Difference between revisions of "Accessibility"

From BC$ MobileTV Wiki
Jump to: navigation, search
 
(444 intermediate revisions by 6 users not shown)
Line 1: Line 1:
 +
'''Accessibility''' (commonly abbreviated as ''A11Y'', also refered to as ''universal support'') is the support for disabled or otherwise impaired persons.
 +
 +
 +
== Specifications ==
 +
 +
=== WCAG ===
 +
 +
'''W'''eb '''C'''ontent '''A'''ccessibility '''G'''uidelines (commonly abbreviated ''WCAG'') is part of a series of accessibility guidelines, including the Authoring Tool Accessibility Guidelines (ATAG) and the User Agent Accessibility Guidelines (UAAG)<ref>W3C working group on WCAG: http://www.w3.org/WAI/intro/wcag.php</ref><ref>Accessibility Principles of WAI: https://www.w3.org/WAI/fundamentals/accessibility-principles/</ref>.
 +
 +
 +
<table style="text-align:center;border:1px solid black;">
 +
<caption>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; WCAG 1.0 &nbsp; | &nbsp; WCAG 2.0 </caption>
 +
<tr style="font-weight:bold; background:#ccc;"><th>importance of the content</th><th>&nbsp;A&nbsp;</th><th>AA&nbsp;</th><th>AAA</th><th>&nbsp;A&nbsp;</th><th>AA&nbsp;</th><th>AAA</th></tr>
 +
<tr style="background:#9c6;"><td>(closed) captions</td><td>X</td><td>X</td><td>X</td><td>X*</td><td>X</td><td>X</td></tr>
 +
<tr style="background:#6cf;"><td>(closed) audio description</td><td>X</td><td>X</td><td>X</td><td>X*</td><td>X</td><td>X</td></tr>
 +
<tr style="background:#9c6;"><td>full text alternative</td><td></td><td></td><td></td><td>X*</td><td></td><td>X</td></tr>
 +
<tr style="background:#6cf;"><td>sign language</td><td></td><td></td><td></td><td></td><td></td><td>X</td></tr>
 +
</table>
 +
# A = Priority 1, Web developers must satisfy these requirements, otherwise it will be impossible for one or more groups to access the Web content. Conformance to this level is described as A.
 +
# AA = Priority 2, Web developers should satisfy these requirements, otherwise some groups will find it difficult to access the Web content. Conformance to this level is described as AA or Double-A.
 +
# AAA = Priority 3, Web developers may satisfy these requirements, in order to make it easier for some groups to access the Web content. Conformance to this level is described as AAA or Triple-A.
 +
 +
* Website Accessibility Conformance Evaluation Methodology (WCAG-EM) 1.0: https://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG-EM/
 +
<ref>Essential Components of Web Accessibility: https://www.w3.org/WAI/fundamentals/components/</ref>
 +
<ref>The WCAG-EM Web Accessibility Evaluation Process: https://www.boia.org/blog/what-is-wcag-em-an-introduction-to-accessibility-evaluation-methodology (5 Steps: #1-Scope, #2-Test, #3-Sample, #4-Audit, #5-Report)</ref>
 +
<ref>W3C -- WCAG 2.0 - Understanding Conformance: https://www.w3.org/TR/UNDERSTANDING-WCAG20/conformance.html</ref>
 +
 +
==== POUR principles ====
 +
 +
In addition to the specific multimedia accessibility techniques, WCAG defines defines four key principles of accessibility:
 +
 +
# Perceivable - Information can be presented in different ways; for example, in braille, different text sizes, text-to-speech, or symbols, etc.
 +
# Operable - Functionality can be used in different modalities; for example, keyboard, mouse, sip-and-puff, speech input, touch, etc.
 +
# Understandable - Information and functionality is understandable; for example consistent navigation, simple language, etc.
 +
# Robust - Content can be interpreted reliably by a wide variety of browsers, media players, and [[#Assistive_Technologies|assistive technologies]].
 +
 +
<ref>WCAG 2.0 – The 4 POUR Principles and 12 Guidelines: https://www.tngconsulting.ca/wcag-2-0-the-4-pour-principles-and-12-guidelines/</ref>
 +
 +
There are currently two stable versions of WCAG that are both supported by W3C:
 +
 +
''WCAG 2.0'' was published in December 2008, and has become widely adopted as the standard for web accessibility by many businesses and governments around the world. It defines 12 Guidelines under the four POUR principles. Under each Guideline there are more specific Success Criteria divided into three Conformance Levels: A, AA, and AAA. WCAG 2.0 defines 61 Success Criteria.
 +
 +
 +
''WCAG 2.1'' was published in June 2018, to better address accessibility for people with cognitive and learning disabilities, people with low vision, and people with disabilities using mobile devices. WCAG 2.1 is fully backward compatible with WCAG 2.0, so that if your content conforms to WCAG 2.1 it also conforms to WCAG 2.0. WCAG 2.1 defines 13 Guidelines and 78 Success Criteria.
 +
 +
* W3C -- WCAG - guide to the standards: https://www.w3.org/WAI/standards-guidelines/wcag<ref>[[wikipedia: Web Content Accessibility Guidelines]]</ref>
 +
* '''Web Content Accessibility Guidelines 2.2: https://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG22/''' | [https://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG21/ WCAG 2.1] | [http://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG20/ WCAG 2.0] | [http://www.w3.org/TR/WAI-WEBCONTENT/ WCAG 1.0]<ref>What’s new in WCAG 2.1?: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=f5qv7AnTUHk</ref><ref>WCAG 2.1 techniques/examples: https://www.w3.org/WAI/WCAG21/Techniques/</ref>
 +
* WCAG 2.2 -- working draft: https://www.w3.org/blog/2020/08/wcag22-wide-review/
 +
* W3C Web Content Accessibility Guidelines 2.x "Conformance logos": https://www.w3.org/WAI/standards-guidelines/wcag/conformance-logos/
 +
* How to Meet WCAG (Quick Reference): https://www.w3.org/WAI/WCAG21/quickref/
 +
WCAG 2.0 – Quick Facts and Guide: https://www.hurix.com/wcag-quick-facts-and-guide/
 +
<ref>First Public Draft of WCAG 2.2 Published: https://www.boia.org/blog/first-public-draft-of-wcag-2-2-published</ref>
 +
<ref>WCAG 2.2 Overview and Feedback: https://webaim.org/blog/wcag-2-2-overview-and-feedback/</ref>
 +
<ref>Latest Public Draft of WCAG 2.2 Features Nine New Success Criteria, Other Updates: https://www.boia.org/blog/latest-public-draft-of-wcag-2.2-features-nine-new-success-criteria-other-updates</ref>
 +
<ref>WCAG 2.2 Release Impacts 2021 Web Accessibility: https://www.essentialaccessibility.com/blog/new-wcag-22-release-impacts-2021-web-accessibility</ref>
 +
* W3C Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) 3.0: https://www.w3.org/TR/2021/WD-wcag-3.0-20210121/
 +
<ref>Understanding the Differences Between WCAG 2.2 and WCAG 3.0: https://www.boia.org/blog/understanding-the-differences-between-wcag-2.2-and-wcag-3.0</ref>
 +
<ref>What to Expect From The First Public Working Draft of WCAG 3.0: https://www.deque.com/blog/first-public-working-draft-wcag-3/</ref>
 +
 +
 +
=== WAI ===
 +
 +
'''W'''eb '''A'''ccessibility '''I'''nitiative (commonly abbreviated ''WCAG'').
 +
 +
* Accessible Rich Internet Applications (WAI-ARIA) 1.0: http://www.w3.org/TR/wai-aria/
 +
* WAI - Carousel concepts: https://www.w3.org/WAI/tutorials/carousels/
 +
<ref>WCAG 2.1 (A) -- Intent Benefits Examples Techniques Key Terms Understanding Success Criterion 2.5.1 - Pointer Gestures: https://www.w3.org/WAI/WCAG21/Understanding/pointer-gestures.html</ref>
 +
<ref>WCAG 2.1 (AA) -- Understanding Success Criterion 1.4.11 - Non-text Contrast: https://www.w3.org/WAI/WCAG21/Understanding/non-text-contrast</ref>
 +
<ref>The Unbearable Inaccessibility of Slideshows: https://www.sitepoint.com/unbearable-accessible-slideshow/</ref>
 +
<ref>Essential Component parts of (achieving) Web Accessibility: https://www.w3.org/WAI/fundamentals/components/</ref>
 +
 +
==== ARIA ====
 +
 +
* WAI intro: http://www.w3.org/WAI/intro/aria
 +
* WAI-ARIA 1.0 primer: http://www.w3.org/TR/wai-aria-primer/<ref>W3C -- full listing of WAI-ARIA standards: https://www.w3.org/WAI/standards-guidelines/aria/</ref>
 +
* MozDev docs -- A11Y - List of ARIA attributes (states & properties): https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/web/Accessibility/ARIA/Attributes
 +
* Accessible Rich Internet Applications (ARIA) In Simple Terms: http://www.evengrounds.com/articles/accessible-rich-internet-applications-in-simple-terms
 +
* Developer Guide to Accessbility: http://websiteaccessibility.donaldevans.com/category/accessibility/
 +
'''ARIA Landmarks Example: https://w3c.github.io/aria-practices/examples/landmarks/index.html'''
 +
<ref>[[wikipedia: Web Accessibility Initiative]]</ref>
 +
<ref>Mozilla Dev Docs -- ARIA: https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/Accessibility/ARIA</ref>
 +
<ref>Google Developers -- Introduction to ARIA: https://developers.google.com/web/fundamentals/accessibility/semantics-aria/</ref>
 +
<ref>'''MozDev -- Using ARIA - Roles, States & Properties: https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/Accessibility/ARIA/ARIA_Techniques'''</ref>
 +
<ref>WebAIM - Alternative Text guideines: https://webaim.org/techniques/alttext/</ref>
 +
<ref>Should I use an aria-label or screen-reader only text?: https://accessible360.com/accessible360-blog/use-aria-label-screen-reader-text/</ref>
 +
 +
==== ATAG ====
 +
 +
* Authoring Tool Accessibility Guidelines (ATAG) Overview: https://www.w3.org/WAI/standards-guidelines/atag/<ref>Authoring Tool Accessibility Guidelines (ATAG) 2.0: http://www.w3.org/TR/ATAG20/</ref>
 +
 +
==== UAAG ====
 +
 +
* User Agent Accessibility Guidelines (UAAG) overview: https://www.w3.org/WAI/standards-guidelines/uaag/
 +
 +
==== ARRM ====
 +
 +
* W3C -- WAI - Role-Based Decision Tree: https://www.w3.org/WAI/EO/wiki/Role-Based_Decision_Tree | [https://www.w3.org/WAI/EO/wiki/Decision_Tree_Examples EXAMPLES]
 +
* W3C -- ARRM - Accessibility Checkpoint master list: https://www.w3.org/WAI/EO/wiki/Accessibility_Checkpoint_Master_List | [https://www.w3.org/WAI/EO/wiki/ARRM_Success_Criteria_Matrix SUCCESS CRITERIA]
 +
<ref>Accessibility Roles and Responsibilities Mapping (ARRM) project: https://www.w3.org/WAI/EO/wiki/ARRM_Project_-_Accessibility_Roles_and_Responsibilities_Mapping</ref>
 +
<ref>W3C -- ARRM - overview: https://www.w3.org/WAI/EO/wiki/ARRM_overview</ref>
 +
<ref>W3C -- ARRM - framework: https://www.w3.org/WAI/EO/wiki/ARRM_framework_introduction</ref>
 +
<ref>W3C -- ARRM - Success criteria: https://deploy-preview-3--wai-arrm.netlify.app/planning/arrm/sc-map/</ref>
 +
<ref>W3C -- ARRM - Role definition document:https://deploy-preview-3--wai-arrm.netlify.app/planning/arrm/ | [https://www.w3.org/WAI/EO/wiki/Role_definition_document WIKI] | [https://deploy-preview-3--wai-arrm.netlify.app/planning/arrm/roles/ DOCS]</ref>
