
  43. wikipedia: Section 508 Amendment to the Rehabilitation Act of 1973
  44. Information & Communication Technology (ICT) - Revised 508 Standards & 255 Guidelines: https://www.access-board.gov/ict/
  45. Guide to the ADA Accessibility Standards -- Chapter 3 - Clear Floor or Ground Space and Turning Space: https://www.access-board.gov/ada/guides/chapter-3-clear-floor-or-ground-space-and-turning-space/ | PDF
  46. ADA checklist -- SURVEY FORM 24 - MEDICAL CARE FACILITIES (includes wheelchair physical spacing requirements for turning/maneuverability): https://web.archive.org/web/20090508103508/https://www.access-board.gov/adaag/checklist/Medical.html
  47. US Census Infograph on the Commonality of Specific Disabilities: http://www.disabilityresource.org/3-us-census-infograph-on-the-commonality-of-specific-disabilities
  48. Recent U.S. Disability Statistics from the Census Bureau: https://www.disabled-world.com/disability/statistics/census-stats.php
  49. Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) - Concussion (INFOGRAPHIC): https://visual.ly/community/Infographics/health/brain-injury-concussion-infographic
  50. UK gov -- Health statistics - TBI (INFOGRAPHIC): https://www.pinterest.ca/pin/legal-infographic--463378249151088021/
  51. Traumatic Brain Injuries in California: https://visual.ly/community/Infographics/health/traumatic-brain-injuries-california
  52. An Overview of Cognitive Impairment in Multiple Sclerosis: https://www.verywellhealth.com/cognitive-impairment-in-ms-2440794
  53. Empathy in Accessibility Design - A Focus on Cognitive Disability Persona Spectrum: https://medium.com/@chinemeozumba/empathy-in-accessibility-design-e0360746fed8
  54. Why Analytics, Accessibility Are Essential for Designing Digital Customer Experiences: https://www.cmswire.com/digital-experience/why-analytics-accessibility-is-essential-for-designing-digital-customer-experiences/
  55. Johns Hopkins -- All Children's Hospital - Audiology Types of Hearing Disorders: https://www.hopkinsallchildrens.org/Services/Rehabilitation/Audiology/Types-of-Hearing-Disorders
  56. (What’d You Say?) 7 Common Types of Hearing Disorders: https://www.soundrelief.com/common-hearing-disorders/
  57. Do All Deaf People Use Sign Language?: https://www.accessibility.com/blog/do-all-deaf-people-use-sign-language
  58. A11Y 101 -- Reduced motion: https://a11y-101.com/development/reduced-motion
  59. MozDev -- A11Y - @media "prefers-reduced-motion": https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/CSS/@media/prefers-reduced-motion
  60. Revisiting "prefers-reduced-motion", the reduced motion media query: https://css-tricks.com/revisiting-prefers-reduced-motion-the-reduced-motion-media-query/
  61. prefers-reduced-motion -- Sometimes less movement is more: https://web.dev/prefers-reduced-motion/
  62. Short note on prefers-reduced-motion and puzzled (Windows) users: https://www.tpgi.com/short-note-on-prefers-reduced-motion-and-puzzled-windows-users/
  63. How to Insert an Animated GIF into a Word Document (and make it more Accessible with "alt" text description): https://www.howtogeek.com/718985/how-to-insert-an-animated-gif-into-a-word-document/
  64. Short note on prefers-reduced-motion and puzzled (Windows) users: https://www.tpgi.com/short-note-on-prefers-reduced-motion-and-puzzled-windows-users/
  65. New in Chrome 74 (2019-05-03) Prefers-reduced-motion media query: https://blog.logrocket.com/new-in-chrome-74-prefers-reduced-motion-media-query-50cd89d3e769/
  66. How to prevent "prefers-reduced-motion" OS setting from impacting animations on the browser (such as FF/Chrome): https://superuser.com/questions/1532014/how-to-prevent-prefers-reduced-motion-setting-from-ever-working-on-chrome
  67. Reduced Motion Setting: https://support.discord.com/hc/en-us/articles/360040613412-Reduced-Motion-Setting
  68. How Light Sensitivity & Photophobia Affect Vestibular Disorders: https://vestibular.org/how-light-sensitivity-photophobia-affect-vestibular-disorders/
  69. Employer Assistance and Resource Network (EARN) on "Disability Inclusion" -- Encouraging applicants with disabilities - job descriptions & announcements, employer assistance, and resource network on "Disability Inclusion": https://production-askearn-org.s3.amazonaws.com/EARN_Explainer_Job_Descriptions_Checklist_ab47437635.pdf
  70. What are "land acknowledgements" to (First Nations) and why do they matter?: https://locallove.ca/issues/what-are-land-acknowledgements-and-why-do-they-matter/
  71. Implicit Age Cues in Resumes - Subtle Effects on Hiring Discrimination: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5554369/
  72. When an “Educated” Black Man Becomes Lighter in the Mind’s Eye - Evidence for a Skin Tone Memory Bias: https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/2158244013516770#ref-32
  73. Do We Need Safe or Brave Spaces?: https://alternativebreaks.org/safe-or-brave-spaces/
  74. From Safe Spaces to Brave Spaces: https://tlss.uottawa.ca/site/perspective-autochtone/1d-_From-Safe-Spaces-to-Brave-Spaces.pdf
  75. Biden Signs Executive Order (EO) to Advance Diversity, Equity in Federal Workforce (DEIA): https://www.meritalk.com/articles/biden-signs-eo-to-advance-diversity-equity-in-federal-workforce/
  76. Americans and ‘Cancel Culture’ - Where Some See Calls for Accountability, Others See Censorship, Punishment: https://www.pewresearch.org/internet/2021/05/19/americans-and-cancel-culture-where-some-see-calls-for-accountability-others-see-censorship-punishment/
  77. 10 Best Name Pronunciation Tools: https://beebom.com/name-pronunciation-tools/ (because a name is worth pronouncing properly)
  78. New Brunswick appoints independent commissioner on systemic racism: https://www.msn.com/en-ca/news/canada/new-brunswick-appoints-independent-commissioner-on-systemic-racism/ar-AAOMEGx
  79. Here are the N.B. beaches that have accessibility features: https://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/new-brunswick/new-brunswick-accessible-beaches-1.6465760
  80. Swansea model with Down's syndrome, Beth Matthews, signs with agency: https://www.bbc.com/news/uk-wales-60140181
  81. Scholarship for Black students launched at King’s School of Journalism by Global News: https://globalnews.ca/news/8582893/global-news-j-school-scholarship-halifax/
  82. The Importance of Diversity in the Workplace: https://perelson.com/the-importance-of-diversity-in-the-workplace/
  83. Why Your Employees Don't Report Hidden Disabilities: https://www.accessibility.com/blog/why-your-employees-dont-report-hidden-disabilities
  84. Content Strategists: What Do They Do?: http://contentini.com/content-strategists-what-do-they-do/
  85. Context As A Content Strategy: Creating More Meaningful Web Experiences Through Contextual Filtering: https://www.slideshare.net/danieleizans/context-as-a-content-strategy-creating-more-meaningful-web-experiences-through-contextual-filtering
  86. Complete Beginner’s Guide to Content Strategy: https://www.uxbooth.com/articles/complete-beginners-guide-to-content-strategy/
  87. The Discipline of Content Strategy: https://alistapart.com/article/thedisciplineofcontentstrategy/
  88. A Checklist for Content Work: https://alistapart.com/article/a-checklist-for-content-work/
  89. To Hell With Bad Browsers: https://alistapart.com/article/tohell/
  90. Content Strategy - The Philosophy of Data: http://boxesandarrows.com/content-strategy-the-philosophy-of-data/
  91. US Dept Justice WCAG PeaPod case: https://www.justice.gov/opa/pr/justice-department-enters-settlement-agreement-peapod-ensure-peapod-grocery-delivery-website
  92. Siteimprove FAQ -- What do you check for in PDFs?: https://files.nwesd.org/website/Accessbility/PDFChecker Info Sheet.pdf
  93. 5 key steps to a successful "Document Accessibility Program": https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/20140903163244-6856374-5-key-steps-to-a-successful-document-accessibility-program/
  94. Introduction To Creating Accessible PDFs (WEBINAR): https://www.tpgi.com/on-demand-webinar-important-aspects-of-pdf-remediation/
  95. Make your PowerPoint presentations accessible to people with disabilities: https://support.microsoft.com/en-us/office/make-your-powerpoint-presentations-accessible-to-people-with-disabilities-6f7772b2-2f33-4bd2-8ca7-dae3b2b3ef25
  96. How to Make an Accessible PowerPoint Presentation: https://business.tutsplus.com/tutorials/accessible-powerpoint-presentations--cms-30018
  97. How to Create 508 Compliant Microsoft PowerPoint Presentations: https://www.dau.edu/sites/governance-and-training/SitePages/How to Create 508 Compliant PowerPoint Presentations.aspx
  98. Creating Accessible Presentations in Microsoft PowerPoint: https://www.washington.edu/accessibility/documents/creating-accessible-presentations-in-microsoft-powerpoint/
  99. Accessible Presentations: https://ottawaheart.ca/document/accessible-presentations-slide-deck
  100. One Trick To Make Your HTML Emails More Accessible: https://www.boia.org/blog/one-trick-to-make-your-html-emails-more-accessible
  101. Why Accessibility in Email Marketing matters: https://www.responsemedia.com/why-accessibility-in-email-marketing-matters/
  102. Writing CSS with A11Y in mind: https://medium.com/@matuzo/writing-css-with-accessibility-in-mind-8514a0007939
  103. Writing HTML with A11Y in mind: https://medium.com/alistapart/writing-html-with-accessibility-in-mind-a62026493412
  104. Writing CSS with A11Y in mind: https://medium.com/@matuzo/writing-css-with-accessibility-in-mind-8514a0007939
  105. Writing JS with A11Y in mind: https://medium.com/@matuzo/writing-javascript-with-accessibility-in-mind-a1f6a5f467b9
  106. Improving The Color Accessibility For Color-Blind Users: https://www.smashingmagazine.com/2016/06/improving-color-accessibility-for-color-blind-users/
  107. Associations among Strength, Steadiness, and Hand Function across the Adult Life Span: https://journals.lww.com/acsm-msse/Fulltext/2011/04000/Associations_among_Strength,_Steadiness,_and_Hand.2.aspx
  108. Top 5 Reasons to Address Gross Motor Skills of Children with ASD: https://www.seekfreaks.com/index.php/2019/02/13/article-review-top-5-reasons-to-address-gross-motor-skills-of-children-with-asd/
  109. What is Dyspraxia?: www.lourdeswellnessspa.com/dyspraxia-motor-skills.html
  110. Disorders of Childhood - Motor Skills Disorders and tests to indentify & evaluate severity: https://www.mentalhelp.net/disorders-of-childhood/motor-skills-disorders/
  111. Motor Skills Disorders: https://www.emedicinehealth.com/motor_skills_disorder/article_em.htm#motor_skills_disorder_causes