 +
<ref>W3C -- ARRM - UX Designer Responsibilities Mapping: https://www.w3.org/WAI/EO/wiki/UX_Designer_Responsibilities_Mapping</ref>
 +
<ref>W3C -- ARRM - Visual Designer Responsibilities Mapping: https://www.w3.org/WAI/EO/wiki/Visual_Designer_Responsibilities_Mapping</ref>
 +
<ref>W3C -- ARRM - Content Author Responsibilities Mapping: https://www.w3.org/WAI/EO/wiki/Content_Author_Responsibilities_Mapping</ref>
 +
<ref>W3C -- ARRM - Front-End Developer Responsibilities Mapping: https://www.w3.org/WAI/EO/wiki/Front-End_Developer_Responsibilities_Mapping</ref>
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +
=== Kiosks ===
 +
 +
* Kiosk Manufacturers Association (KMA) -- Kiosk ADA Checklist – 14 Point Checklist For Accessible Self-Service: https://kma.global/kiosk-ada-checklist-14-point-checklist-for-accessible-self-service/
 +
<ref>Does WCAG Apply to Kiosks?: https://www.tpgi.com/does-wcag-apply-to-kiosks/</ref>
 +
<ref>McDonald’s Starts Making Self-Service Easier for Blind Diners: https://www.wsj.com/articles/mcdonalds-starts-making-self-service-easier-for-blind-diners-11631900280</ref>
 +
 +
=== Printed Materials ===
 +
 +
* Best Practices and Guidelines for Large Print Documents used by the Low Vision Community authored by the Council of Citizens with Low Vision: https://perma.cc/MQ2K-5UAQ
 +
<ref>'''Downloadable Disability Access Symbols: https://perma.cc/TFZ7-BKFV'''</ref>
 +
<ref>Braille Transcription Resource List: https://perma.cc/DPU9-944D</ref>
 +
<ref>Accessibility Guidelines for Print Materials: https://perma.cc/JN75-2WDQ</ref>
 +
<ref>Creating Accessible Print Materials -- Tip Sheet (Oct. 2017): https://www.vera.org/downloads/publications/print_materials_101617.pdf</ref>
 +
<ref>Accessibility Guidelines for Print Materials: https://perma.cc/JN75-2WDQ</ref>
 +
<ref>Appropriate Terms to Use for those with "Accessibility challenges" (which is preferred over "Handicapped" or "Disabled"): https://www.nda.ie/Publications/Attitudes/Appropriate-Terms-to-Use-about-Disability/</ref>
 +
<ref>Clear Print Accessibility Guidelines: https://perma.cc/HS6Q-LUM7</ref>
 +
<ref>A Guide to Making Documents Accessible to People Who Are Blind or Visually Impaired: https://perma.cc/9W4Y-SAFK</ref>
 +
 +
 +
=== a11y ===
 +
 +
Wordpress as of v4.3.x offers Accessibility prompts via JavaScript to communicate with Screen Reader software (where available natively in the client's browser or via Plugin). Simply 
 +
 +
wp.a11y.speak('YOUR TEXT TO BE SPOKEN HERE');
 +
 +
* [[wikipedia:A11y | a11y]]
 +
* The Accessibility (a11y) Project: https://www.a11yproject.com/ (aside from tons of great blogs/tutorials/resources, a nice visual explaining the 11 characters between "A" and "Y" of the word ''AccessibilitY'')
 +
 +
* Node.JS - A11Y library: http://github.com/addyosmani/a11y
 +
 +
=== AAM ===
 +
 +
* Core '''A'''ccessibility '''A'''PI '''M'''appings 1.2: https://w3c.github.io/core-aam/
 +
 +
=== ACC Name ===
 +
 +
* '''Acc'''essible '''Name''' and Description Computation 1.2: https://w3c.github.io/accname/
 +
 +
 +
=== Section 508 ===
 +
 +
United States government initiative towards Accessibility for IT.
 +
 +
* '''Section508''': http://www.section508.gov/
 +
* Section508 Compliance For Accessibile Web Design: http://www.accessible.org/section-508-compliance.html
 +
* U.S. Department of Health & Human Services: http://www.hhs.gov/web/508/
 +
<ref>[[wikipedia: Section 508 Amendment to the Rehabilitation Act of 1973]]</ref>
 +
<ref>Information & Communication Technology (ICT) - Revised 508 Standards & 255 Guidelines: https://www.access-board.gov/ict/</ref>
 +
<ref>Guide to the ADA Accessibility Standards -- Chapter 3 - Clear Floor or Ground Space and Turning Space: https://www.access-board.gov/ada/guides/chapter-3-clear-floor-or-ground-space-and-turning-space/ | [https://www.access-board.gov/files/ada/guides/clear-floor-space.pdf PDF]</ref>
 +
<ref>ADA checklist -- SURVEY FORM 24 - MEDICAL CARE FACILITIES (includes wheelchair physical spacing requirements for turning/maneuverability): https://web.archive.org/web/20090508103508/https://www.access-board.gov/adaag/checklist/Medical.html</ref>
 +
<ref>US Census Infograph on the Commonality of Specific Disabilities: http://www.disabilityresource.org/3-us-census-infograph-on-the-commonality-of-specific-disabilities</ref>
 +
<ref>Recent U.S. Disability Statistics from the Census Bureau: https://www.disabled-world.com/disability/statistics/census-stats.php</ref>
 +
<ref>Google Maps - Section 508 Compliance: https://developers.google.com/maps/premium/accessibility</ref>
 +
 +
== 12 categories ==
 +
 +
=== Utilities ===
 +
 +
A person may for personal or financial reasons not have full access to modern society's common amenities including power/electricity, internet, telephone, mobile phone, heat, hot water, etc... they may also have some amenities such as power and internet or mobile data services but it may be limited or cost-prohibitively expensive to the point it needs to be rationed or only used sparingly at specific times, page loads should thus be small and fast; in general, there should be alternate ways to provide service to these customers as well.
 +
 +
=== Literacy & Numeracy ===
 +
 +
Ability to read and understand textual information on a screen or printed material, as well as issues that can arise for folks who have trouble reading text when layered on top of images or with insufficient spacing, color contrasts, etc - literacy in Canada is typically measured by levels ranging from 1 (illiterate) to 3 (basic literacy required to function independently in society) to 5 (highly proficient and capable of critical analysis); equally important to reading itself are "numerical literacy" considerations, as some folks may be perfectly capable of reading text but not of processing numbers, statistics, doing basic mathematics, or, may lack financial literacy in terms of sensibly managing their own money or the money of others in their household.
 +
 +
=== Cognitive ===
 +
 +
Reading comprehension, mental barriers to learning, or even cognitive realization of how one is expected to interact with a given screen or experience (checkout flow, registration/signup flow, login/logout flow, regular usage, etc) could be an issue, as could memory and information retention (or not remembering how to perform a task or processing/understanding the information that was successfully read or result of an action that was taken); problem-solving skills also fall into this category, which could be problematic for any of the more complex UI/UX expectations thrust upon the user.
 +
 +
<ref>Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) - Concussion (INFOGRAPHIC): https://visual.ly/community/Infographics/health/brain-injury-concussion-infographic</ref>
 +
<ref>UK gov -- Health statistics - TBI (INFOGRAPHIC): https://www.pinterest.ca/pin/legal-infographic--463378249151088021/</ref>
 +
<ref>Traumatic Brain Injuries in California: https://visual.ly/community/Infographics/health/traumatic-brain-injuries-california</ref>y
 +
<ref>An Overview of Cognitive Impairment in Multiple Sclerosis: https://www.verywellhealth.com/cognitive-impairment-in-ms-2440794</ref>
 +
<ref>Empathy in Accessibility Design - A Focus on Cognitive Disability Persona Spectrum: https://medium.com/@chinemeozumba/empathy-in-accessibility-design-e0360746fed8</ref>
 +
<ref>Why Analytics, Accessibility Are Essential for Designing Digital Customer Experiences: https://www.cmswire.com/digital-experience/why-analytics-accessibility-is-essential-for-designing-digital-customer-experiences/</ref>
 +
 +
=== Tactile ===
 +
 +
Having an inability or challenge to control the common Human Computer Interface (HCI) and related peripheral devices could be reduced, this includes a mouse/keyboard (for Desktop computers), directional pad and/or QWERT or numerical keys (for legacy or basic Mobile devices), or increasingly, on-screen/virtual keyboards and touch-based controls for Smartphones and Mobile Tablet-type devices (which introduce their own "fat finger" potential design issues), lastly there are those who can use none of the above and require a special stylus or pointing device for instance sometimes even using their mouth or feet to point rather than hands.
 +
 +
=== Vision ===
 +
 +
Not just full blindness, this category also includes "partially sighted" (legal blindness but still some vision at high zooms), "reduced vision" (near/far-sightedness), color-blindness, and similar categories of vision disabilities... Braille for print or Screen Readers for digital are the most common tools, and we to need to ensure compatibility of these assistive technologies with our systems.
 +
 +
=== Hearing ===
 +
 +
Inability or challenges to be able ot hear information in an audio delivery format such as a radio ad, podcast, music player, video, spoken word, presentations, phone calls, tele-confernces, etc.... correctly sequenced/timed captions should be provided for native language speakers with such issues, subtitles may need to be required for foreign or second language speakers, transcripts with timestamps can also help cover all folks' needs and have the added benefit of Search Engine Optimization and improved content discoverability. Sign language may be a requirement.
 +
 +
* WebAIM - Auditory (hearing) Disabilities: https://webaim.org/articles/auditory/
 +
<ref>Johns Hopkins -- All Children's Hospital - Audiology Types of Hearing Disorders: https://www.hopkinsallchildrens.org/Services/Rehabilitation/Audiology/Types-of-Hearing-Disorders</ref>
 +
<ref>(What’d You Say?) 7 Common Types of Hearing Disorders: https://www.soundrelief.com/common-hearing-disorders/</ref>
 +
<ref>Do All Deaf People Use Sign Language?: https://www.accessibility.com/blog/do-all-deaf-people-use-sign-language</ref>
 +
 +
=== Speech ===
 +
 +
When intentionally designing Voice controls, there are those persons whom have a Speech impediment, disorder of the Vocal folds or throat, or other Speaking disabilities whom need special textual or audio representations for Voice controls to be usable in an accessible manner while interacting with a given system. This can pose a real challenge, so having a baseline experience that doesn't require complex vocal interaction can be a key design area to focus on whenever speech-related controls are intended to be used.
 +
 +
=== Physical & Mobility ===
 +
 +
As with any of the other categories these could be permanent (lifelong conditions, chronic illnesses) or temporary (injury which a person is recovering from or situational due to physical location/environment); just as building designers particularly need to think about wheelchair accessibility, as well as use of canes, walkers and other assisted mechanisms (bathroom/elevator emergency bells, hand-rails, safety barriers, curb heights & cuts, etc) or accommodate guided helpers (two-person hallways/doorways, seeing eye-dogs or other comfort/therapy animals, etc) software designers need to think about physical limitations that could impede use of a digital product/service. In addition, there are many mobility disabilities which could factor into accessibility concerns including one's ability to sit at a desk, angle one's head/neck/eyes and/or arms, those who may be bed-ridden; there are many in these groups and others whom need to use Voice controls, such as Speech-To-Text (STT) and/or Text-To-Speech (TTS) to control their screen rather than a keyboard, mouse and/or mobile device touch interface.
 +
 +
=== Vestibular ===
 +
 +
This category of disorders and personal challenges include seizures, migraines & disorientation or dizziness caused by any combination or isolated instance of flashing lights, suddenly changing color schemes, or, even basic animation motion trails and seemingly harmless "stylistic transitions" between screens or displayed sections; so these must be capable of being toggled on/off or permanently disabled via personalized settings; pausing/deactivation controls should also be available without a login/account requirement for things like auto-scrolling feeds, auto-transitioning carousels, carousel slide animations and other page-level or component-level transitions.
 +
 +
'''Vestibular Disorders''' and those who can become triggered into seizures are the major health concern here, but there are also simply those who do not like such "special effects" (or for whom it makes the content harder to read/understand or makes them dizzy, confused or otherwise uncomfortable); so we should respect their preferences and offer them an experience without such effects. The current way to communicate a preference not to be shown animations and related effects is the CSS3 markup "@prefers-reduced-motion".
 +
 +
* Understanding Success Criterion 2.3.3 -- Animation from Interactions: https://www.w3.org/WAI/WCAG21/Understanding/animation-from-interactions.html
 +
* Designing With Reduced Motion For Motion Sensitivities: https://www.smashingmagazine.com/2020/09/design-reduced-motion-sensitivities/
 +
<ref>A11Y 101 -- Reduced motion: https://a11y-101.com/development/reduced-motion</ref>
 +
<ref>MozDev -- A11Y - ''@media'' "prefers-reduced-motion": https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/CSS/@media/prefers-reduced-motion</ref>
 +
<ref>Revisiting "prefers-reduced-motion", the reduced motion media query: https://css-tricks.com/revisiting-prefers-reduced-motion-the-reduced-motion-media-query/</ref>
 +
<ref>''prefers-reduced-motion'' -- Sometimes less movement is more: https://web.dev/prefers-reduced-motion/</ref>
 +
<ref>How to Insert an Animated GIF into a Word Document (and make it more Accessible with "alt" text description): https://www.howtogeek.com/718985/how-to-insert-an-animated-gif-into-a-word-document/</ref>
 +
<ref>Short note on prefers-reduced-motion and puzzled (Windows & Mac) users: https://www.tpgi.com/short-note-on-prefers-reduced-motion-and-puzzled-windows-users/</ref>
 +
<ref>New in Chrome 74 (2019-05-03) Prefers-reduced-motion media query: https://blog.logrocket.com/new-in-chrome-74-prefers-reduced-motion-media-query-50cd89d3e769/</ref>
 +
<ref>How to prevent "prefers-reduced-motion" OS setting from impacting animations on the browser (such as FF/Chrome): https://superuser.com/questions/1532014/how-to-prevent-prefers-reduced-motion-setting-from-ever-working-on-chrome</ref>
 +
<ref>Reduced Motion Setting: https://support.discord.com/hc/en-us/articles/360040613412-Reduced-Motion-Setting</ref>
 +
<ref>How Light Sensitivity & Photophobia Affect Vestibular Disorders: https://vestibular.org/how-light-sensitivity-photophobia-affect-vestibular-disorders/</ref>
 +
 +
=== Device & Screen ===
 +
 +
A person may have a very old device and for financial or personal reasons be unwilling or unable to upgrade or replace that device, what is the lowest common experience we can guarantee to all such users? (perhaps it could be a bit better than "please get a new device and/or upgrade your browser" message); similarly, a person may have a smaller or less than optimal screen size or resolution available for displaying digital content, may be unable to view their screen due to viewing angles, reflections, lighting conditions, cracks/damage to screen, etc... so some baseline experience must be preserved, and on touch-enabled screens good UI/UX around "fat fingering must be followed.
 +
 +
=== Location ===
 +
 +
A person might not be able to access a given physical retail location or other facility, and needs a close proxy user experience via a combination of other medium (web and/or mobile typically being the first choice, packaged/offline software being another digital option). Traditionally companies are often also expected to ensure any service offered can also potentially be provided by telephone, email, chat, print materials, guided in-person help or traveling kiosks or customer service representatives that come to given neighbourhoods (not necessarily all of these for every offering, but a strategic combination to cover users' needs).
 +
 +
* "Everyone Welcome" guide: https://www.acs.org.uk/sites/default/files/acs_everyone_welcome_guide_-_tagged.pdf
 +
<ref>Association of Convenience Stores (ACS) - Everyone Welcome Guide: https://www.acs.org.uk/everyone-welcome-guide</ref>
 +
<ref>ACS launches guide to help stores deal better with disabled customers: https://www.talkingretail.com/news/industry-news/acs-launches-guide-to-help-stores-deal-better-with-disabled-customers-18-05-2022/</ref>
 +
 +
 +
=== Timing ===
 +
 +
A person may not be able to complete a given task within an alotted amount of time, or, on the flip side for those without blocking disabilities an otherwise "fully-abled" person may still not be able to access a physical or even digital service at a specific time (i.e. "get your purchase in before draw break") this could include workers stuck on the "night shift", those in remote areas with no internet access, temporarily out of mobile service area, etc.
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +
== Diversity & Inclusion ==
 +
 +
Concerns "Accessible employment" and workplace inclusivity (equal participation & opportunities).
 +
 +
* Diversity & Inclusion  (D&I) - Maturity Model: https://diversity.hrtechgroup.com/maturity-model1
 +
* Accessible Employers: https://accessibleemployers.ca (business leaders working towards accessible employment... movement started in BC)
 +
<ref>Employer Assistance and Resource Network (EARN) on "Disability Inclusion" -- Encouraging applicants with disabilities - job descriptions & announcements, employer assistance, and resource network on "Disability Inclusion": https://production-askearn-org.s3.amazonaws.com/EARN_Explainer_Job_Descriptions_Checklist_ab47437635.pdf</ref>
 +
<ref>What are "land acknowledgements" to (First Nations) and why do they matter?: https://locallove.ca/issues/what-are-land-acknowledgements-and-why-do-they-matter/</ref>
 +
<ref>Implicit Age Cues in Resumes - Subtle Effects on Hiring Discrimination: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5554369/</ref>
 +
<ref>When an “Educated” Black Man Becomes Lighter in the Mind’s Eye - Evidence for a Skin Tone Memory Bias: https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/2158244013516770#ref-32</ref>
 +
<ref>Do We Need Safe or Brave Spaces?: https://alternativebreaks.org/safe-or-brave-spaces/</ref>
 +
<ref>From Safe Spaces to Brave Spaces: https://tlss.uottawa.ca/site/perspective-autochtone/1d-_From-Safe-Spaces-to-Brave-Spaces.pdf</ref>
 +
<ref>Biden Signs Executive Order (EO) to Advance Diversity, Equity in Federal Workforce (DEIA): https://www.meritalk.com/articles/biden-signs-eo-to-advance-diversity-equity-in-federal-workforce/</ref>
 +
<ref>Americans and ‘Cancel Culture’ - Where Some See Calls for Accountability, Others See Censorship, Punishment: https://www.pewresearch.org/internet/2021/05/19/americans-and-cancel-culture-where-some-see-calls-for-accountability-others-see-censorship-punishment/</ref>
 +
<ref>10 Best Name Pronunciation Tools: https://beebom.com/name-pronunciation-tools/ (because a name is worth pronouncing properly)</ref>
 +
<ref>New Brunswick appoints independent commissioner on systemic racism: https://www.msn.com/en-ca/news/canada/new-brunswick-appoints-independent-commissioner-on-systemic-racism/ar-AAOMEGx</ref>
 +
<ref>Here are the N.B. beaches that have accessibility features: https://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/new-brunswick/new-brunswick-accessible-beaches-1.6465760</ref>
 +
<ref>Swansea model with Down's syndrome, Beth Matthews, signs with agency: https://www.bbc.com/news/uk-wales-60140181</ref>
 +
<ref>Scholarship for Black students launched at King’s School of Journalism by Global News: https://globalnews.ca/news/8582893/global-news-j-school-scholarship-halifax/</ref>
 +
<ref>The Importance of Diversity in the Workplace: https://perelson.com/the-importance-of-diversity-in-the-workplace/</ref>
 +
<ref>Why Your Employees Don't Report Hidden Disabilities: https://www.accessibility.com/blog/why-your-employees-dont-report-hidden-disabilities</ref>
 +
 +
=== Societal approaches ===
 +
 +
[[File:Equality-vs-Equity-vs-Justice.png]]
 +
 +
==== Equality ====
 +
 +
* [[wikipedia: Law of equal liberty]]
 +
* [[wikipedia: Equal opportunity]]
 +
* [[wikipedia: Equality of outcome]]
 +
* [[wikipedia: Social equality]]
 +
* [[wikipedia: Gender equality]]
 +
* [[wikipedia: Racial equality]]
 +
* [[wikipedia: Economic inequality]]
 +
* [[wikipedia: Egalitarianism]]
 +
* [[wikipedia: Political egalitarianism]]
 +
 +
 +
==== Equity ====
 +
 +
* [[wikipedia: Equity theory]]
 +
* [[wikipedia: Equity (law)]]
 +
* [[wikipedia: Equity (economics)]]
 +
* [[wikipedia: Division of property]]
 +
* [[wikipedia: Equitable servitude]]
 +
* [[wikipedia: Equitable remedy]]
 +
* [[wikipedia: Intergenerational equity]]
 +
* [[wikipedia: Educational equity]]
 +
* [[wikipedia: Equitable cake-cutting]]
 +
 +
==== Justice ====
 +
 +
* [[wikipedia: Justice]]
 +
* [[wikipedia: Rule of law]]
 +
* [[wikipedia: Equality under the law]]
 +
* [[wikipedia: Anti-discrimination law]]
 +
* [[wikipedia: Civil and political rights]]
 +
* [[wikipedia: Due process]]
 +
* [[wikipedia: Habeas corpus]]
 +
* [[wikipedia: Admiralty law]]
 +
* [[wikipedia: Freeman on the land]]
 +
* [[wikipedia: Meritocracy]]
 +
 +
 +
== Information Architecture ==
 +
 +
* '''Information Architecture Basics: https://www.usability.gov/what-and-why/information-architecture.html'''
 +
 +
=== Content Strategy ===
 +
 +
* '''Content Strategy basics: https://www.usability.gov/what-and-why/content-strategy.html'''<ref>Content Strategists: What Do They Do?: http://contentini.com/content-strategists-what-do-they-do/</ref><ref>Context As A Content Strategy: Creating More Meaningful Web Experiences Through Contextual Filtering: https://www.slideshare.net/danieleizans/context-as-a-content-strategy-creating-more-meaningful-web-experiences-through-contextual-filtering</ref>
 +
* Creating Accessible Content for People Who Use Eye-Tracking Devices: https://www.boia.org/blog/creating-accessible-content-for-people-who-use-eye-tracking-devices
 +
* Content Strategy and UX -- A Modern Love Story: http://uxmag.com/articles/content-strategy-and-ux-a-modern-love-story<ref>Complete Beginner’s Guide to Content Strategy: https://www.uxbooth.com/articles/complete-beginners-guide-to-content-strategy/</ref><ref>The Discipline of Content Strategy: https://alistapart.com/article/thedisciplineofcontentstrategy/</ref><ref>A Checklist for Content Work: https://alistapart.com/article/a-checklist-for-content-work/</ref><ref>To Hell With Bad Browsers: https://alistapart.com/article/tohell/</ref><ref>Content Strategy - The Philosophy of Data: http://boxesandarrows.com/content-strategy-the-philosophy-of-data/</ref>
 +
 +
=== Accessibility Auditors ===
 +
 +
There are three "tiers" or types of 3rd-party Accessibility providers:
 +
# Tier 1 - scan & overlay (no "preventive" coverage against lawsuits) $2-5k USD
 +
# Tier 2 - hybrid, scan & overlay with wait & see approach (partial coverage) $6-12k USD
 +
# Tier 3 - full legal coverage (guaranteed compliance & insurance coverage options against lawsuits) $12-25k USD
 +
<ref>'''US Dept Justice WCAG PeaPod case: https://www.justice.gov/opa/pr/justice-department-enters-settlement-agreement-peapod-ensure-peapod-grocery-delivery-website'''</ref>
 +
 +
Over 10000 cases/year go to court, almost 100% go to court, average of over $20000 USD awarded to plaintiffs.