  112. Fine Motor Disability: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK563266/
  113. wikipedia: Cerebral Palsy
  114. Cerebral Palsy (CP) awareness (INFOGRAPHICS): https://www.gillettechildrens.org/get-involved/cerebral-palsy-awareness#infographics
  115. Cerebral Palsy lawyers: https://www.abclawcenters.com/practice-areas/types-of-birth-injuries/cerebral-palsy/
  116. Cerebral Palsy - Stats And Facts: https://assistivetechnologyblog.com/2016/08/cerebral-palsy-stats-and-facts.html
  117. What is "Cerebral Palsy" and how many people suffer through it (INFOGRAPHIC): https://globalstemcells.com/new-version/wp-content/uploads/2016/10/cerebral-palsy-infographic.png
  118. wikipedia: Muscular Dystrophy
  119. Muscular Dystrophy symptoms & causes: https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/muscular-dystrophy/symptoms-causes/syc-20375388
  120. Muscular Dystrophy - What Causes This Disabling Condition?: https://universityhealthnews.com/daily/aging-independence/muscular-dystrophy/
  121. DART Therapeutics Completes Study of New Biomarker for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Treatment: https://clinicounselor.com/dart-therapeutics-completes-study-of-new-biomarker-for-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy-treatment/
  122. CDC -- Disease facts - What is Muscular Dystrophy?: https://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/musculardystrophy/facts.html
  123. Muscular Dystrophy info & graphics: https://arthritis-rheumatism.com/muscular-dystrophy/
  124. CSS Working Group resolved to begin working on a spec to standardize "High Contrast" based on MS Edge's implementation story: https://twitter.com/gregwhitworth/status/1100515214355648513
  125. 86 Percent of Websites Fail this Accessibility Basic (color contrast): https://www.boia.org/blog/86-percent-of-websites-fail-this-accessibility-basic
  126. The difference between keyboard and screen reader navigation: https://tink.uk/the-difference-between-keyboard-and-screen-reader-navigation/
  127. Reading Efficiently with a Screen Reader -- JAWS - Headings: https://www.perkinselearning.org/technology/blog/reading-efficiently-screen-reader-headings
  128. Testing with Screen Readers: http://webaim.org/articles/screenreader_testing/
  129. HTML For Screen Readers - Labelling Elements: https://bitsofco.de/html-for-screen-readers-labelling-elements/
  130. Screen reader support for HTML5 sections: https://tink.uk/screen-reader-support-for-html5-sections/
  131. BBC News - Accessibility & Testing with JAWS Screen Reader (guideline): https://bbc.github.io/accessibility-news-and-you/accessibility-and-testing-with-jaws.html
  132. WebAIM - ScreenReader survey: https://webaim.org/projects/screenreadersurvey8/#used (includes OS/ScreenReader/Browser combos)
  133. Global Screen Reader Market Size Status and Forecast 2019-2025: https://www.orbismarketreports.com/global-screen-reader-market-size-status-and-forecast-2019-2025
  134. Configuring Your Machine For Testing With A Screen Reader: http://yuiblog.com/blog/2008/12/30/configuring-screen-readers/
  135. SmashingTV shows How a Screen Reader user surfs the web (WEBINAR): https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OUDV1gqs9GA | Excerpt - Léonie Watson on why semantic HTML document landmarks assist her using a screenreader
  136. Optimizing Pages for Screen Reader Accessibility: http://www.webbie.org.uk/Veli-Pekka/web_access.html
  137. Setting up a screen reader test environment: http://www.iheni.com/screen-reader-testing/
  138. Deque - Why Don’t Screen Readers Always Read What’s on the Screen? Part 1: Punctuation and Typographic Symbols: https://www.deque.com/blog/dont-screen-readers-read-whats-screen-part-1-punctuation-typographic-symbols/
  139. Should I use an aria-label or screen-reader only text?: https://accessible360.com/accessible360-blog/use-aria-label-screen-reader-text/
  140. 5 Myths About Screen Readers That Can Hurt Accessibility: https://www.boia.org/blog/5-myths-about-screen-readers-that-can-hurt-accessibility
  141. Keyboard-based navigation compatibility (even on mobile): https://a11y-guidelines.orange.com/en/web/develop/keyboard-navigation/
  142. WCAG 2.1 -- Understanding Success Criterion 2.4.3 - Focus Order: https://www.w3.org/WAI/WCAG21/Understanding/focus-order.html#examples
  143. Keyboard-Only Navigation for Improved Accessibility: https://www.nngroup.com/articles/keyboard-accessibility/
  144. US government -- Social Security Administration (SSA) - Use the Keyboard to Navigate Screens: https://www.ssa.gov/accessibility/keyboard_nav.html
  145. Give Yourself an Accessibility Test - Don't Use a Mouse: https://www.boia.org/blog/give-yourself-an-accessibility-test-dont-use-a-mouse
  146. How to Test Touch Target Size (buttons, links, …) to Meet UX & Accessibility Standards in 4 Steps: https://medium.com/sketch-app-sources/how-to-test-touch-target-size-buttons-links-to-meet-ux-accessibility-standards-in-4-steps-f1efead7590
  147. Hand tremors and the giant-button-problem: https://axesslab.com/hand-tremors/
  148. Focus Trapping for Accessibility (A11Y) - NOTE: this is a dangerous double-edged sword so use carefully: https://medium.com/@im_rahul/focus-trapping-looping-b3ee658e5177
  149. Focus Trapping - Trap focus inside an element: https://dev.to/r3l_k3r/focus-trappinglooping-for-keyboard-navigation-l6m
  150. Perfecto -- Automated Mobile Accessibility Tseting: https://www.perfecto.io/blog/automated-accessibility-testing
  151. Experitest -- How to incorporate Accessibility into Mobile App Testing: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=d3HpCKNv8Ew
  152. 6-STEP MOBILE APP ACCESSIBILITY CHECKLIST: https://blog.usablenet.com/mobile-app-accessibility-techniques-for-inclusive-design-part-1
  153. App Accessibility is The New Must in Mobile Development: https://buildfire.com/app-accessibility-mobile-development/
  154. Building apps for everyone; why inclusivity & accessibility truly matter: https://appsgamesinsights.libsyn.com/building-apps-for-everyone-why-inclusivity-and-accessibility-truly-matter-episode-6
  155. Flutter -- a11y & i18n: https://docs.flutter.dev/development/accessibility-and-localization/accessibility
  156. HP Notebook PCs - Using the Touchpad, Pointer, and Keyboard in Mobile Internet Experience: https://support.hp.com/us-en/document/c01633349
  157. Getting Started with Touchscreen UIs in Java Platform, Micro Edition (JME, on legacy Mobile devices or tiny screens): https://www.oracle.com/technical-resources/articles/javame/touchscreen-ui.html
  158. How to detect touch screen device using CSS?: https://www.geeksforgeeks.org/how-to-detect-touch-screen-device-using-css/
  159. Extendable Pointer Presenter Whiteboard PPT Point Stick Touch Screen Pen: https://www.walmart.com/ip/Extendable-Pointer-Presenter-Whiteboard-PPT-Point-Stick-Touch-Screen-Pen/710925497
  160. Staples Slim Stylus Pen - Black: https://www.staples.ca/products/2618968-en-staples-slim-stylus-pen-black
  161. Telescopic Teachers Pointer (Extendable/Retractable Presenter Classroom Whiteboard Pointer): https://www.amazon.ca/Telescopic-Extendable-Retractable-Presenter-Whiteboard/dp/B07K5W2DTZ/
  162. Testing for Accessibility on OS X: https://developer.apple.com/library/archive/documentation/Accessibility/Conceptual/AccessibilityMacOSX/OSXAXTestingApps.html
  163. Writing Great iOS Accessibility Labels: https://medium.com/macoclock/writing-great-ios-accessibility-labels-6d903ba17f7f
  164. WebAIM - Alternative Text: https://webaim.org/techniques/alttext/
  165. How Do I Know If an Image Needs "Alt Text"?: https://www.boia.org/blog/how-do-i-know-if-an-image-needs-alt-text
  166. Overlay Fact Sheet: https://overlayfactsheet.com
  167. Why Accessibility Overlay Solutions Fail to Protect or Serve: https://www.accessibility.works/blog/avoid-accessibility-overlay-tools-toolbar-plugins/
  168. The Many Pitfalls of Accessibility Overlays: https://www.essentialaccessibility.com/blog/the-many-pitfalls-of-accessibility-overlays
  169. Honor the ADA - Avoid Web Accessibility Quick-Fix Overlays: https://www.lflegal.com/2020/08/quick-fix/
  170. Are ADA Overlays a Liability? Here’s What Accessibility Experts Had to Say: https://216digital.com/ada-website-overlays/
  171. The Problem with Not Making Websites Accessible by Default: https://www.boia.org/blog/the-problem-with-not-making-websites-accessible-by-default
  172. Why Accessibility Overlays On Your Website Can Make Things Worse: https://www.boia.org/blog/why-accessibility-overlays-on-your-website-can-make-things-worse
  173. US Supreme Court verdict -- Sole reliance on accessiBe will not be sufficient in ensuring full and equal access to a website (Exhibit A For 21-cv-00017, 2020-11-01): https://www.scribd.com/document/490740167/Exhibit-A-for-21-cv-00017
  174. People With Disabilities Say This AcessiBe "AI A11Y Tool" Is Making the Web Worse for Them: https://www.vice.com/en/article/m7az74/people-with-disabilities-say-this-ai-tool-is-making-the-web-worse-for-them
  175. This Company Tapped AccessiBe and its "Overlay + AI" solution for Its Website — and Landed in Court for its troubles: https://www.wired.com/story/company-tapped-ai-website-landed-court/
  176. Amazon Class Action Lawsuit Says Website Not Accessible to the Blind: https://topclassactions.com/lawsuit-settlements/lawsuit-news/amazon-class-action-lawsuit-says-website-not-accessible-blind/
  177. NAD v. Netflix ADA Lawsuit Requires Captioning for Streaming Video: https://www.3playmedia.com/blog/nad-v-netflix-ada-lawsuit-requires-closed-captioning-on-streaming-video/
  178. NAD Calls Out Netflix on “Deaf Tax”: https://www.nad.org/2010/12/17/nad-calls-out-netflix-on-deaf-tax/
  179. Disability History, Part 4: NAD v. Netflix -- A lawsuit that shook the internet: https://listenuptodisabilities.com/2021/04/25/disability-history-part-4-nad-v-netflix/
  180. NAD Files Disability Civil Rights Lawsuit Against Netflix: https://www.disabled-world.com/communication/broadcasts/netflix.php
  181. NAD Files Disability Civil Rights Lawsuit against Netflix: https://www.nad.org/2011/06/16/nad-files-disability-civil-rights-lawsuit-against-netflix/
  182. NAD v. Netflix: https://dredf.org/legal-advocacy/nad-v-netflix/
  183. Burger King Class Action Says Fast Food Chain’s Website Violates ADA : https://topclassactions.com/lawsuit-settlements/lawsuit-news/burger-king-class-action-says-fast-food-chains-website-violates-ada/
  184. : https://topclassactions.com/lawsuit-settlements/lawsuit-news/831860-burger-king-class-action-says-fast-food-chains-website-violates-ada/
  185. Domino's A11Y case: http://cdn.ca9.uscourts.gov/datastore/opinions/2019/01/15/17-55504.pdf