 +
 +
 +
== Desktop Technology-specific A11Y ==
 +
 +
=== PDF accessibility ===
 +
 +
* US Section 508 -- PDF Files - basic A11Y checklist (WCAG 2.0 Refresh): https://www.hhs.gov/web/section-508/making-files-accessible/checklist/pdf/index.html
 +
* Adobe Acrobat -- PDF - Accessibility series: https://experienceleague.adobe.com/docs/document-cloud-learn/acrobat-learning/advanced-tasks/accessibility-series/accessibility-series.html?
 +
<ref>Siteimprove FAQ -- What do you check for in PDFs?: https://files.nwesd.org/website/Accessbility/PDFChecker Info Sheet.pdf</ref>
 +
<ref>5 key steps to a successful "Document Accessibility Program": https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/20140903163244-6856374-5-key-steps-to-a-successful-document-accessibility-program/</ref>
 +
<ref>Introduction To Creating Accessible PDFs (WEBINAR): https://www.tpgi.com/on-demand-webinar-important-aspects-of-pdf-remediation/</ref>
 +
 +
=== PPT accessiblity ===
 +
 +
* PowerPoint Accessibility guide: https://webaim.org/techniques/powerpoint/
 +
* Microsoft -- Accessible PowerPoint template sampler: https://templates.office.com/en-us/accessible-powerpoint-template-sampler-tm16401472
 +
<ref>Make your PowerPoint presentations accessible to people with disabilities: https://support.microsoft.com/en-us/office/make-your-powerpoint-presentations-accessible-to-people-with-disabilities-6f7772b2-2f33-4bd2-8ca7-dae3b2b3ef25</ref>
 +
<ref>How to Make an Accessible PowerPoint Presentation: https://business.tutsplus.com/tutorials/accessible-powerpoint-presentations--cms-30018</ref>
 +
<ref>How to Create 508 Compliant Microsoft PowerPoint Presentations: https://www.dau.edu/sites/governance-and-training/SitePages/How to Create 508 Compliant PowerPoint Presentations.aspx</ref>
 +
<ref>Creating Accessible Presentations in Microsoft PowerPoint: https://www.washington.edu/accessibility/documents/creating-accessible-presentations-in-microsoft-powerpoint/</ref>
 +
<ref>Accessible Presentations: https://ottawaheart.ca/document/accessible-presentations-slide-deck</ref>
 +
 +
=== Email accessibility ===
 +
 +
Here are a few tips to help you send accessible emails:
 +
 +
* Provide a clear, brief, and informative subject line
 +
* Choose a font style that is easy to read in at least 12-14 point font
 +
* Use spaces to break up paragraphs
 +
* Use plain text and avoid using lots of special characters and symbols
 +
* Avoid flashing or flickering content (think: gifs in your email signature
 +
 +
<ref>One Trick To Make Your HTML Emails More Accessible: https://www.boia.org/blog/one-trick-to-make-your-html-emails-more-accessible</ref>
 +
<ref>Why Accessibility in Email Marketing matters: https://www.responsemedia.com/why-accessibility-in-email-marketing-matters/</ref>
 +
 +
 +
== Web Technology-specific A11Y ==
 +
 +
=== HTML accessibility ===
 +
 +
* HTML Semantic Structure for Accessibility: https://webaim.org/techniques/<ref>Writing CSS with A11Y in mind: https://medium.com/@matuzo/writing-css-with-accessibility-in-mind-8514a0007939</ref>
 +
<ref>Writing HTML with A11Y in mind: https://medium.com/alistapart/writing-html-with-accessibility-in-mind-a62026493412</ref>
 +
 +
=== CSS accessibility ===
 +
 +
* Accessible CSS: https://webaim.org/techniques/css/
 +
* WebAIM -- CSS in Action - Invisible Content Just for Screen Reader Users: https://webaim.org/techniques/css/invisiblecontent/
 +
<ref>Writing CSS with A11Y in mind: https://medium.com/@matuzo/writing-css-with-accessibility-in-mind-8514a0007939</ref>
 +
 +
=== JS accessibility ===
 +
 +
* Accessible Javascript: https://webaim.org/techniques/javascript/
 +
<ref>Writing JS with A11Y in mind: https://medium.com/@matuzo/writing-javascript-with-accessibility-in-mind-a1f6a5f467b9</ref>
 +
 +
=== Charts/Graphs/Diagrams/Tables ===
 +
 +
* Chartability: https://chartability.fizz.studio (set of heuristics for ensuring that data visualizations, systems, and interfaces are accessible)
 +
 +
 +
== Special A11Y concerns ==
 +
 +
=== Visual ===
 +
 +
* Visual Design & Colour Accessibility: https://www.webcredible.com/blog/visual-design-and-colour-accessibility/
 +
<ref>Improving The Color Accessibility For Color-Blind Users: https://www.smashingmagazine.com/2016/06/improving-color-accessibility-for-color-blind-users/</ref>
 +
 +
==== Motion preferences ====
 +
 +
A number of people may suffer from permanent/chronic, temporary/resolvable or situational/environmental issues around motion, flicker and related content changes (often categorized as "Vestibular Disorders"). These could be triggered through:
 +
* content animations
 +
* moving, growing or shrinking pictures/text
 +
* strobing effects
 +
* sudden color changes
 +
* screen transitions
 +
 +
<ref>Associations among Strength, Steadiness, and Hand Function across the Adult Life Span: https://journals.lww.com/acsm-msse/Fulltext/2011/04000/Associations_among_Strength,_Steadiness,_and_Hand.2.aspx</ref>
 +
<ref>Top 5 Reasons to Address Gross Motor Skills of Children with ASD: https://www.seekfreaks.com/index.php/2019/02/13/article-review-top-5-reasons-to-address-gross-motor-skills-of-children-with-asd/</ref>
 +
<ref>What is Dyspraxia?: www.lourdeswellnessspa.com/dyspraxia-motor-skills.html</ref>
 +
<ref>Disorders of Childhood - Motor Skills Disorders and tests to indentify & evaluate severity: https://www.mentalhelp.net/disorders-of-childhood/motor-skills-disorders/</ref>
 +
<ref>Motor Skills Disorders: https://www.emedicinehealth.com/motor_skills_disorder/article_em.htm#motor_skills_disorder_causes</ref>
 +
<ref>Fine Motor Disability: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK563266/</ref>
 +
 +
<ref>[[wikipedia: Cerebral Palsy]]</ref>
 +
<ref>Cerebral Palsy (CP) awareness (INFOGRAPHICS): https://www.gillettechildrens.org/get-involved/cerebral-palsy-awareness#infographics</ref>
 +
<ref>Cerebral Palsy lawyers: https://www.abclawcenters.com/practice-areas/types-of-birth-injuries/cerebral-palsy/</ref>
 +
<ref>Cerebral Palsy - Stats And Facts: https://assistivetechnologyblog.com/2016/08/cerebral-palsy-stats-and-facts.html</ref>
 +
<ref>What is "Cerebral Palsy" and how many people suffer through it (INFOGRAPHIC): https://globalstemcells.com/new-version/wp-content/uploads/2016/10/cerebral-palsy-infographic.png</ref>
 +
<ref>University of Sydney researchers create sensor bracelet for hand-impaired persons: https://www.mobihealthnews.com/news/anz/university-sydney-researchers-create-sensor-bracelet-hand-impaired-persons (particularly aimed at helping folks with Cerebral Palsy but could help folks with other conditions as well, works using [[Bluetooth]] & [[ML]] to recognize gesture intentions from wrist and/or finger movements)</ref>
 +
 +
<ref>[[wikipedia: Muscular Dystrophy]]</ref> (''MD'')
 +
<ref>Muscular Dystrophy symptoms & causes: https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/muscular-dystrophy/symptoms-causes/syc-20375388</ref>
 +
<ref>Muscular Dystrophy - What Causes This Disabling Condition?: https://universityhealthnews.com/daily/aging-independence/muscular-dystrophy/</ref>
 +
<ref>DART Therapeutics Completes Study of New Biomarker for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Treatment: https://clinicounselor.com/dart-therapeutics-completes-study-of-new-biomarker-for-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy-treatment/</ref>
 +
<ref>CDC -- Disease facts - What is Muscular Dystrophy?: https://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/musculardystrophy/facts.html</ref>
 +
<ref>Muscular Dystrophy info & graphics: https://arthritis-rheumatism.com/muscular-dystrophy/</ref>
 +
 +
 +
==== Contrast ====
 +
 +
Text & Images must have sufficient contrast between one another and their respective containers/backgrounds.
 +
 +
* Microsoft Edge -- High Contrast Explainer: https://github.com/MicrosoftEdge/MSEdgeExplainers/blob/main/Accessibility/HighContrast/explainer.md
 +
* Windows 10 -- High-contrast mode: https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/windows/win32/w8cookbook/high-contrast-mode
 +
<ref>CSS Working Group resolved to begin working on a spec to standardize "High Contrast" based on MS Edge's implementation story: https://twitter.com/gregwhitworth/status/1100515214355648513</ref>
 +
<ref>86 Percent of Websites Fail this Accessibility Basic (color contrast): https://www.boia.org/blog/86-percent-of-websites-fail-this-accessibility-basic</ref>
 +
 +
==== Screen Reader ====
 +
 +
* WebAIM -- Designing for Screen Reader compatibility: https://webaim.org/techniques/screenreader/ (similar considerations for all types of apps Desktop/Mobile/Web, but approaches slightly different depending on platform)
 +
<ref>The difference between keyboard and screen reader navigation: https://tink.uk/the-difference-between-keyboard-and-screen-reader-navigation/</ref>
 +
<ref>Reading Efficiently with a Screen Reader -- JAWS - Headings: https://www.perkinselearning.org/technology/blog/reading-efficiently-screen-reader-headings</ref>
 +
<ref>'''Testing with Screen Readers: http://webaim.org/articles/screenreader_testing/'''</ref>
 +
<ref>HTML For Screen Readers - Labelling Elements: https://bitsofco.de/html-for-screen-readers-labelling-elements/</ref>
 +
<ref>Screen reader support for HTML5 sections: https://tink.uk/screen-reader-support-for-html5-sections/</ref>
 +
* Using JAWS to Evaluate Web Accessibility: https://webaim.org/articles/jaws/
 +
* '''How to Test Your Website’s Accessibility With JAWS: https://dzone.com/articles/test-website-accessibility-jaws'''
 +
<ref>BBC News - Accessibility & Testing with JAWS Screen Reader (guideline): https://bbc.github.io/accessibility-news-and-you/accessibility-and-testing-with-jaws.html</ref>
 +
<ref>WebAIM - ScreenReader survey: https://webaim.org/projects/screenreadersurvey8/#used (includes OS/ScreenReader/Browser combos)</ref>
 +
<ref>Global Screen Reader Market Size Status and Forecast 2019-2025: https://www.orbismarketreports.com/global-screen-reader-market-size-status-and-forecast-2019-2025</ref>
 +
<ref>Configuring Your Machine For Testing With A Screen Reader: http://yuiblog.com/blog/2008/12/30/configuring-screen-readers/</ref>
 +
<ref>SmashingTV shows How a Screen Reader user surfs the web (WEBINAR): https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OUDV1gqs9GA | [https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iUCYPM6up9M Excerpt - Léonie Watson on why semantic HTML document landmarks assist her using a screenreader]</ref>
 +
<ref>Optimizing Pages for Screen Reader Accessibility: http://www.webbie.org.uk/Veli-Pekka/web_access.html</ref>
 +
<ref>Setting up a screen reader test environment: http://www.iheni.com/screen-reader-testing/</ref>
 +
<ref>Deque - Why Don’t Screen Readers Always Read What’s on the Screen? Part 1: Punctuation and Typographic Symbols: https://www.deque.com/blog/dont-screen-readers-read-whats-screen-part-1-punctuation-typographic-symbols/</ref>
 +
<ref>Should I use an aria-label or screen-reader only text?: https://accessible360.com/accessible360-blog/use-aria-label-screen-reader-text/</ref>
 +
<ref>5 Myths About Screen Readers That Can Hurt Accessibility: https://www.boia.org/blog/5-myths-about-screen-readers-that-can-hurt-accessibility</ref>
 +
 +
 +
== Keyboard navigation ==
 +
 +
Keyboard Accessibility defines the ability to use a standard or custom (i.e. Braille, RSI positioned keys, etc) keyboard input device rather than any other HCI peripheral device (such as mouse, stylus, finger/touch, voice, etc) to interact with a given [[Website]], [[WebApp]], [[Desktop App]] or [[Mobile App]].
 +
 +
 +
When verifying "Keyboard Accessibility" you should check that:
 +
 +
# '''Tab to all'' - users can tab to all the active elements including links, form fields, buttons, and a media player control.
 +
# '''Tab away''' - users can tab away from (out of) all elements that can be tabbed into.
 +
# '''Tab order''' - the tab order follows the logical reading order according to the language on the page.
 +
# '''Visual focus''' - the focus is clearly visible as users tab through the elements, and users can tell if navigating away to another application or tab upon returning, precisely which element has focus at any point in time.
 +
# '''Functionality''' - users can do everything with the keyboard. That is you don't need to use a mouse to activate actions options, visible changes, and other functionality.
 +
# '''Drop-downs''' - after users tab to a drop-down list using the arrow keys to move through the options without triggering another action.
 +
# '''Image links''' - when images are links they have clear & visible focus and they can be activated using the keyboard.
 +
 +
The following table shows some common keyboard shortcuts and keymap conventions:
 +
<table style="border: none; border-collapse: collapse;">
 +
<tr style="height: 24pt;"><th scope="col" style="vertical-align: top; background-color: #fafafa; padding: 3pt 3pt 3pt 3pt; overflow: hidden; overflow-wrap: break-word; border: solid #333333 0.75pt;">
 +
<p dir="ltr" style="line-height: 1.2; margin-top: 0pt; margin-bottom: 0pt;"><strong><span style="font-size: 11pt; font-family: Arial; color: #000000; background-color: transparent; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; text-decoration: none; vertical-align: baseline; white-space: pre-wrap;">Interaction</span></strong></p>
 +
</th><th scope="col" style="vertical-align: top; background-color: #fafafa; padding: 3pt 3pt 3pt 3pt; overflow: hidden; overflow-wrap: break-word; border: solid #333333 0.75pt;">
 +
<p dir="ltr" style="line-height: 1.2; margin-top: 0pt; margin-bottom: 0pt;"><strong><span style="font-size: 11pt; font-family: Arial; color: #000000; background-color: transparent; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; text-decoration: none; vertical-align: baseline; white-space: pre-wrap;">Keystrokes</span></strong></p>
 +
</th></tr>
 +
<tr style="height: 46pt;">
 +
<td style="vertical-align: top; background-color: #fafafa; padding: 3pt 3pt 3pt 3pt; overflow: hidden; overflow-wrap: break-word; border: solid #333333 0.75pt;">
 +
<p dir="ltr" style="line-height: 1.2; margin-top: 0pt; margin-bottom: 0pt;"><span style="font-size: 11pt; font-family: Arial; color: #000000; background-color: transparent; font-weight: 400; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; text-decoration: none; vertical-align: baseline; white-space: pre-wrap;">Navigate to most elements</span></p>
 +
</td>
 +
<td style="vertical-align: top; background-color: #fafafa; padding: 3pt 3pt 3pt 3pt; overflow: hidden; overflow-wrap: break-word; border: solid #333333 0.75pt;">
 +
<ul>
 +
<li>Tab</li>
 +
<li>Shift + Tab - navigate backward</li>
 +
</ul>
 +
</td>
 +
</tr>
 +
<tr style="height: 27pt;">
 +
<td style="vertical-align: top; background-color: #fafafa; padding: 3pt 3pt 3pt 3pt; overflow: hidden; overflow-wrap: break-word; border: solid #333333 0.75pt;">
 +
<p dir="ltr" style="line-height: 1.2; margin-top: 0pt; margin-bottom: 0pt;"><span style="font-size: 11pt; font-family: Arial; color: #000000; background-color: transparent; font-weight: 400; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; text-decoration: none; vertical-align: baseline; white-space: pre-wrap;">Link</span></p>
 +
</td>
 +
<td style="vertical-align: top; background-color: #fafafa; padding: 3pt 3pt 3pt 3pt; overflow: hidden; overflow-wrap: break-word; border: solid #333333 0.75pt;">
 +
<p dir="ltr" style="line-height: 1.2; margin-top: 0pt; margin-bottom: 0pt;"><span style="font-size: 11pt; font-family: Arial; color: #000000; background-color: transparent; font-weight: 400; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; text-decoration: none; vertical-align: baseline; white-space: pre-wrap;">Enter</span></p>
 +
</td>
 +
</tr>
 +
<tr style="height: 27pt;">
 +
<td style="vertical-align: top; background-color: #fafafa; padding: 3pt 3pt 3pt 3pt; overflow: hidden; overflow-wrap: break-word; border: solid #333333 0.75pt;">
 +
<p dir="ltr" style="line-height: 1.2; margin-top: 0pt; margin-bottom: 0pt;"><span style="font-size: 11pt; font-family: Arial; color: #000000; background-color: transparent; font-weight: 400; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; text-decoration: none; vertical-align: baseline; white-space: pre-wrap;">Button</span></p>
 +
</td>
 +
<td style="vertical-align: top; background-color: #fafafa; padding: 3pt 3pt 3pt 3pt; overflow: hidden; overflow-wrap: break-word; border: solid #333333 0.75pt;">
 +
<p dir="ltr" style="line-height: 1.2; margin-top: 0pt; margin-bottom: 0pt;"><span style="font-size: 11pt; font-family: Arial; color: #000000; background-color: transparent; font-weight: 400; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; text-decoration: none; vertical-align: baseline; white-space: pre-wrap;">Enter or Spacebar</span></p>
 +
</td>
 +
</tr>
 +
<tr style="height: 29pt;">
 +
<td style="vertical-align: top; background-color: #fafafa; padding: 3pt 3pt 3pt 3pt; overflow: hidden; overflow-wrap: break-word; border: solid #333333 0.75pt;">
 +
<p dir="ltr" style="line-height: 1.2; margin-top: 0pt; margin-bottom: 0pt;"><span style="font-size: 11pt; font-family: Arial; color: #000000; background-color: transparent; font-weight: 400; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; text-decoration: none; vertical-align: baseline; white-space: pre-wrap;">Checkbox</span></p>
 +
</td>
 +
<td style="vertical-align: top; background-color: #fafafa; padding: 3pt 3pt 3pt 3pt; overflow: hidden; overflow-wrap: break-word; border: solid #333333 0.75pt;">
 +