  186. Court Says Domino’s Pizza Website Must Be Accessible to the Blind" https://www.courthousenews.com/court-says-dominos-pizza-website-must-be-accessible-to-the-blind/
  187. Accessibility, the future, and why Domino’s matters: https://arstechnica.com/tech-policy/2019/10/accessibility-the-future-and-why-dominos-matters/
  188. Domino's Website Violated Americans With Disabilities Act, Judge Finds: https://www.mediapost.com/publications/article/364699/dominos-website-violated-americans-with-disabilit.html
  189. Domino’s accessibility lawsuit update: https://sheribyrnehaber.medium.com/dominos-accessibility-lawsuit-update-a66e7e592eab
  190. Lexis-Nexus legal news -- Domino’s, Blind Patron Settle ADA, Website Accessibility Suit: https://www.lexislegalnews.com/mealeys-cyber-tech-e-commerce/articles/69324?nl_pk=741a37e7-1565-473f-baaa-0984144b9f07
  191. California Federal Court Holds Domino’s Website Violates the ADA, Limits Penalties Under Unruh Act to $4,000 : https://www.bclplaw.com/en-US/insights/california-federal-court-holds-dominos-website-violates-the-ada-limits-penalties-under-unruh-act-to-dollar4000.html
  192. Federal Website Access Lawsuit Numbers Increase 7 Percent in 2019, With Possible Bump from Supreme Court Denial of Cert in Domino’s: https://www.adatitleiii.com/2019/11/federal-website-access-lawsuit-numbers-increase-7-percent-in-2019-with-possible-bump-from-supreme-court-denial-of-cert-in-dominos/
  193. The Impact of the Robles V. Domino’s Pizza Lawsuit on Hearing-Impaired Community: https://cielo24.com/2019/11/domino-v-robles-lawsuit-accessibility/
  194. How your small business website can get you sued : https://www.inquirer.com/business/small-business-website-sued-suits-ada-20200211.html
  195. What does the Domino’s ADA case mean for small-medium-businesses: https://accessibe.com/blog/trends/what-does-the-dominos-ada-case-mean-for-small-medium-businesses
  196. Blind man sued Domino's over its website. Here's what the Supreme Court had to say: https://mashable.com/article/supreme-court-reject-dominos-inaccessible-website
  197. Supreme Court hands victory to blind man who sued Domino’s over site accessibility: https://www.cnbc.com/2019/10/07/dominos-supreme-court.html
  198. Another Big Win in the Domino’s Pizza Accessibility Saga: https://www.lflegal.com/2021/06/dominos-june-2021/
  199. Court finds Domino’s Pizza Violated the ADA by Having an Inaccessible Website and Orders WCAG Compliance: https://www.adatitleiii.com/2021/06/court-finds-dominos-pizza-violated-the-ada-by-having-an-inaccessible-website-and-orders-wcag-compliance/
  200. Gil .vs. Winn-Dixie -- D.C. Docket No. 1:16-cv-23020-RNS: https://media.ca11.uscourts.gov/opinions/pub/files/201713467.pdf
  201. D.C. Docket No. 1:16-cv-23020-RNS: https://www.employmentlawspotlight.com/wp-content/uploads/sites/18/2021/04/ADA.pdf
  202. Judge Holds Winn-Dixie Supermarket’s Website Violates the ADA: https://www.courthousenews.com/judge-holds-winn-dixie-supermarkets-website-violates-ada/
  203. Court rules grocery store’s inaccessible website isn’t an ADA violation: https://arstechnica.com/tech-policy/2021/04/appeals-court-rules-stores-dont-need-to-make-their-websites-accessible/
  204. Eleventh Circuit Holds Websites Are Not Places of Public Accommodation and Rejects Commonly Relied-Upon Nexus Standard: https://www.jdsupra.com/legalnews/eleventh-circuit-holds-websites-are-not-1083843/
  205. Conair Website For CuisinArt Is Sued For Excluding Visual Impaired: http://www.innercitypress.com/sdny36steincuisineartwebicp120920.html
  206. $2.25 Million Fund Available in Justice Department Settlement with Amtrak: https://www.justice.gov/opa/pr/225-million-fund-available-justice-department-settlement-amtrak
  207. Amtrak Settles ADA Claims For Stations in Connecticut and Rhode Island: https://ctexaminer.com/2021/01/29/amtrak-settles-ada-claims-for-stations-in-connecticut-and-rhode-island/
  208. The NAD and Hulu Reach Agreement: https://www.nad.org/2016/09/06/the-nad-and-hulu-reach-agreement/
  209. Robinhood Sued in Class Action, Alleging Website Inaccessibility and Discrimination Against Blind Users: https://www.fredlaw.com/news__media/robinhood-sued-in-class-action-alleging-website-inaccessibility-and-discrimination-against-blind-users/
  210. FCC Settles Accessibility Rules Violation With Pluto, ViacomCBS: https://news.bloomberglaw.com/tech-and-telecom-law/fcc-settles-accessibility-rules-violation-with-pluto-viacomcbs
  211. Pluto & ViacomCBS Will Pay $3.5M for Violation of Accessibility Rules: https://www.fcc.gov/document/pluto-viacomcbs-will-pay-35m-violation-accessibility-rules
  212. ViacomCBS and Pluto TV Fined $3.5 Million by FCC for Violating Closed-Caption Rules: https://variety.com/2021/digital/news/pluto-tv-fcc-closed-captioning-rules-1235077364/
  213. WWE Settles Legal Dispute on Accessibility for Blind & Visually Impaired for Online Shop: https://411mania.com/wrestling/wwe-settles-legal-dispute-online-website-blind-ada/
  214. WWE Settles Lawsuit Over Shop Website: https://www.wrestlinginc.com/news/2020/12/wwe-settles-lawsuit-over-shop-website-677800/
  215. Screen access technology has existed for decades': Visually impaired man sues Dell over 'inaccessible' website: https://www.theregister.com/2021/03/05/giannaros_v_dell/
  216. Apple Store accessibility lawsuit (Robert Shaw vs. Apple): https://blog.fawny.org/2020/02/20/shawvapple/
  217. Mendez v. Apple Inc.: https://www.pacermonitor.com/public/case/25398561/Mendez_v_Apple_Inc
  218. Apple sued over claims website is inaccessible to visually impaired users: https://appleinsider.com/articles/18/08/20/apple-sued-over-claims-website-is-inaccessible-to-visually-impaired-users
  219. The Apple Park Visitor's Center is a demonstration of an accessible building when cost is no object. 1/?: https://threadreaderapp.com/thread/967652885604450305.html
  220. Court Denies Uber’s Motion to Dismiss ADA Discrimination Complaint: https://lawstreetmedia.com/news/tech/court-denies-ubers-motion-to-dismiss-ada-discrimination-complaint/
  221. Justice Department Sues Uber for Overcharging People with Disabilities: https://www.justice.gov/opa/pr/justice-department-sues-uber-overcharging-people-disabilities
  222. An Uber fee unfairly impacts riders with disabilities, a DOJ lawsuit says: https://www.npr.org/2021/11/10/1054407560/justice-department-uber-wait-time-riders-disabilities
  223. Justice Department Sues Uber Over Charging Wait-Time Fees for Disabled People: https://www.wsj.com/articles/justice-department-sues-uber-over-charging-wait-times-fees-for-physically-disabled-people-11636570208
  224. Uber manager sobs on stand during trial over wheelchair accessibility: https://www.courthousenews.com/uber-manager-sobs-on-stand-during-trial-over-wheelchair-accessibility/
  225. What You Should Know About the Beyoncé Website Accessibility Lawsuit: https://www.diacedesigns.com/beyonce-website-accessibility-lawsuit/
  226. Beyonce's Website the Focus of an Accessibility Lawsuit: https://www.boia.org/blog/beyonces-website-the-focus-of-an-accessibility-lawsuit
  227. 2021 Website Accessibility Lawsuit Recap (REPORT): https://f.hubspotusercontent30.net/hubfs/6576634/2021 Accessibility Lawsuit Complete Report.pdf
  228. September 2021 recap - A11Y Lawsuits landscape: https://www.accessibility.com/digital-lawsuits/recap/september-2021
  229. 2020 Full Year Report Digital Accessibility Lawsuits: https://info.usablenet.com/2020-report-on-digital-accessibility-lawsuits
  230. Digital Accessibility Year in Review -- 2019: https://www.boia.org/blog/digital-accessibility-year-in-review-2019
  231. 2018 ADA Web Accessibility Lawsuit Recap Report: https://blog.usablenet.com/2018-ada-web-accessibility-lawsuit-recap-report
  232. Recent Web Accessibility Lawsuits: http://www.webaxe.org/recent-web-accessibility-lawsuits/
  233. Are you next? Trends in Digital Accessibility Lawsuits: https://www.accessibility.com/event/2022/trends-in-digital-accessibility-lawsuits
  234. Overview of the Financial Penalties of AODA Non-Compliance (in Canada): https://www.boia.org/blog/overview-of-the-financial-penalties-of-aoda-non-compliance
  235. US House Bill H.R.8478 Could Finally Offer Businesses Clarity on Web Accessibility: https://builtin.com/operations/web-accessibility-ADA-compliance
  236. Now Is the Time to Make Your Entire Sales Funnel Accessible: https://www.boia.org/blog/now-is-the-time-to-make-your-entire-sales-funnel-accessible
  237. Brands Are Losing Billions by Not Being Digitally Accessible: https://www.boia.org/blog/brands-are-losing-billions-by-not-being-digitally-accessible
  238. Looking Ahead to Potential Developments in Online Accessibility Law: https://www.natlawreview.com/article/looking-ahead-to-potential-developments-online-accessibility-law
  239. Practice website accessibility (or get ready to practice law) -- A new wave of AwDA litigation: https://www.cda.org/Home/News-and-Events/Newsroom/Article-Details/practice-website-accessibility-a-new-wave-of-awda-litigation
  240. A11Y Attorneys' opinion statement -- DOJ's years-long delay on regulations hurting companies facing disabilities lawsuits over their websites: https://legalnewsline.com/stories/510698224-attorneys-doj-s-years-long-delay-on-regulations-hurting-companies-facing-disabilities-lawsuits-over-their-websites
  241. Fact Sheet -- Class Actions Are Critical to Remedy Disability Discrimination: http://centerjd.org/content/fact-sheet-class-actions-are-critical-remedy-disability-discrimination
  242. Lawsuits Over Digital Accessibility for People With Disabilities Are Rising: https://www.wsj.com/articles/lawsuits-over-digital-accessibility-for-people-with-disabilities-are-rising-11626369056
  243. Equality Act Could Undermine Business Defendants In Web Access Suits: https://www.cato.org/blog/equality-act-would-spell-defeat-businesses-publishers-web-accessibility-debate
  244. New York District Court Issues Important Opinion on the Inapplicability of Title III of the ADA to Consumer-Facing Websites: https://www.blankrome.com/publications/new-york-district-court-issues-important-opinion-inapplicability-title-iii-ada
  245. NY State Court -- Title III legal position statement: https://www.blankrome.com/sites/default/files/2021-11/computerinternetlawyer_-_novdec2021_-_blankromellp.pdf (meant to take some "bite" out of frivolous Digital Accessibility lawsuits)
  246. ADP Settlement Offers Framework for Future Digital-Accessibility Agreements: https://www.wsj.com/articles/adp-settlement-offers-framework-for-future-digital-accessibility-agreements-11642699462