<p dir="ltr" style="line-height: 1.2; margin-top: 0pt; margin-bottom: 0pt;"><span style="font-size: 11pt; font-family: Arial; color: #000000; background-color: transparent; font-weight: 400; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; text-decoration: none; vertical-align: baseline; white-space: pre-wrap;">Spacebar - check/uncheck a checkbox</span></p>
 +
</td>
 +
</tr>
 +
<tr style="height: 48pt;">
 +
<td style="vertical-align: top; background-color: #fafafa; padding: 3pt 3pt 3pt 3pt; overflow: hidden; overflow-wrap: break-word; border: solid #333333 0.75pt;">
 +
<p dir="ltr" style="line-height: 1.2; margin-top: 0pt; margin-bottom: 0pt;"></p>
 +
Radio buttons<br>
 +
<p></p>
 +
</td>
 +
<td style="vertical-align: top; background-color: #fafafa; padding: 3pt 3pt 3pt 3pt; overflow: hidden; overflow-wrap: break-word; border: solid #333333 0.75pt;">
 +
<ul>
 +
<li>↑/↓ or ←/→ - select an option</li>
 +
<li>Tab - move to the next element</li>
 +
</ul>
 +
</td>
 +
</tr>
 +
<tr style="height: 44pt;">
 +
<td style="vertical-align: top; background-color: #fafafa; padding: 3pt 3pt 3pt 3pt; overflow: hidden; overflow-wrap: break-word; border: solid #333333 0.75pt;">
 +
<p dir="ltr" style="line-height: 1.2; margin-top: 0pt; margin-bottom: 0pt;"><span style="font-size: 11pt; font-family: Arial; color: #000000; background-color: transparent; font-weight: 400; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; text-decoration: none; vertical-align: baseline; white-space: pre-wrap;">Select (dropdown) menu</span></p>
 +
</td>
 +
<td style="vertical-align: top; background-color: #fafafa; padding: 3pt 3pt 3pt 3pt; overflow: hidden; overflow-wrap: break-word; border: solid #333333 0.75pt;">
 +
<ul>
 +
<li>↑/↓ - navigate between menu options</li>
 +
<li>Spacebar - expand</li>
 +
</ul>
 +
</td>
 +
</tr>
 +
<tr style="height: 62pt;">
 +
<td style="vertical-align: top; background-color: #fafafa; padding: 3pt 3pt 3pt 3pt; overflow: hidden; overflow-wrap: break-word; border: solid #333333 0.75pt;">
 +
<p dir="ltr" style="line-height: 1.2; margin-top: 0pt; margin-bottom: 0pt;"><span style="font-size: 11pt; font-family: Arial; color: #000000; background-color: transparent; font-weight: 400; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; text-decoration: none; vertical-align: baseline; white-space: pre-wrap;">Autocomplete</span></p>
 +
</td>
 +
<td style="vertical-align: top; background-color: #fafafa; padding: 3pt 3pt 3pt 3pt; overflow: hidden; overflow-wrap: break-word; border: solid #333333 0.75pt;">
 +
<ul>
 +
<li>Type to begin filtering</li>
 +
<li>↑/↓ - navigate to an option</li>
 +
<li>Enter - select an option</li>
 +
</ul>
 +
</td>
 +
</tr>
 +
<tr style="height: 31pt;">
 +
<td style="vertical-align: top; background-color: #fafafa; padding: 3pt 3pt 3pt 3pt; overflow: hidden; overflow-wrap: break-word; border: solid #333333 0.75pt;">
 +
<p dir="ltr" style="line-height: 1.2; margin-top: 0pt; margin-bottom: 0pt;"><span style="font-size: 11pt; font-family: Arial; color: #000000; background-color: transparent; font-weight: 400; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; text-decoration: none; vertical-align: baseline; white-space: pre-wrap;">Dialog</span></p>
 +
</td>
 +
<td style="vertical-align: top; background-color: #fafafa; padding: 3pt 3pt 3pt 3pt; overflow: hidden; overflow-wrap: break-word; border: solid #333333 0.75pt;">
 +
<p dir="ltr" style="line-height: 1.2; margin-top: 0pt; margin-bottom: 0pt;"><span style="font-size: 11pt; font-family: Arial; color: #000000; background-color: transparent; font-weight: 400; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; text-decoration: none; vertical-align: baseline; white-space: pre-wrap;">Esc - close</span></p>
 +
</td>
 +
</tr>
 +
<tr style="height: 53pt;">
 +
<td style="vertical-align: top; background-color: #fafafa; padding: 3pt 3pt 3pt 3pt; overflow: hidden; overflow-wrap: break-word; border: solid #333333 0.75pt;">
 +
<p dir="ltr" style="line-height: 1.2; margin-top: 0pt; margin-bottom: 0pt;"><span style="font-size: 11pt; font-family: Arial; color: #000000; background-color: transparent; font-weight: 400; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; text-decoration: none; vertical-align: baseline; white-space: pre-wrap;">Slider</span></p>
 +
</td>
 +
<td style="vertical-align: top; background-color: #fafafa; padding: 3pt 3pt 3pt 3pt; overflow: hidden; overflow-wrap: break-word; border: solid #333333 0.75pt;">
 +
<ul>
 +
<li>↑/↓ or ←/→ - increase or decrease slider value</li>
 +
<li>Home/End - beginning or end</li>
 +
</ul>
 +
</td>
 +
</tr>
 +
<tr style="height: 64pt;">
 +
<td style="vertical-align: top; background-color: #fafafa; padding: 3pt 3pt 3pt 3pt; overflow: hidden; overflow-wrap: break-word; border: solid #333333 0.75pt;">
 +
<p dir="ltr" style="line-height: 1.2; margin-top: 0pt; margin-bottom: 0pt;"><span style="font-size: 11pt; font-family: Arial; color: #000000; background-color: transparent; font-weight: 400; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; text-decoration: none; vertical-align: baseline; white-space: pre-wrap;">Menu bar</span></p>
 +
</td>
 +
<td style="vertical-align: top; background-color: #fafafa; padding: 3pt 3pt 3pt 3pt; overflow: hidden; overflow-wrap: break-word; border: solid #333333 0.75pt;">
 +
<ul>
 +
<li>↑/↓ - Previous/next menu option</li>
 +
<li>Enter - expand the menu (optional) and select an option.</li>
 +
<li>←/→ - expand/collapse submenu</li>
 +
</ul>
 +
</td>
 +
</tr>
 +
<tr style="height: 58pt;">
 +
<td style="vertical-align: top; background-color: #fafafa; padding: 3pt 3pt 3pt 3pt; overflow: hidden; overflow-wrap: break-word; border: solid #333333 0.75pt;">
 +
<p dir="ltr" style="line-height: 1.2; margin-top: 0pt; margin-bottom: 0pt;"><span style="font-size: 11pt; font-family: Arial; color: #000000; background-color: transparent; font-weight: 400; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; text-decoration: none; vertical-align: baseline; white-space: pre-wrap;">Tab panel</span></p>
 +
</td>
 +
<td style="vertical-align: top; background-color: #fafafa; padding: 3pt 3pt 3pt 3pt; overflow: hidden; overflow-wrap: break-word; border: solid #333333 0.75pt;">
 +
<ul>
 +
<li>Tab - once to navigate into the group of tabs and once to navigate out of the group of tabs</li>
 +
<li>↑/↓ or ←/→ - previous/next tab.</li>
 +
</ul>
 +
</td>
 +
</tr>
 +
<tr style="height: 46pt;">
 +
<td style="vertical-align: top; background-color: #fafafa; padding: 3pt 3pt 3pt 3pt; overflow: hidden; overflow-wrap: break-word; border: solid #333333 0.75pt;">
 +
<p dir="ltr" style="line-height: 1.2; margin-top: 0pt; margin-bottom: 0pt;"><span style="background-color: transparent; color: #000000; font-family: Arial; font-size: 11pt; white-space: pre-wrap;">'Tree' menu</span></p>
 +
</td>
 +
<td style="vertical-align: top; background-color: #fafafa; padding: 3pt 3pt 3pt 3pt; overflow: hidden; overflow-wrap: break-word; border: solid #333333 0.75pt;">
 +
<ul>
 +
<li>↑/↓ - Navigate Previous/next menu option</li>
 +
<li>←/→ - expand/collapse submenu, move up/down one level</li>
 +
</ul>
 +
</td>
 +
</tr>
 +
<tr style="height: 69pt;">
 +
<td style="vertical-align: top; background-color: #fafafa; padding: 3pt 3pt 3pt 3pt; overflow: hidden; overflow-wrap: break-word; border: solid #333333 0.75pt;">
 +
<p dir="ltr" style="line-height: 1.2; margin-top: 0pt; margin-bottom: 0pt;"><span style="font-size: 11pt; font-family: Arial; color: #000000; background-color: transparent; font-weight: 400; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; text-decoration: none; vertical-align: baseline; white-space: pre-wrap;">Scroll</span></p>
 +
</td>
 +
<td style="vertical-align: top; background-color: #fafafa; padding: 3pt 3pt 3pt 3pt; overflow: hidden; overflow-wrap: break-word; border: solid #333333 0.75pt;">
 +
<ul>
 +
<li>↑/↓ - scroll vertically</li>
 +
<li>←/→ - scroll horizontally</li>
 +
<li>Spacebar/Shift + Spacebar - scroll by page</li>
 +
</ul>
 +
</td>
 +
</tr>
 +
</table>
 +
 +
* '''WebAIM - Keyboard Accessibility: https://webaim.org/techniques/keyboard/'''
 +
<ref>Keyboard-based navigation compatibility (even on mobile): https://a11y-guidelines.orange.com/en/web/develop/keyboard-navigation/</ref>
 +
<ref>WCAG 2.1 -- Understanding Success Criterion 2.4.3 - Focus Order: https://www.w3.org/WAI/WCAG21/Understanding/focus-order.html#examples</ref>
 +
* How to navigate Windows using a Keyboard only: https://www.computerhope.com/issues/ch000791.htm
 +
<ref>Keyboard-Only Navigation for Improved Accessibility: https://www.nngroup.com/articles/keyboard-accessibility/</ref>
 +
<ref>US government -- Social Security Administration (SSA) - Use the Keyboard to Navigate Screens: https://www.ssa.gov/accessibility/keyboard_nav.html</ref>
 +
<ref>Give Yourself an Accessibility Test - Don't Use a Mouse: https://www.boia.org/blog/give-yourself-an-accessibility-test-dont-use-a-mouse</ref>
 +
 +
 +
== Mobile technology-specific A11Y approaches ==
 +
 +
* Mobile Accessibility -- How WCAG 2.0 and Other W3C/WAI Guidelines Apply to Mobile: https://w3c.github.io/Mobile-A11y-TF-Note/
 +
* WCAG 2.0 Techniques that Apply to Mobile: https://www.w3.org/WAI/GL/mobile-a11y-tf/MobileTechniques/
 +
* WCAG 2.0 Mobile Accessibility -- How WCAG 2.0 and Other W3C/WAI Guidelines Apply to Mobile: https://www.w3.org/TR/mobile-accessibility-mapping/ | [https://www.w3.org/TR/mobile-accessibility-mapping/#touch-target-size-and-spacing EXAMPLE - 3.2 Touch Target Size & Spacing]
 +
* Which WCAG Success Criteria Apply to Mobile Accessibility?: https://www.boia.org/blog/which-wcag-success-criteria-apply-to-mobile-accessibility
 +
* The Mobile Disability Gap Report 2021: https://www.gsma.com/mobilefordevelopment/resources/the-mobile-disability-gap-report-2021/
 +
<ref>How to Test Touch Target Size (buttons, links, …) to Meet UX & Accessibility Standards in 4 Steps: https://medium.com/sketch-app-sources/how-to-test-touch-target-size-buttons-links-to-meet-ux-accessibility-standards-in-4-steps-f1efead7590</ref>
 +
<ref>Hand tremors and the giant-button-problem: https://axesslab.com/hand-tremors/</ref>