  247. Digital Accessibility Takes Center Stage in ADA Lawsuit: https://www.law.com/nationallawjournal/2022/01/14/11th-circuits-ada-reversal-curbed-florida-litigation-in-2021-but-digital-accessibility-suits-are-here-to-stay-398-82063/?slreturn=20220101154317
  248. The Importance of Having a Letter of "Reasonable Accessibility" to show intent: https://www.boia.org/blog/the-importance-of-having-a-letter-of-reasonable-accessibility
  249. Accessibility in the News, Legal Edition - Updates on ADA Title III News and More: https://www.microassist.com/digital-accessibility/accessibility-news-legal/
  250. Federal Courts Disagree Over Accessibility Online: https://www.theregreview.org/2021/06/16/mcdonough-federal-courts-disagree-accessibility-online/
  251. Web Accessibility Lawsuits dramatically rose in 2021... here’s why: https://www.boia.org/blog/web-accessibility-lawsuits-dramatically-rose-in-2021.-heres-why
  252. Florida Courts Rule ADA Covers Websites With Nexus To Physical Store: https://www.adatitleiii.com/2017/04/florida-courts-rule-ada-covers-websites-with-nexus-to-physical-store/
  253. Builders, Architects, Owners of 5 NC Housing Complexes Settle Discrimination Cases; Agree to Make $1.3 million in Accessibility Modifications: https://www.fairhousingnc.org/2020/builders-architects-owners-of-5-nc-housing-complexes-settle-discrimination-cases-agree-to-make-1-3-million-in-accessibility-modifications/
  254. Strategies for Defending ADA Accessibility “Tester” Lawsuits: http://www.jaburgwilk.com/news-publications/strategies-for-defending-ada-accessibility-lawsuits
  255. The State of Website Accessibility, Serial-plaintiffs, & the lack of new ADA Legislation: https://www.oomphinc.com/notes/2019/06/the-state-of-website-accessibility-2019/
  256. The Real Reason Local Governments are Facing More ADA Non-Compliance Fines: https://www.civicplus.com/blog/ce/local-governments-facing-ada-accessibility-fines
  257. Five Things Every Lawyer Needs to Know About Digital Accessibility: https://www.lawtechnologytoday.org/2018/06/digital-accessibility/
  258. Why Are More Digital Accessibility Suits Being Filed as Class Actions (And What Does It Mean?): https://www.lexology.com/library/detail.aspx?g=dbfb2323-2b58-400e-b39c-d7ef6107bff6
  259. ADA Lawsuits Are on the Rise, Website Complaints Biggest Targets: https://www.law.com/legaltechnews/2019/01/24/ada-lawsuits-are-on-the-rise-website-complaints-biggest-targets/
  260. How To Prevent a Web Accessibility Lawsuit: https://www.boia.org/blog/how-to-prevent-a-web-accessibility-lawsuit
  261. Why Websites Need an Accessibility Statement: https://www.boia.org/blog/why-websites-need-an-accessibility-statement
  262. ElementsCasino -- ACCESSIBILITY POLICY: http://www.elementscasinoflamboro.com/accessibility/
  263. Rideau Carleton Raceway Casino -- Accessibility Statement: https://www.rideaucarletoncasino.com/accessibility.htm
  264. LA Times -- Lawsuits targeting business websites over ADA violations are on the rise (Hotels, Restaurants, Entertainment destinations & Government websites targeted by lawsuits): https://www.latimes.com/business/la-fi-hotels-ada-compliance-20181111-story.html
  265. “Worldwide Web Accessibility - cases from the USA”: http://www.clickawaypound.com/bgarticle1.html
  266. New York State Division of Human Rights announces settlements of accessibility complaints against Redbox, Coinstar, ecoATM: https://www.wnypapers.com/news/article/current/2021/05/26/146782/new-york-state-division-of-human-rights-announces-settlements-of-accessibility-complaints-against-redbox-coinstar-ecoatm
  267. Lawsuit Provides Blind Individuals with Access to New York State’s Emergency Mass Notification System: https://www.legalreader.com/lawsuit-provides-blind-individuals-with-access-to-new-york-states-emergency-mass-notification-system/
  268. Judge Approves ADA Class Action Settlement Against Eyewear Company Over Website's Lack of Visibility: https://www.law.com/thelegalintelligencer/2021/10/07/judge-approves-ada-class-action-settlement-against-eyewear-company-over-websites-lack-of-visibility/
  269. CBD firms facing lawsuits over website accessibility: https://hempindustrydaily.com/cbd-firms-facing-lawsuits-over-website-accessibility/
  270. Appellate Court Finds Websites Not Covered Under ADA, Sets Up Circuit Split: https://bankingjournal.aba.com/2021/04/appellate-court-finds-websites-not-covered-under-ada-sets-up-circuit-split/
  271. 10 awesome companies you didn’t know were sued for ADA website compliance: https://augustafreepress.com/ten-awesome-companies-you-didnt-know-were-sued-for-ada-website-compliance/
  272. Title III Lawsuits - 10 Big Companies Sued Over Website Accessibility: https://www.essentialaccessibility.com/blog/title-iii-lawsuits-10-big-companies-sued-over-website-accessibility
  273. 4 Healthcare Companies Sued Over ADA Website Compliance (and Why it Matters!): https://healthcareweekly.com/ada-compliance-healthcare-websites/
  274. Roadmap to Web Accessibility in Higher Education: https://www.3playmedia.com/blog/white-paper-roadmap-web-accessibility-in-higher-education/
  275. Is Your WordPress Site an Accessibility Lawsuit Waiting to Happen?: https://mediatemple.net/blog/web-development-tech/is-your-wordpress-site-an-accessibility-lawsuit-waiting-to-happen/
  276. Federal Website Accessibility Lawsuits Increased in 2021 Despite Mid-Year Pandemic Lull: https://www.adatitleiii.com/2022/03/federal-website-accessibility-lawsuits-increased-in-2021-despite-mid-year-pandemic-lull/
  277. Website Access And Other ADA Title III Lawsuits Hit Record Numbers: https://www.jdsupra.com/legalnews/website-access-and-other-ada-title-iii-48088/
  278. ADA Title III Federal Lawsuit Filings Hit An All Time High: https://www.adatitleiii.com/2022/02/ada-title-iii-federal-lawsuit-filings-hit-an-all-time-high/
  279. ADA turns 30, evolves with The Digital Age: https://www.accessibility.works/blog/ada-turns-30-standards-for-ada-compliance/
  280. A Look at the Legal Landscape of Web Accessibility Compliance : https://monsido.com/blog/web-accessibility-compliance
  281. Can You Afford $25,000? Website Accessibility Lawsuits Cost Money: https://krisrivenburgh.medium.com/can-you-afford-25-000-website-accessibility-lawsuits-cost-money-21987cd913f3
  282. International Web Accessibility Laws - An Overview: https://www.boia.org/blog/international-web-accessibility-laws-an-overview
  283. Who Enforces Accessibility of Online and Digital Content?: https://www.boia.org/blog/who-enforces-accessibility-in-online-and-digital-content
  284. 5 things I learned about web accessibility by testing a screen reader: https://yellowpencil.com/articles/things-learned-about-accessibility-using-screen-reader/
  285. Woman helping teach child who has speech language disorder 10 Most Common Speech-Language Disorders & Impediments: https://www.speechpathologygraduateprograms.org/2018/01/10-most-common-speech-language-disorders/
  286. Experitest’s Web and Mobile Accessibility Testing Explained in Full: https://experitest.com/mobile-app-testing/experitests-web-and-mobile-accessibility-testing-explained-in-full/
  287. Why Automated Web Accessibility Testing Tools Aren’t Enough: https://www.essentialaccessibility.com/blog/automated-accessibility-testing-tools-how-much-do-scans-catch
  288. Performing an accessibility self-audit: https://www.dundee.ac.uk/guides/performing-accessibility-self-audit
  289. Working Together - People with Disabilities and Computer Technology: https://www.washington.edu/doit/working-together-people-disabilities-and-computer-technology
  290. 12 Facts And Figures About Having A Disability In Canada: https://www.cbc.ca/strombo/news/by-the-numbers-international-day-of-persons-with-disabilities
  291. Is The “Accessible Icon” Wheelchair Logo Due For A Redesign?: https://www.cbc.ca/strombo/news/is-the-accessible-icon-wheelchair-logo-due-for-a-redesign.html
  292. How to Effectively Support Employees With Disabilities: https://www.healthworkscollective.com/how-to-effectively-support-employees-with-disabilities/ | Example of alternative mouse for A11Y needs
  293. How can screen readers be used in Accessibility Testing?: https://www.tpgi.com/screen-readers-accessibility-testing/
  294. Top 20 Accessibility Testing Tools for Web Applications: https://www.softwaretestinghelp.com/accessibility-testing-tools/
  295. UsabelNet offers "A11Y User Testing" with members of the Disability Community: https://info.usablenet.com/digital-accessibility-support-services/user-testing
  296. 10 Accessible Web Design Examples to Model Your Site After: https://blog.usablenet.com/accessible-web-design-examples-to-model-your-site-after
  297. The Ultimate Guide to Achieving Website ADA Compliance: https://www.digitalauthority.me/resources/ada-compliance-website/
  298. Manual Accessibility Testing - Keyboard and Screen Reader Navigation: https://www.telerik.com/blogs/manual-accessibility-testing-keyboard-and-screen-reader-navigation
  299. Assistive Technology intro (WEBINAR): https://monsido.com/services/webinars?wchannelid=qoc8k846tm&wmediaid=n66od6tthz | SLIDES
  300. What is Assistive Technology? : https://star-center.org/what-is-assistive-technology/
  301. Assistive Technology for Visually Impaired -- Making a Difference: https://verbit.ai/assistive-technology-for-visually-impaired/
  302. Assistive Technology for Visually Impaired Individuals - What to Choose and How: https://esighteyewear.com/assistive-technology-visually-impaired/
  303. Refreshable Braille Displays: https://www.afb.org/node/16207/refreshable-braille-displays
  304. Braille Alphabet & Numbers: https://www.wonderbaby.org/sites/wonderbaby2.perkinsdev1.org/files/braille-letters-numbers.pdf
  305. DIY ‘smart’ white cane works like a self-driving car: https://www.futurity.org/blindness-white-cane-smart-technology-robotics-2643062/
  306. Multimodal sensing and intuitive steering assistance improve navigation and mobility for people with impaired vision: https://www.science.org/doi/10.1126/scirobotics.abg6594
  307. Engineers 3D-Print Personalized, Wireless Wearables That Never Need a Charge: https://news.arizona.edu/story/engineers-3d-print-personalized-wireless-wearables-never-need-charge
  308. UN guide to Assistive technology: https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/assistive-technology
  309. Rethinking Assistive Technology: https://www.edutopia.org/article/rethinking-assistive-technology
  310. Assistive Technology and Low Vision Open House: http://blog.watap.org/2013/08/assistive-technology-and-low-vision.html
  311. Understanding Assistive Technology - How Do People with Mobility Disabilities Use Technology?: https://www.levelaccess.com/understanding-assistive-technology-how-do-people-with-mobility-disabilities-use-technology/
  312. Making assistive technology better through user-centricity: https://trexorobotics.com/user-centric-assistive-technology/
  313. Back-to-School Transition with Augmentative Communication and Assistive Technology: https://franciscanchildrens.org/blog/back-to-school-augmentative-comm-assistive-tech/
  314. Devices that Empower: Celebrating Assistive Technology: https://chicagolighthouse.org/blog/celebrating-assistive-technology/
  315. Assistive Technology Can Benefit All Students: https://www.edutopia.org/blog/assistive-technology-can-benefit-all-students-jenny-grabiec
  316. 7 STEPS THAT WILL HELP YOU DECIDE ON THE BEST DIGITAL ASSISTIVE TECHNOLOGY FOR YOUR CLIENTS: https://pterrer.com/2013/07/01/7-steps-that-will-help-you-decide-on-the-best-digital-technology-for-your-clients/
  317. Craig Hospital - The Don & Melba Rugg Assistive Technology Lab: https://craighospital.org/services/assistive-technology
  318. Assistive Technology Professional (ATP) : https://www.thoughtco.com/assistive-technology-professional-198921
  319. 5 Assistive Technology Stores for your Techie with Special Needs : https://www.friendshipcircle.org/blog/2013/12/12/5-assistive-technology-stores-for-your-techie-with-special-needs/
  320. What is the relationship between Assistive Technology and Universal Design? : https://sulaimanhpu.blogspot.com/2016/08/what-is-relationship-between-assistive.html
  321. US Library of Congress (LoC) – Devices & Aids: https://www.loc.gov/nls/resources/blindness-and-vision-impairment/devices-aids/
  322. US LoC – Braille Displays and Notetakers: https://www.loc.gov/nls/resources/blindness-and-vision-impairment/devices-aids/braille-displays-notetakers/
  323. Assistive Technology for Visually Impaired: https://lighthouseeducationcenter.org/program/assistive-technology/
  324. What is Digital Braille? https://www.electronicink.com/what-is-electronic-braillie/ (see video at bottom of article)
  325. What Is Electronic Braillie?: https://www.electronicink.com/what-is-electronic-braillie/
  326. Bonocle - Braille pocket tool: https://www.bonocle.co/en/
  327. Orbit Reader 20: https://www.orbitresearch.com/product/orbit-reader-20/
  328. Innovision - BrailleMe: http://innovisiontech.co/brailleme/
  329. Mobile assistive technologies for the visually impaired: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24054999/
  330. 10 Free Screen Readers For Blind Or Visually Impaired Users: https://medium.com/usabilitygeek/10-free-screen-readers-for-blind-or-visually-impaired-users-45a45c757617
  331. 6 best screen readers for the blind or visually impaired people: https://tecoreviews.com/reviews/6-best-screen-readers-for-the-blind-or-visually-impaired-people/
  332. Assistive Technology for Visually Impaired and Blind People: https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/bfm%3A978-1-84628-867-8/1.pdf
  333. Sensor-Based Assistive Devices for Visually-Impaired People: Current Status, Challenges, and Future Directions: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5375851/
  334. Old Cynthia URL: http://www.contentquality.com/mynewtester/cynthia.exe?rptmode=1&url1=https://www.alc.ca | Cynthia - Section 508 checker
  335. Android Accessibility scanner guide: https://support.google.com/accessibility/android/faq/6376582
  336. How to use PA11Y: https://bitsofco.de/pa11y/
  337. Microsoft -- Supplier Accessibility toolkit: https://www.microsoft.com/en-us/accessibility/supplier-toolkit-resources
  338. Colorblind Web Page Filter: http://www.color-blindness.com/2006/04/10/colorblind-web-page-filter/
  339. HTML CodeSniffer - A11Y bookmarklet: http://squizlabs.github.io/HTML_CodeSniffer/
  340. Automated Accessibility Testing Tool (AATT): https://github.com/paypal/AATT (free service from PayPal that wraps HTML CodeSniffer & Axe with hooks to SeLion, Nemo, Nightwatch)
  341. PA11Y: https://pa11y.org/
  342. TPGi -- Website Accessibility Scan: https://www.tpgi.com/free-website-accessibility-scan/
  343. JavaScript Bookmarklets for Accessibility Testing: https://pauljadam.com/bookmarklets/
  344. CKEditor -- Accessibility Checker: https://ckeditor.com/ckeditor-4/accessibility-checker/
  345. PowerMapper - SortSite: https://www.powermapper.com/products/sortsite/
  346. Tenon - Accessibility as a Service: https://tenon.io
  347. CommonLook: https://commonlook.com/accessibility-software/pdf/ (best "PDF document" A11Y scanning)
  348. 5 Website Accessibility Checkers You Need Today: https://www.mediacurrent.com/blog/5-website-accessibility-checkers/
  349. Top 25 Awesome Accessibility Testing Tools for Websites: https://dynomapper.com/blog/27-accessibility-testing/246-top-25-awesome-accessibility-testing-tools-for-websites
  350. What are the best and free tools to perform Web accessibility testing?: https://www.quora.com/What-are-the-best-and-free-tools-to-perform-Web-accessibility-testing
  351. Website Accessibility Software Market is Booming Worldwide By Top Emerging Key Players -- Google, Siteimprove, DYNO Mapper, Deque, BoIA, Crownpeak, Level Access, DubBot, Monsido, Silktide: https://weeklywall.com/website-accessibility-software-market-is-booming-worldwide-by-top-emerging-key-playersgoogle-siteimprove-dyno-mapper-deque-boia-crownpeak-level-access-dubbot-monsido-silktide/
  352. wikipedia: JAWS (screen_reader)
  353. NVDA -- Keyboard Commands - Quick Reference Guide: https://dequeuniversity.com/assets/pdf/screenreaders/nvda.pdf
  354. Quick Reference Guide -- NVDA for Windows Keyboard Commands: https://dequeuniversity.com/assets/pdf/screenreaders/nvda-guide.pdf
  355. Quick Reference Guide -- NVDA Keyboard Commands: https://dequeuniversity.com/assets/pdf/screenreaders/screen-reader-nvda.pdf
  356. VoiceOver - Vision: http://www.apple.com/accessibility/macosx/vision.html
  357. 10 Free Screen Readers For Blind Or Visually Impaired Users: https://usabilitygeek.com/10-free-screen-reader-blind-visually-impaired-users/
  358. DARE Index 2020 - Top Performing Countries: https://g3ict.org/publication/dare-index-2020-top-performing-countries
  359. Global Accessibility Awareness Day (GAAD): https://globalaccessibilityawarenessday.org/ (3rd Thu. in May)
  360. CHALLENGE -- Accessibility know-how needs to go mainstream with developers - NOW: https://mysqltalk.wordpress.com/2011/11/27/challenge-accessibility-know-how-needs-to-go-mainstream-with-developers-now/
  361. Deque -- GAAD 2021 - Basic Accessibility Fundamentals bootcamp: https://accessibility.deque.com/thanks-for-signing-up-gaad-bootcamp
  362. Deque -- GAAD 2021 Workshop - Translating Design Wireframes into Accessible HTML/CSS: https://accessibility.deque.com/thanks-for-signing-up-wireframes-workshop
  363. UC San Diego -- GAAD 2021- Global Accessibility Awareness Fair 2021: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jjFngHfx__A (walkthrough of Screen Reader usage and blockers starts 39:05)
  364. T12t meetup - accessibility mindset at your workplace - GAAD 2021: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2pQA50oGrJU | GAAD 2021 discussions
  365. World Health Organization(WHO) -- International Day of Persons with Disabilities 2020 - A Day for All: https://www.who.int/campaigns/international-day-of-persons-with-disabilities/2020
  366. United Nations (UN) - International Day of Persons with Disabilities: https://www.un.org/en/observances/day-of-persons-with-disabilities
  367. How GAAD Started: https://globalaccessibilityawarenessday.org/about/
  368. Disability Rights after Amsterdam - the way forward: https://disability-studies.leeds.ac.uk/wp-content/uploads/sites/40/library/richard-whittle-Disability-Rights-after-Amsterdam.pdf
  369. UN -- Ageing & disability: https://www.un.org/development/desa/disabilities/disability-and-ageing.html
  370. World Health Organization (WHO) - "world report on disability" (2011): https://www.who.int/disabilities/world_report/2011/report.pdf
  371. 15% worldwide have physical or mental disability: https://www.cbsnews.com/news/15-worldwide-have-physical-or-mental-disability/
  372. Dawkins is wrong – grossly wrong – about Down’s syndrome: https://www.tortoisemedia.com/2021/06/01/dawkins-is-wrong-grossly-wrong-about-downs-syndrome/
  373. What is the European Union’s Web Accessibility Directive?: https://www.boia.org/blog/what-is-the-european-unions-web-accessibility-directive-1
  374. Guidance on Web Accessibility and the ADA: https://beta.ada.gov/web-guidance/
  375. Make 2020 the year your company stops waiting for an Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) letter/lawsuit to take action on A11Y: https://www.boia.org/blog/waiting-for-ada-demand-letter-to-take-accessibility-seriously
  376. ADA Best Practices Tool Kit for State/Local Governments -- Chapter 6 - Curb Ramps & Pedestrian Crossings (Title II of ADA): https://www.ada.gov/pcatoolkit/chap6toolkit.htm
  377. Auditing Your Website for Accessibility Compliance and Understanding How ADA Applies: https://cynthiang.ca/2018/08/16/presentation-auditing-your-website-for-accessibility-compliance-and-understanding-how-ada-applies/
  378. Congress Did Not Pass ADA Amendment Clarifying Web Accessibility Standards: https://www.boia.org/blog/congress-did-not-pass-ada-amendment-clarifying-web-accessibility-standards
  379. White House Embraces WCAG with Accessibility Updates: https://www.boia.org/blog/white-house-embraces-wcag-with-accessibility-updates (Dark mode, Font size options, more Spanish support, Inclusivity features)
  380. Centers for Disease Control and prevention (CDC) -- Disability Impacts All of Us (INFOGRAPHIC): https://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/disabilityandhealth/infographic-disability-impacts-all.html
  381. Act on the Elimination of Disability Discrimination in Japan: https://inclusion-international.org/act-on-the-elimination-of-disability-discrimination-in-japan/
  382. New law bans bias against people with disabilities, but shortcomings exist, say experts: https://www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2016/05/02/reference/new-law-bans-bias-against-people-with-disabilities-but-shortcomings-exist-say-experts/#.Xb8Dz5JKg0o
  383. Disabled train passengers left disconnected in age of digital smart card use: https://japantoday.com/category/national/feature-disabled-passengers-left-disconnected-in-age-of-digital-smart-card-use
  384. Japan's older population hits record high: https://www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2021/09/20/national/japans-older-population-hits-record-high/