 +
<ref>Focus Trapping for Accessibility (A11Y) - NOTE that this is a dangerous double-edged sword so use carefully: https://medium.com/@im_rahul/focus-trapping-looping-b3ee658e5177</ref>
 +
<ref>Focus Trapping - Trap focus inside an element: https://dev.to/r3l_k3r/focus-trappinglooping-for-keyboard-navigation-l6m</ref>
 +
<ref>Perfecto -- Automated Mobile Accessibility Tseting: https://www.perfecto.io/blog/automated-accessibility-testing</ref>
 +
<ref>Experitest -- How to incorporate Accessibility into Mobile App Testing: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=d3HpCKNv8Ew</ref>
 +
<ref>6-STEP MOBILE APP ACCESSIBILITY CHECKLIST: https://blog.usablenet.com/mobile-app-accessibility-techniques-for-inclusive-design-part-1</ref>
 +
<ref>App Accessibility is The New Must in Mobile Development: https://buildfire.com/app-accessibility-mobile-development/</ref>
 +
<ref>Building apps for everyone; why inclusivity & accessibility truly matter: https://appsgamesinsights.libsyn.com/building-apps-for-everyone-why-inclusivity-and-accessibility-truly-matter-episode-6</ref>
 +
<ref>Flutter -- a11y & i18n: https://docs.flutter.dev/development/accessibility-and-localization/accessibility</ref>
 +
 +
=== Apple (iOS) ===
 +
 +
* Accessibility on iOS: https://developer.apple.com/accessibility/ios/
 +
* WWDC -- iOS - Accessibility & Inclusion (VIDEOS): https://developer.apple.com/videos/accessibility-inclusion
 +
* Apple -- iOS - How to use a pointer device with AssistiveTouch on your iPhone, iPad, or iPod touch: https://support.apple.com/en-us/HT210546
 +
* Orange (telco) dev docs -- iOS developer guide - A11Y guidelines: https://a11y-guidelines.orange.com/en/mobile/ios/development/ (with examples & code snippets)
 +
<ref>HP Notebook PCs - Using the Touchpad, Pointer, and Keyboard in Mobile Internet Experience: https://support.hp.com/us-en/document/c01633349</ref>
 +
<ref>Getting Started with Touchscreen UIs in Java Platform, Micro Edition (JME, on legacy Mobile devices or tiny screens): https://www.oracle.com/technical-resources/articles/javame/touchscreen-ui.html</ref>
 +
<ref>How to detect touch screen device using CSS?: https://www.geeksforgeeks.org/how-to-detect-touch-screen-device-using-css/</ref>
 +
<ref>Extendable Pointer Presenter Whiteboard PPT Point Stick Touch Screen Pen: https://www.walmart.com/ip/Extendable-Pointer-Presenter-Whiteboard-PPT-Point-Stick-Touch-Screen-Pen/710925497</ref>
 +
<ref>Staples Slim Stylus Pen - Black: https://www.staples.ca/products/2618968-en-staples-slim-stylus-pen-black</ref>
 +
<ref>Telescopic Teachers Pointer (Extendable/Retractable Presenter Classroom Whiteboard Pointer): https://www.amazon.ca/Telescopic-Extendable-Retractable-Presenter-Whiteboard/dp/B07K5W2DTZ/</ref>
 +
<ref>'''Testing for Accessibility on OS X: https://developer.apple.com/library/archive/documentation/Accessibility/Conceptual/AccessibilityMacOSX/OSXAXTestingApps.html'''</ref>
 +
<ref>Writing Great iOS Accessibility Labels: https://medium.com/macoclock/writing-great-ios-accessibility-labels-6d903ba17f7f</ref>
 +
 +
=== Google (Android) ===
 +
 +
* Google - Android accessibility overview: https://support.google.com/accessibility/android/answer/6006564?hl=en
 +
 +
=== Touch Target ===
 +
 +
Minimum sizes for interactive areas are needed to prevent an inability to trigger required events or operate controls  in the desired manner (aka. "Fat Fingering"). Most "[[Mobile Design]] guidelines" encourage practices to prevent any issues here such as 32px padding on either side of any button or link, and use of labels tied to input fields within forms that cause the correct corresponding field to become in focus.
 +
 +
== Accessibility Overlays ==
 +
 +
"Accessibility Overlays" are bolt-on solutions that attempt to "embed" accessibility features and options into an inaccessible or incompletely accessible website or mobile app with many or a specific few unfixed access barriers of certain types. While these can be slightly better than doing nothing, they are no substitute for building a fully accessible experience and often fall far short of primary accessibility and risk (lawsuit exposure, customer churn) reduction goals. Studies have shown that it is always better to "bake accessibility in" from the beginning.
 +
 +
The following issues aren't fully covered by Overlays (and can sometimes be worsened or made more confusing by having the extra layer):
 +
# Unlabeled/mislabeled form fields
 +
# Zoom disabled
 +
# Minimum width
 +
# Use of layout tables
 +
# Ambiguous anchor text links
 +
# Images of text
 +
# Focus order
 +
# Alt text<ref>WebAIM - Alternative Text: https://webaim.org/techniques/alttext/</ref><ref>How Do I Know If an Image Needs "Alt Text"?: https://www.boia.org/blog/how-do-i-know-if-an-image-needs-alt-text</ref><ref>'''Writing great alt text -- Emotion matters: https://jakearchibald.com/2021/great-alt-text/'''</ref><ref>Microsoft Research - Designing Tools for High-Qality Alt Text Authoring: https://kmack3.github.io/mack_etal_high_quality_alt_text.pdf</ref><ref>What is alt text?: (and why its so important): https://moz.com/learn/seo/alt-text</ref><ref>Microsoft - Add alternative text to a shape, picture, chart, SmartArt graphic, or other object: https://support.microsoft.com/en-us/office/add-alternative-text-to-a-shape-picture-chart-smartart-graphic-or-other-object-44989b2a-903c-4d9a-b742-6a75b451c669</ref><ref>Pope Tech - Alternative Text: https://blog.pope.tech/2022/04/05/alternative-text-alt-text/ | [https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLl4N9bkQPE8708fUPfZM1xYWfrlMVBAn4 PLAYLIST]</ref><ref>There’s More to Web Accessibility Than Alt Text: [https://ccpstechnews.blog/2019/09/21/theres-more-to-web-accessibility-than-alt-text-part-1-color-contrast/ Part 1 - Color Contrast] | [https://ccpstechnews.blog/2019/10/11/theres-more-to-web-accessibility-than-alt-text-part-2-captioning/ Part 2 - Captioning] | [https://ccpstechnews.blog/2019/11/22/theres-more-to-web-accessibility-than-alt-text-part-3-alternative-text/ Part 3 - Alternative Text]</ref>
 +
# Consistent identification
 +
# Keyboard only usage
 +
# Error prevention
 +
# Error suggestions
 +
# Keyboard traps
 +
# Incorrect heading structure
 +
# Missing links
 +
# No input change
 +
# Parsing
 +
# Misidentified language
 +
# Closed captions
 +
# Locked display orientation
 +
 +
 +
* A11Y Overlays -- fact sheet: https://overlayfactsheet.com (summarizes the downsides and very few minor upsides of ''A11Y Overlays'')
 +
<ref>'''Overlay Fact Sheet: https://overlayfactsheet.com'''</ref>
 +
<ref>Why Accessibility Overlay Solutions Fail to Protect or Serve: https://www.accessibility.works/blog/avoid-accessibility-overlay-tools-toolbar-plugins/</ref>
 +
<ref>The Many Pitfalls of Accessibility Overlays: https://www.essentialaccessibility.com/blog/the-many-pitfalls-of-accessibility-overlays</ref>
 +
<ref>Honor the ADA - Avoid Web Accessibility Quick-Fix Overlays: https://www.lflegal.com/2020/08/quick-fix/</ref>
 +
<ref>Are ADA Overlays a Liability? Here’s What Accessibility Experts Had to Say: https://web.archive.org/web/20201026061821/https://216digital.com/ada-website-overlays/</ref>
 +
<ref>The Problem with Not Making Websites Accessible by Default: https://www.boia.org/blog/the-problem-with-not-making-websites-accessible-by-default</ref>
 +
<ref>Why Accessibility Overlays On Your Website Can Make Things Worse: https://www.boia.org/blog/why-accessibility-overlays-on-your-website-can-make-things-worse</ref>
 +
<ref>US Supreme Court verdict -- Sole reliance on accessiBe will not be sufficient in ensuring full and equal access to a website (Exhibit A For 21-cv-00017, 2020-11-01): https://www.scribd.com/document/490740167/Exhibit-A-for-21-cv-00017</ref>
 +
<ref>People With Disabilities Say This AcessiBe "AI A11Y Tool" Is Making the Web Worse for Them: https://www.vice.com/en/article/m7az74/people-with-disabilities-say-this-ai-tool-is-making-the-web-worse-for-them</ref>
 +
<ref>This Company Tapped AccessiBe and its "Overlay + AI" solution for Its Website — and Landed in Court for its troubles: https://www.wired.com/story/company-tapped-ai-website-landed-court/</ref>
 +
<ref>InclusiveDesign Conference -- Overlays Underwhelm (VIDEO): https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=c-effkHJfU8</ref>
 +
 +
 +
== A11Y Lawsuits ==
 +
 +
# Winn-Dixie grocery: https://www.forbes.com/sites/legalnewsline/2017/06/13/first-of-its-kind-trial-goes-plaintiffs-way-winn-dixie-must-update-website-for-the-blind/?sh=a3b943f1b38a
 +
# McDonald's self-serve kiosks: https://www.wsj.com/articles/mcdonalds-starts-making-self-service-easier-for-blind-diners-11631900280
 +
# Harvard & MIT Universities: https://www.insidehighered.com/news/2019/04/08/mit-and-harvard-fail-get-out-video-captioning-court-case
 +
# UC Berkley on textbooks: https://www.3playmedia.com/blog/dra-v-uc-berkeley-a-win-win-with-structured-negotiation/
 +
# CVS Pharmacy: https://icharts.net/ada-compliance/
 +
# Amazon: https://www.classaction.org/media/bishop-v-amazon-com-inc.pdf<ref>Amazon Class Action Lawsuit Says Website Not Accessible to the Blind: https://topclassactions.com/lawsuit-settlements/lawsuit-news/amazon-class-action-lawsuit-says-website-not-accessible-blind/</ref>
 +
# Netflix: https://digitalcommons.law.scu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?referer=https://www.google.com/&httpsredir=1&article=1092&context=historical<ref>NAD v. Netflix ADA Lawsuit Requires Captioning for Streaming Video: https://www.3playmedia.com/blog/nad-v-netflix-ada-lawsuit-requires-closed-captioning-on-streaming-video/</ref><ref>NAD Calls Out Netflix on “Deaf Tax”: https://www.nad.org/2010/12/17/nad-calls-out-netflix-on-deaf-tax/</ref><ref>Disability History, Part 4: NAD v. Netflix -- A lawsuit that shook the internet: https://listenuptodisabilities.com/2021/04/25/disability-history-part-4-nad-v-netflix/</ref><ref>NAD Files Disability Civil Rights Lawsuit Against Netflix: https://www.disabled-world.com/communication/broadcasts/netflix.php</ref><ref>NAD Files Disability Civil Rights Lawsuit against Netflix: https://www.nad.org/2011/06/16/nad-files-disability-civil-rights-lawsuit-against-netflix/</ref><ref>NAD v. Netflix: https://dredf.org/legal-advocacy/nad-v-netflix/</ref>
 +