  385. An Overview of Canada’s Accessibility Laws - A Look at the Old and the New: https://www.essentialaccessibility.com/blog/canadian-accessibility-laws/
  386. Summary of the Accessible Canada Act: https://www.canada.ca/en/employment-social-development/programs/accessible-people-disabilities/act-summary.html#section3-9
  387. Accessible Canada Act (INFOGRAPHICS) - Making an accessible Canada for persons with disabilities: https://www.canada.ca/en/employment-social-development/programs/accessible-canada.html
  388. Government of Canada announces appointments to the Canadian Accessibility Standards Development Organization: https://www.canada.ca/en/employment-social-development/news/2019/08/government-of-canada-announces-appointments-to-the-canadian-accessibility-standards-development-organization.html
  389. Accessibility in the (Canadian) public service: https://www.canada.ca/en/government/publicservice/wellness-inclusion-diversity-public-service/diversity-inclusion-public-service/accessibility-public-service.html
  390. TTC -- 2020 Accessibility Plan Status Update: http://ttc.ca/About_the_TTC/Commission_reports_and_information/Commission_meetings/2020/July_14/Reports/6_2020_Accessibility_Plan_Status_Update.pdf
  391. People with disabilities around B.C. to benefit from new accessibility programs: https://news.gov.bc.ca/releases/2017SDPR0062-001760
  392. High-Speed Access for All: Canada's Connectivity Strategy: https://www.ic.gc.ca/eic/site/139.nsf/eng/h_00002.html
  393. Rollout of RHFAC continues cross-Canada: https://www.reminetwork.com/articles/rollout-rhfac-continues-cross-canada/
  394. Best provinces for accessibility in Canada: https://www.zolo.ca/blog/best-provinces-accessibility
  395. Blind New Brunswickers hopeful legislature bill offering free transit fares gets passed: https://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/new-brunswick/blind-new-brunswick-free-transit-bill-1.6382535
  396. Statistics Canada (StatsCan) - Accessibility info/figures: https://www.statcan.gc.ca/en/topics-start/accessibility
  397. Disability-related employment benefits: https://www.canada.ca/en/revenue-agency/services/tax/businesses/topics/payroll/benefits-allowances/disability-related-employment-benefits.html
  398. A Complete Overview of Canada’s Accessibility Laws: https://siteimprove.com/en-ca/blog/a-complete-overview-of-canada-s-accessibility-laws/
  399. Minister Bains announces Canada’s Digital Charter: https://www.canada.ca/en/innovation-science-economic-development/news/2019/05/minister-bains-announces-canadas-digital-charter.html (Charter’s 10 principles will build a foundation of trust for Canadians in the digital sphere)
  400. wikipedia: CNIB Foundation
  401. Accessibility for Ontarians with Disabilities Act (AODA) compliance -- A Primer on Canadian Web Accessibility Standards: https://www.3playmedia.com/2016/06/03/aoda-compliance-a-primer-on-canadian-accessibility-standards/
  402. eSSENTIAL Accessibility -- AODA Frequently Asked Questions: https://www.essentialaccessibility.com/blog/faqs-about-aoda
  403. New Accessibility Requirements Fast Approaching Under AODA: https://www.mondaq.com/canada/discrimination-disability-sexual-harassment/986958/new-accessibility-requirements-fast-approaching-under-aoda
  404. Government accessibility standards and WCAG 2 by country:https://www.powermapper.com/blog/government-accessibility-standards/
  405. About the HTML Epidemic, WebAIM “Million” Report, and Teach Access: http://www.webaxe.org/html-epidemic-webaim-millions-report-teach-access/
  406. WCAG 2.1 -- UX Checklist - items broken down into POUR headings: https://github.com/JenniKobylskiUX/WCAG-Accessibility-UX-Checklist
  407. WCAG 2.1 - Exploring the New Success Criteria: https://www.accessibility.dev/this-is-the-second-of-a-three-part-series-about-wcag/
  408. Introducing WCAG 2.1 AA guidelines to Spree Commerce 4.2 UX: https://spreecommerce.org/introducing-wcag-guidelines-to-spree-commerce/
  409. User1st creates web accessibility testing solution (Press Release): https://www.kmworld.com/Articles/News/News/User1st-creates-web-accessibility-testing-solution-141946.aspx
  410. Government testing identifies accessibility issues on 99% of public sector websites: https://www.publictechnology.net/articles/news/government-testing-identifies-accessibility-issues-99-public-sector-websites
  411. ADA Standards for Accessible Design : https://www.ada.gov/2010ADAstandards_index.htm
  412. IBM Launches Open Source Equal Access Toolkit: https://www.forbes.com/sites/stevenaquino/2020/05/19/ibm-launches-open-source-equal-access-toolkit/?sh=7fb050d1f776
  413. IBM launches Equal Access Toolkit to help developers build accessible websites and applications: https://developer.ibm.com/blogs/ibm-launches-equal-access-toolkit-developers-accessible-apps-and-websites/
  414. IBM introduces Agent Building and Learning Environment (ABLE): https://researcher.watson.ibm.com/researcher/view_group.php?id=979
  415. Designing for accessibility - Dos and don'ts (UK - Home Office Digital): https://imgur.com/gallery/f2vj5
  416. wikipedia: International Symbol of Access (ISA)
  417. What You Can Do to Remove Barriers on the Web: https://de.ryerson.ca/games/accessibility/_/accessibility_guidelines.pdf
  418. Game Accessibility Feature Tags are now Available on Microsoft Store for Xbox: https://news-xbox-com.cdn.ampproject.org/c/s/news.xbox.com/en-us/2021/11/16/game-accessibility-feature-tags-now-available/amp/
  419. Technical Language, Advice Understandability, and Perceptions of Expertise and Trustworthiness - The Case of the Financial Planner (WHITEPAPER): https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/031289620202700102
  420. Egghead courses -- Develop Accessible Web Apps with React: https://egghead.io/courses/develop-accessible-web-apps-with-react
  421. WAI -- Before, After, Demo (BAD) website: https://www.w3.org/WAI/demos/bad/a>fter/home.html (great reference for how a website without A11Y was able to fix most of their issues)
  422. A Beginner's Guide to Web Accessibility: https://webdesign.tutsplus.com/courses/a-beginners-guide-to-web-accessibility/lessons/pa11y-and-pa11y-dashboard
  423. Legacy version of Google's Web Accessibility course: https://web.archive.org/web/20160327154224/https://webaccessibility.withgoogle.com/course
  424. Google's Accessibility guide for Android/Chrome developers: https://www.google.com/accessibility/for-developers/ | Accessible Styles | Semantic HTML | A11Y overview
  425. A11ycasts with Google Sr. Accessibility Engineer Rob Dodson: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLNYkxOF6rcICWx0C9LVWWVqvHlYJyqw7g
  426. Perkins -- eLearning, School for the Blind - App Accessibility Checklist: https://www.perkinselearning.org/technology/blog/app-accessibility-checklist
  427. A Quick Primer On The WCAG 2.0 Accessibility Standard: https://www.thrivewebdesigns.com/wcag20-accessibility-standard/
  428. WCAG 2.0 — Accessibility Principles And Guidelines: vanseodesign.com/web-design/wcag-principles-guidelines/
  429. Common Types Of Learning Disabilities: http://learningdisabilitiesnekanso.blogspot.com/2015/10/common-types-of-learning-disabilities.html
  430. The impact of motion animation on cognitive disability: https://www.tpgi.com/the-impact-of-motion-animation-on-cognitive-disability/
  431. Inclusive user testing - and empathy - are core to inclusive design: https://sdtimes.com/softwaredev/inclusive-user-testing-and-empathy-are-core-to-inclusive-design/?activecampaign_id=123002
  432. Increasing our Focus on Inclusive Technology: https://blogs.microsoft.com/accessibility/increasing-our-focus-on-inclusive-technology/
  433. Microsoft launches new lab for building inclusive tech, unveils new adaptive accessoriesL https://sdtimes.com/msft/microsoft-launches-new-lab-for-building-inclusive-tech-unveils-new-adaptive-accessories/
  434. Xbox Accessibility Guidelines Provide Best Practices So More Gamers Can Play: https://www.boia.org/blog/xbox-accessibility-guidelines-provide-best-practices-so-more-gamers-can-play
  435. Xbox One and Windows 10 Add In-Game Transcription: https://www.boia.org/blog/xbox-one-and-windows-10-add-in-game-transcription
  436. Microsoft starts new program to help (game developers) make more accessible games: https://www.theverge.com/2021/2/16/22286216/microsoft-xbox-games-tested-accessibility-guidelines
  437. XBox's new "Adaptive Controller": https://www.xbox.com/en-US/accessories/controllers/xbox-adaptive-controller
  438. Microsoft’s new Xbox controller is designed entirely for players with disabilities: https://www.polygon.com/2018/5/17/17363528/xbox-adaptive-controller-disability-accessible
  439. Microsoft is testing Xbox party chat accessibility features: https://www.engadget.com/xbox-party-chat-previews-text-to-speech-and-speech-transcription-102644434.html
  440. Low Vision .vs. Legally Blind: https://www.2020detroit.com/low-vision-vs-legal-blindness/
  441. IALVS -- What’s the Difference Between Low Vision and Blindness?: https://ialvs.com/whats-the-difference-between-low-vision-and-being-legally-blind/
  442. Low Vision -- Definition, Causes and Disability: https://wecapable.com/low-vision-disability/
  443. Low Vision and Legal Blindness Terms and Descriptions: https://www.afb.org/blindness-and-low-vision/eye-conditions/low-vision-and-legal-blindness-terms-and-descriptions
  444. Revision of visual impairment definitions in the International Statistical Classification of Diseases: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1435919/
  445. What is Macular Degeneration?: https://www.macular.org/what-macular-degeneration
  446. What is Macular Degeneration?: https://www.macular.org/what-macular-degeneration-alt
  447. Android -- Test your app's accessibility: https://developer.android.com/guide/topics/ui/accessibility/testing
  448. Android -- Using Espresso for automated Accessibility Checking: https://developer.android.com/training/testing/espresso/accessibility-checking#java
  449. Microsoft Inclusive Toolkit wins 2017's "Best Empowering category" in the annual "World Changing Ideas" competition: https://awards.ixda.org/entry/2017/microsoft-inclusive-toolkit-2/
  450. Microsoft - our approach to Accessibility: https://www.microsoft.com/en-us/accessibility/approach
  451. Microsoft Is 'Doubling Down' on Accessibility to Help Close Disability Divide: https://www.boia.org/blog/microsoft-is-doubling-down-on-accessibility-to-help-close-disability-divide
  452. Apple A11Y features landing page: https://www.apple.com/accessibility/
  453. Apple introduces SignTime... ASL for iOS, more accessibility features for people with disabilities: https://www.usatoday.com/story/tech/2021/05/19/apple-new-software-signtime-feature-iphone-ipad-watch-hearing-impaired/5162279001/
  454. Accessibility in SwiftUI: https://developer.apple.com/videos/play/wwdc2019/238/
  455. The Business Case for an Accessible Website: https://www.boia.org/blog/the-business-case-for-an-accessible-website
  456. American Institutes for Reasearch (AIR) -- Hidden Market - The Purchasing Power of Working-Age Adults With Disabilities: https://www.air.org/system/files/downloads/report/Hidden-Market-Spending-Power-of-People-with-Disabilities-April-2018.pdf
  457. Canadian Survey on Disability Reports: https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/en/catalogue/89-654-X
  458. The 2006 Participation and Activity Limitation Survey: Disability in Canada: https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/en/catalogue/89-628-X
  459. eCH -- 0059 - Accessibility Standard for European Union (German): https://www.ech.ch/de/dokument/45a5ea94-5955-4206-a647-0f795b5f72b2
  460. "How Accessible Are We?" -- Digital India report (2020): https://my.visme.co/view/vdjjm3dp-how-accessible-are-we
  461. SiteImprove -- CX strategy - Drive ROI with Accessibility (E-BOOK): https://hello.siteimprove.com/en-us/content/ebook/empathyroi
  462. The ROI of Accessibility: http://www.accessibilitypartners.com/the-roi-of-accessibility/
  463. Optimizing Your eCommerce Site? Accessibility is a Must-Have!: https://www.essentialaccessibility.com/uncategorized/trends-and-impact-of-digital-accessibility-on-ecommerce-in-2021
  464. 6 companies that boosted business with accessibility: https://bighack.org/business-case-accessibility-6-companies-who-boosted-business-with-accessibility/
  465. Valuable Truth Report (2022): https://www.thevaluable500.com/wp-content/uploads/2022/05/The-Valuable-Truth-2022.pdf
  466. Avoid "Keyboard Traps" To Make Your Site More Accessible: https://www.boia.org/blog/avoid-keyboard-traps-to-make-your-site-more-accessible
  467. Accessibility compliance deadline looms in Ontario: https://betakit.com/as-accessibility-compliance-deadline-looms-cnib-ottawa-firm-partner-to-offer-website-audits-to-businesses/
  468. Ontario Making Public Spaces More Accessible: https://news.ontario.ca/en/release/1001367/ontario-making-public-spaces-more-accessible
  469. MIT -- The role of accessibility in a universal web (WHITEPAPER): http://dspace.mit.edu/handle/1721.1/88013
  470. Accessible jQuery-ui Components Demonstration: http://hanshillen.github.io/jqtest/#goto_dialog
  471. Accessible Icon Buttons: https://www.sarasoueidan.com/blog/accessible-icon-buttons/
  472. HTMHell special - close buttons: https://www.htmhell.dev/20-close-buttons/
  473. Implementing A Pure CSS Collapsible (that can still have keyboard support via a tiny bit of JS): https://www.digitalocean.com/community/tutorials/css-collapsible
  474. MozDev -- WAI-ARIA roles - Using the aria-live property:: https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/Accessibility/ARIA/ARIA_Live_Regions
  475. Getting screen reader to read new content added (post-pageload) with JavaScript: https://stackoverflow.com/questions/3670570/getting-screen-reader-to-read-new-content-added-with-javascript
  476. ARIA -- "Live" Region Playground: http://schne324.github.io/live-region-playground/ (testing aria-live="" attribute variations: off, polite, assertive... .vs. default/non-present)
  477. WAI-ARIA -- roles: https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/Accessibility/ARIA/Roles
  478. MozDev -- WAI-ARIA roles - Using the timer role: https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/Accessibility/ARIA/Roles/ARIA_timer_role
  479. MozDev -- WAI-ARIA roles - Using the Navigation role: https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/Accessibility/ARIA/Roles/Navigation_Role
  480. MozDev -- WAI-ARIA roles - Using the region role: https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/Accessibility/ARIA/Roles/Region_role
  481. MozDev -- WAI-ARIA roles - Using the complimentary role: https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/Accessibility/ARIA/Roles/Complementary_role
  482. DigitalA11Y -- overview of aria-atomic property: https://www.digitala11y.com/aria-atomic-properties/
  483. Study on aria-atomic & aria-relevant on aria-live regions: https://pauljadam.com/demos/aria-atomic-relevant.html
  484. Color Blindness & Web Design: https://www.usability.gov/get-involved/blog/2010/02/color-blindness.html
  485. Color Contrast for Better Readability: https://www.viget.com/articles/color-contrast/
  486. Ensure High Contrast for Text Over Images: https://www.nngroup.com/articles/text-over-images/
  487. NIH -- Types of Color Blindness: https://www.nei.nih.gov/learn-about-eye-health/eye-conditions-and-diseases/color-blindness/types-color-blindness
  488. wikipedia: Ishihara test
  489. Getting Typography Right in Digital Design: https://medium.springboard.com/the-guide-to-getting-typography-right-in-digital-design-bb61214ff3ad
  490. Web Design is 95% Typography: https://ia.net/topics/the-web-is-all-about-typography-period
  491. Best Fonts To Use for Website Accessibility: https://www.boia.org/blog/best-fonts-to-use-for-website-accessibility
  492. Tricks for ARIA on the iPad/iOS: http://blog.codinginparadise.org/2010/12/tricks-for-aria-on-ipadios.html
  493. Building a Universally Accessible Blog: https://whatsortsofpeople.wordpress.com/2008/07/28/building-a-universally-accessible-blog/
  494. MozDev -- ARIA - live regions: https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/Accessibility/ARIA/ARIA_Live_Regions
  495. MozDev -- ARIA - alertdialog role: https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/Accessibility/ARIA/Roles/alertdialog_role
  496. MozDev -- ARIA - dialog role: https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/Accessibility/ARIA/Roles/dialog_role
  497. ARIA Dialog role example (Modal): http://accessibility.athena-ict.com/aria/examples/dialog.shtml
  498. W3C -- Making a Dialog Modal: https://www.w3.org/TR/2010/WD-wai-aria-practices-20100916/#modal_dialog
  499. Modal dialogs: https://accessuse.eu/en/modal-dialogs.html
  500. Dialog (Modal): http://www.html5accessibility.com/dhtmlStyleGuide.html#dialogmodal
  501. Creating An Accessible Modal Dialog: https://bitsofco.de/accessible-modal-dialog/ | DEMO | SRC
  502. CodePen Home Some Accessible Modal Techniques: https://codepen.io/noahblon/pen/yJpXZa
  503. jQuery simple and accessible modal window, using ARIA: https://a11y.nicolas-hoffmann.net/modal/
  504. Building better accessibility primitives: https://robdodson.me/posts/building-better-accessibility-primitives/
  505. Making Elements Focusable with Tabindex: https://snook.ca/archives/accessibility_and_usability/elements_focusable_with_tabindex
  506. Is there a way to do an accessible modal?: https://stackoverflow.com/questions/10016433/is-there-a-way-to-do-an-accessible-modal
  507. Keep tabbing within modal pane only: https://stackoverflow.com/questions/14572084/keep-tabbing-within-modal-pane-only
  508. Best Practices for Modal Windows: https://uxmovement.com/forms/best-practices-for-modal-windows/
  509. Popups -- 10 Problematic Trends and Alternatives: https://www.nngroup.com/articles/popups/
  510. Semantically-Accurate HTML5 Element for a Modal Dialog: https://stackoverflow.com/questions/3072597/semantically-accurate-html5-element-for-a-modal-dialog
  511. Best Practices for Modals / Overlays / Dialog Windows: https://uxplanet.org/best-practices-for-modals-overlays-dialog-windows-c00c66cddd8c
  512. The a11y Monthly - Making modals accessible: https://developer.yoast.com/blog/the-a11y-monthly-making-modals-accessible/
  513. Inclusive components -- making modals accessible: https://dev.to/alenanik/inclusive-components-making-modals-accessible-1hn9
  514. Web Accessibility Guidelines v1.0: http://web-accessibility.carnegiemuseums.org/code/dialogs/
  515. How to trap focus inside modal to make it ADA compliant: https://uxdesign.cc/how-to-trap-focus-inside-modal-to-make-it-ada-compliant-6a50f9a70700
  516. Considerations for Styling a Modal: https://css-tricks.com/considerations-styling-modal/
  517. Demonstration of a keyboard- and screen-reader accessible modal dialog: http://ncamftp.wgbh.org/sp/tests/dialog/modalDialog.html
  518. Benefits and drawbacks of modal windows: https://ux.stackexchange.com/questions/39778/benefits-and-drawbacks-of-modal-windows
  519. How To Make Modal Windows Better For Everyone: https://www.smashingmagazine.com/2014/09/making-modal-windows-better-for-everyone/
  520. Is there a way to do an accessible modal?: https://stackoverflow.com/questions/10016433/is-there-a-way-to-do-an-accessible-modal
  521. Creating An Accessible Modal Dialog: http://bitsofco.de/accessible-modal-dialog/
  522. Accessible modal window using ARIA and Vanilla JS: https://van11y.net/downloads/modal/demo/index.html
  523. jQuery simple and accessible modal window, using ARIA: https://a11y.nicolas-hoffmann.net/modal/
  524. jQuery trap input plugin: https://github.com/julienw/jquery-trap-input
  525. React Modals: https://react-bootstrap.github.io/components/modal/
  526. React-Bootstrap Modal Accessibility Warnings from React-A11y: https://stackoverflow.com/questions/38596675/react-bootstrap-modal-accessibility-warnings-from-react-a11y
  527. Notes On Client-Rendered Accessibility: https://www.smashingmagazine.com/2015/05/client-rendered-accessibility/
  528. ReactJS docs - Accessibility: https://reactjs.org/docs/accessibility.html
  529. Deque - React Accessiblity best practices (WEBINAR): https://accessibility.deque.com/react-accessibility-webinar
  530. Getting Started with Web Accessibility in React: https://medium.com/@emilymears/getting-started-with-web-accessibility-in-react-9e591fdb0d52
  531. Accessibility -- Never Remove the Outlines: https://medium.com/better-programming/a11y-never-remove-the-outlines-ee4efc7a9968
  532. Outline NONE in CSS -- a { outline: none; } - DON'T DO IT!: http://www.outlinenone.com/
  533. The plague of outline:0: https://webaim.org/blog/plague-of-outline-0/
  534. The Friendly Inbox - Making Emails Accessible For Subscribers With Disabilities: https://www.mediapost.com/publications/article/367871/the-friendly-inbox-making-emails-accessible-for-s.html
  535. WCAG 2.0 -- Link Purpose (In Context): https://www.w3.org/TR/UNDERSTANDING-WCAG20/navigation-mechanisms-refs.html
  536. Accessibility -- Web Links Should Be Links, and Web Buttons Should Be Buttons: https://medium.com/better-programming/accessibility-web-links-should-be-links-and-web-buttons-should-be-buttons-182ff042d087
  537. WebAIM -- Link A11Y best practices: https://webaim.org/techniques/hypertext/#link_to_link
  538. WebAIM -- Links and Hypertext: https://webaim.org/techniques/hypertext/link_text
  539. Text Links - Best Practices for Screen Readers: https://www.deque.com/blog/text-links-practices-screen-readers/
  540. Don't Rely on the Title Attribute for Accessibility: https://www.mediacurrent.com/blog/dont-rely-title-attribute-accessibility-seo/
  541. Create accessible social media content: https://accessibility.iu.edu/creating-content/social-media/index.html | VIDEO
  542. Improving the Accessibility of Social Media in Government: https://digital.gov/resources/improving-the-accessibility-of-social-media-in-government/
  543. YouTube Expands Speech Recognition and Translation AI Features: https://voicebot.ai/2021/10/11/youtube-expands-speech-recognition-and-translation-ai-features/
  544. Facebook's Accessibility help page: https://www.facebook.com/help/273947702950567?cms_id=141636465971794
  545. Twitter’s web redesign isn’t as accessible as it should be, experts say: https://techcrunch.com/2021/08/13/twitters-web-redesign-isnt-as-accessible-as-it-should-be-experts-say/
  546. Seiichi Miyake: 5 Brilliantly Simple Uses for His "Tenji Blocks": https://www.inverse.com/article/54134-seiichi-miyake-google-doodle-tactile-paving
  547. The Unexpected Benefits of Web Accessibility: Why It’s More Than Just “The Right Thing To Do”: https://www.essentialaccessibility.com/blog/the-unexpected-benefits-of-web-accessibility-why-its-more-than-just-the-right-thing-to-do
  548. History of Assistive Technology: https://www.sutori.com/story/history-of-assistive-technology--RJ35ffpub31fn4qokozTFtNg
  549. Assistive Technology timeline: https://earshot103.wixsite.com/assistive-technology/history
  550. To Hell with WCAG 2: http://www.alistapart.com/articles/tohellwithwcag2
  551. Creating Accessible Menus and Mega Menus: https://www.levelaccess.com/challenges-mega-menus-standard-menus-make-accessible/
  552. Accessible Mega Menu: https://adobe-accessibility.github.io/Accessible-Mega-Menu/#accessible-megamenu-1638280592218-1
  553. Creating an animated Menu indicator with CSS Selectors: https://css-tricks.com/creating-an-animated-menu-indicator-with-css-selectors/ (bottom)
  554. Line Menu "currently active" indicator styles: https://tympanus.net/Development/LineMenuStyles/ (many examples if you don't mind scrolling through them all hah)
  555. Bootstrap - subtle but sufficient indicator on dynamic "Mega Menu": https://preview.colorlib.com/theme/bootstrap/website-menu-03/index.html
  556. Moz dev docs -- FireFox - Accessibility Inspector: https://firefox-source-docs.mozilla.org/devtools-user/accessibility_inspector/index.html
  557. A Deep Dive on Skipping to Content: https://css-tricks.com/a-deep-dive-on-skipping-to-content/
  558. How to Create a “Skip to Content” Link : https://css-tricks.com/how-to-create-a-skip-to-content-link/
  559. Skip to Main Content – Accessibility for AEM Web-applications (AEM 6.5.9 & AEMaaCs): https://aemsimplifiedbynikhil.wordpress.com/2021/07/16/skip-to-main-content-accessibility-for-aem-web-applications-aem-6-5-9-aemaacs/
  560. How to skip some content from screen reader: https://stackoverflow.com/questions/22932134/how-to-skip-some-content-from-screen-reader
  561. WebAIM - Skip Navigation Links: https://webaim.org/techniques/skipnav/
  562. What Is Skip Navigation Link and Why Is It Useful? : https://pineco.de/what-is-skip-navigation-link-and-why-is-it-useful/
  563. Carnegie Museum -- Skip Link: web-accessibility.carnegiemuseums.org/code/skip-link/
  564. I found a hidden youtube button (SKIP NAVIGATION). To see it, open youtube and hit tab twice: https://www.reddit.com/r/interestingasfuck/comments/hwii59/i_found_a_hidden_youtube_button_skip_navigation/fyzt4st/
  565. WCAG 2.0 AA is the new Accessibility standard for any "Federal Agency" websites: https://www.adatitleiii.com/2017/01/wcag-2-0-aa-is-the-new-accessibility-standard-for-federal-agency-websites/
  566. Translating Design Wireframes Into Accessible HTML/CSS: https://www.smashingmagazine.com/2020/07/design-wireframes-accessible-html-css/
  567. Disability 3Barriers in Customer Service: https://www.aoda.ca/disability-barriers-in-customer-service/
  568. Accessibility - Definition, Meaning, Examples and Types of Barriers: https://wecapable.com/accessibility-definition-meaning-examples-barriers/
  569. Public Education Campaign on the Business Case for Accessibility: https://aoda.ca/public-education-campaign-on-the-business-case-for-accessibility/
  570. Top 5 Most Common Web Accessibility Mistakes: https://www.mcdpartners.com/news/top-5-common-web-accessibility-mistakes/
  571. Top Ten Most Common Web Accessibility issues: https://www.tpgi.com/ten-common-web-accessibility-issues/ (1.Image ALT text, 2.KeyboardNav visual focus indicator, 3.Use of proper labels, 4.Links without descriptive text, 5.Links/Buttons too small, 6.Tables without proper markup, 7.Headings hierarchy & Section nesting, 8.Color Contrast, 9.Embedding or Linking to inaccessible docs & media, 10.Identical descriptive text for content - multiple related or separate unrelated)
  572. 6 easy ways to make your projects more accessible: https://www.richmedia.com/richideas/articles/6-ways-to-make-your-projects-accessible
  573. Beyond the screenreader - Online accessibility for assistive devices: https://www.richmedia.com/richideas/articles/beyond_the_screenreader_online_accessibility_for_assistive_devices
  574. Unit in Developing Literacy Skills with Assistive Technology: https://dyslexiaaction.org.uk/developing-literacy-skills-with-assistive-technology/
  575. AUSTRALIAN CURRICULUM – NUMERACY CAPABILITIES: https://mrscovichsclassroom.com/numeracy-capabilities/
  576. How a Glasgow, Scotland school celebrated "National Numeracy Day" (2020): https://blogs.glowscotland.org.uk/ea/hillsideprimaryamain2019/2020/05/10/weekly-challenge-numeracy/
  577. UX Planet -- Color, psychology and design: https://uxplanet.org/how-color-can-effect-emotion-ccab0431b1d
  578. An argument for incorporating color early on in UX design: https://uxhacker.co/an-argument-for-incorporating-color-early-on-in-ux-design/
  579. Color meanings and the art of using color symbolism (in UI/UX Design): https://99designs.ca/blog/tips/color-meanings/
  580. Ishihara’s Test for Colour Deficiency - 38 Plates Edition: https://www.color-blindness.com/ishiharas-test-for-colour-deficiency-38-plates-edition/
  581. Color Meanings – The Power and Symbolism of Colors: https://www.color-meanings.com
  582. Real People, Real Stories Episode #9 (2021) -- Charlotte Dales from Inclusively and Aubrey Northam from Mobelux: https://www.tpgi.com/real-people-real-stories-episode-9-2021-charlotte-dales-from-inclusively-and-aubrey-northam-from-mobelux/
  583. What is a screen reader, and why are they important?: https://www.tpgi.com/what-is-a-screen-reader-and-why-are-they-important/
  584. Canadians with disabilities face barriers to financial security, researchers find: https://phys.org/news/2020-08-canadians-disabilities-barriers-financial.html
  585. How America failed students with disabilities during the pandemic: https://www.washingtonpost.com/education/2021/05/20/students-disabilities-virtual-learning-failure/
  586. Australian study shows "those with disability are disproportionally affected by COVID" – New Report From CBM: https://www.96five.com/stories/life/news/2021/those-with-a-disability-disproportionally-affected-by-covid-new-report/
  587. COVID closures disproportionately affecting those with disabilities: https://health.ucdavis.edu/health-news/newsroom/covid-closures-disproportionately-affecting-those-with-disabilities-/2020/10
  588. The pandemic isn’t over — particularly for people with disabilities: https://www.health.harvard.edu/blog/the-pandemic-isnt-over-particularly-for-people-with-disabilities-202105252464
  589. COVID-19's Impact on People with Disabilities: https://www.massgeneral.org/news/coronavirus/Covid-19s-impact-on-people-with-disabilities
  590. Impacts of COVID-19 disproportionately affect poor and vulnerable - UN chief: https://news.un.org/en/story/2020/06/1067502
  591. COVID-19 has disproportionately impacted those living with developmental disabilities: https://www.cnn.com/2020/08/28/health/covid-19-intellectual-development-disabilities-impact-wellness/index.html
  592. COVID-19 Outbreak and Persons with Disabilities: https://www.un.org/development/desa/disabilities/covid-19.html
  593. Impact of COVID-19 on people with physical disabilities - A rapid review: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7603994/
  594. Policy Brief -- A "Disability-Inclusive" Response to COVID-19: https://www.un.org/sites/un2.un.org/files/sg_policy_brief_on_persons_with_disabilities_final.pdf
  595. Workers With Disabilities Disproportionately Impacted By Covid-19 Pandemic: https://www.forbes.com/sites/allisonnorlian/2020/06/22/workers-with-disabilities-disproportionately-impacted-by-covid-19-pandemic/
  596. Role of Governor in promoting disability employment in COVID-19 recovery strategies: https://www.nga.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/03/SEED_Memo.pdf
  597. How to Use Color Blind Friendly Palettes to Make Your Charts Accessible: https://venngage.com/blog/color-blind-friendly-palette/
  598. Microsoft Working on System That Could Benefit Color-blind Gamers: https://gamerant.com/microsoft-patent-system-benefit-color-blind-gamers/
  599. BBC - Accessibility for Products: https://www.bbc.co.uk/accessibility/forproducts/
  600. Personas with Disabilities: https://medium.com/swlh/personas-with-disabilities-9da8d12f1255
  601. Persona Spectrums - Building for Inclusion and Accessibility: https://www.uxbooth.com/articles/persona-spectrums-building-for-inclusion-and-accessibility/
  602. How to Add Alt Text to Images on Facebook: https://www.howtogeek.com/761718/how-to-add-alt-text-to-images-on-facebook/
  603. 5 ways to make websites more accessible for deaf people: https://www.hearinglikeme.com/5-ways-to-make-websites-more-accessible-for-deaf-people/
  604. How to make a website accessible for the deaf and hearing impaired: https://www.paradigmmarketinganddesign.com/how-to-make-a-website-accessible-for-the-deaf-and-hearing-impaired/
  605. Web accessibility for hearing impairments: https://uxdesign.cc/web-accessibility-for-hearing-impairment-3f49fc7b5a34

See Also

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