# Fox News: https://topclassactions.com/lawsuit-settlements/lawsuit-news/836448-fox-news-website-not-accessible-blind-class-action-says/
 +
# Nike: https://www.accessiblemetrics.com/blog/4-key-takeaways-from-2018-web-accessibility-lawsuits/
 +
# Burger King: https://www.classaction.org/media/mendizabal-v-burger-king-corporation.pdf<ref>Burger King Class Action Says Fast Food Chain’s Website Violates ADA : https://topclassactions.com/lawsuit-settlements/lawsuit-news/burger-king-class-action-says-fast-food-chains-website-violates-ada/</ref><ref>: https://topclassactions.com/lawsuit-settlements/lawsuit-news/831860-burger-king-class-action-says-fast-food-chains-website-violates-ada/</ref>
 +
# Five Guys': https://topclassactions.com/lawsuit-settlements/lawsuit-news/485124-five-guys-class-action-says-website-not-accessible-blind-users/
 +
# Domino's: https://www.courthousenews.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/01/Dominos-Ruling.pdf<ref>Domino's A11Y case: http://cdn.ca9.uscourts.gov/datastore/opinions/2019/01/15/17-55504.pdf</ref><ref>Court Says Domino’s Pizza Website Must Be Accessible to the Blind" https://www.courthousenews.com/court-says-dominos-pizza-website-must-be-accessible-to-the-blind/</ref><ref>Accessibility, the future, and why Domino’s matters: https://arstechnica.com/tech-policy/2019/10/accessibility-the-future-and-why-dominos-matters/</ref><ref>Domino's Website Violated Americans With Disabilities Act, Judge Finds: https://www.mediapost.com/publications/article/364699/dominos-website-violated-americans-with-disabilit.html</ref><ref>Domino’s accessibility lawsuit update: https://sheribyrnehaber.medium.com/dominos-accessibility-lawsuit-update-a66e7e592eab</ref><ref>Lexis-Nexus legal news -- Domino’s, Blind Patron Settle ADA, Website Accessibility Suit: https://www.lexislegalnews.com/mealeys-cyber-tech-e-commerce/articles/69324?nl_pk=741a37e7-1565-473f-baaa-0984144b9f07</ref><ref>California Federal Court Holds Domino’s Website Violates the ADA, Limits Penalties Under Unruh Act to $4,000 : https://www.bclplaw.com/en-US/insights/california-federal-court-holds-dominos-website-violates-the-ada-limits-penalties-under-unruh-act-to-dollar4000.html</ref><ref>Federal Website Access Lawsuit Numbers Increase 7 Percent in 2019, With Possible Bump from Supreme Court Denial of Cert in Domino’s: https://www.adatitleiii.com/2019/11/federal-website-access-lawsuit-numbers-increase-7-percent-in-2019-with-possible-bump-from-supreme-court-denial-of-cert-in-dominos/</ref><ref>The Impact of the Robles V. Domino’s Pizza Lawsuit on Hearing-Impaired Community: https://cielo24.com/2019/11/domino-v-robles-lawsuit-accessibility/</ref><ref>How your small business website can get you sued : https://www.inquirer.com/business/small-business-website-sued-suits-ada-20200211.html</ref><ref>What does the Domino’s ADA case mean for small-medium-businesses: https://accessibe.com/blog/trends/what-does-the-dominos-ada-case-mean-for-small-medium-businesses</ref><ref>Blind man sued Domino's over its website. Here's what the Supreme Court had to say: https://mashable.com/article/supreme-court-reject-dominos-inaccessible-website</ref><ref>Supreme Court hands victory to blind man who sued Domino’s over site accessibility: https://www.cnbc.com/2019/10/07/dominos-supreme-court.html</ref><ref>Another Big Win in the Domino’s Pizza Accessibility Saga: https://www.lflegal.com/2021/06/dominos-june-2021/</ref><ref>Court finds Domino’s Pizza Violated the ADA by Having an Inaccessible Website and Orders WCAG Compliance: https://www.adatitleiii.com/2021/06/court-finds-dominos-pizza-violated-the-ada-by-having-an-inaccessible-website-and-orders-wcag-compliance/</ref>
 +
# Winn-Dixie: https://www.courthousenews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/06/Winn-Dixie-ADA-verdict-.pdf<ref>Gil .vs. Winn-Dixie -- D.C. Docket No. 1:16-cv-23020-RNS: https://media.ca11.uscourts.gov/opinions/pub/files/201713467.pdf</ref><ref>D.C. Docket No. 1:16-cv-23020-RNS: https://www.employmentlawspotlight.com/wp-content/uploads/sites/18/2021/04/ADA.pdf</ref><ref>Judge Holds Winn-Dixie Supermarket’s Website Violates the ADA: https://www.courthousenews.com/judge-holds-winn-dixie-supermarkets-website-violates-ada/</ref><ref>Court rules grocery store’s inaccessible website isn’t an ADA violation: https://arstechnica.com/tech-policy/2021/04/appeals-court-rules-stores-dont-need-to-make-their-websites-accessible/</ref><ref>Eleventh Circuit Holds Websites Are Not Places of Public Accommodation and Rejects Commonly Relied-Upon Nexus Standard: https://www.jdsupra.com/legalnews/eleventh-circuit-holds-websites-are-not-1083843/</ref>
 +
# Blue Apron: https://www.levelaccess.com/new-hampshire-court-denies-blue-aprons-motion-dismiss-digital-accessibility-suit/
 +
# Conair/CuisinArt: https://www.leagle.com/decision/infdco20201217g35<ref>Conair Website For CuisinArt Is Sued For Excluding Visual Impaired: http://www.innercitypress.com/sdny36steincuisineartwebicp120920.html</ref>
 +
# Amtrak: https://www.ada.gov/amtrak_sa.html<ref>$2.25 Million Fund Available in Justice Department Settlement with Amtrak: https://www.justice.gov/opa/pr/225-million-fund-available-justice-department-settlement-amtrak</ref><ref>Amtrak Settles ADA Claims For Stations in Connecticut and Rhode Island: https://ctexaminer.com/2021/01/29/amtrak-settles-ada-claims-for-stations-in-connecticut-and-rhode-island/</ref>
 +
# HCA hospitals: https://www.fredlaw.com/news__media/2017/01/18/1427/healthcare_sector_is_newest_target_for_website_accessibility_lawsuits/
 +
# Hulu: https://www.3playmedia.com/blog/hulu-agrees-to-caption-100-percent-of-english-and-spanish-videos/<ref>The NAD and Hulu Reach Agreement: https://www.nad.org/2016/09/06/the-nad-and-hulu-reach-agreement/</ref>
 +
# eBay: https://www.3playmedia.com/blog/earll-v-ebay-is-a-website-a-place-of-public-accommodation/
 +
# Bank of America: https://www.lflegal.com/2015/06/bofa-travel-agreement/
 +
# FedEx: https://www.3playmedia.com/blog/fedex-ground-sued-by-eeoc-nad-for-ada-violation/
 +
# Hobby Lobby: https://lovata.com/blog/ada-website-compliance-lawsuits-recent-and-high-profile.html
 +
# Bank of America (first major bank sued, all the way back in 2000): https://thefinancialbrand.com/27448/could-your-banking-website-be-the-target-of-a-lawsuit/
 +
# Hard Rock Casino & Gulf Coast restaurant chains: https://www.sunherald.com/news/local/counties/harrison-county/article141331553.html
 +
# NY city MTA: https://www.6sqft.com/judge-rules-that-an-accessibility-lawsuit-against-the-mta-in-queens-can-move-forward/
 +
# Robinhood (stock trading platform): https://www.fredlaw.com/wp-content/uploads/2021/02/Website-Accessibility-Complaint-Sanchez-v-Robinhood-SDNY-2-3-2021.pdf<ref>Robinhood Sued in Class Action, Alleging Website Inaccessibility and Discrimination Against Blind Users: https://www.fredlaw.com/news__media/robinhood-sued-in-class-action-alleging-website-inaccessibility-and-discrimination-against-blind-users/</ref>
 +
# American Airlines: https://www.paddleyourownkanoo.com/2021/07/24/man-sues-american-airlines-because-its-website-discriminates-against-blind-people/ ($40 million)
 +
# ViacomCBS: https://www.fiercevideo.com/video/fcc-slaps-viacomcbs-3-5m-fine-over-pluto-tv-closed-captions ($3.5 million)<ref>FCC Settles Accessibility Rules Violation With Pluto, ViacomCBS: https://news.bloomberglaw.com/tech-and-telecom-law/fcc-settles-accessibility-rules-violation-with-pluto-viacomcbs</ref><ref>Pluto & ViacomCBS Will Pay $3.5M for Violation of Accessibility Rules: https://www.fcc.gov/document/pluto-viacomcbs-will-pay-35m-violation-accessibility-rules</ref><ref>ViacomCBS and Pluto TV Fined $3.5 Million by FCC for Violating Closed-Caption Rules: https://variety.com/2021/digital/news/pluto-tv-fcc-closed-captioning-rules-1235077364/</ref>
 +
# Fox News: https://topclassactions.com/lawsuit-settlements/lawsuit-news/fox-news-website-not-accessible-blind-class-action-says/
 +
# WWE: https://heelbynature.com/wrestling-news/wwe-news/wwe-settles-lawsuit-for-violation-of-americans-with-disabilities-act/ (settled out of court)<ref>WWE Settles Legal Dispute on Accessibility for Blind & Visually Impaired for Online Shop: https://411mania.com/wrestling/wwe-settles-legal-dispute-online-website-blind-ada/</ref><ref>WWE Settles Lawsuit Over Shop Website: https://www.wrestlinginc.com/news/2020/12/wwe-settles-lawsuit-over-shop-website-677800/</ref>
 +
# Dell: https://regmedia.co.uk/2021/03/04/giannaros_vs_dell_complaint.pdf<ref>Screen access technology has existed for decades': Visually impaired man sues Dell over 'inaccessible' website: https://www.theregister.com/2021/03/05/giannaros_v_dell/</ref>
 +
# Apple: https://appleinsider.com/articles/18/08/20/apple-sued-over-claims-website-is-inaccessible-to-visually-impaired-users<ref>Apple Store accessibility lawsuit (Robert Shaw vs. Apple): https://blog.fawny.org/2020/02/20/shawvapple/</ref><ref>Mendez v. Apple Inc.: https://www.pacermonitor.com/public/case/25398561/Mendez_v_Apple_Inc</ref><ref>Apple sued over claims website is inaccessible to visually impaired users: https://appleinsider.com/articles/18/08/20/apple-sued-over-claims-website-is-inaccessible-to-visually-impaired-users</ref><ref>The Apple Park Visitor's Center is a demonstration of an accessible building when cost is no object. 1/?: https://threadreaderapp.com/thread/967652885604450305.html</ref>
 +
# Uber: https://www.docketalarm.com/cases/District_Of_Columbia_District_Court/1--17-cv-01272/EQUAL_RIGHTS_CENTER_v._UBER_TECHNOLOGIES_INC._et_al/55/<ref>Court Denies Uber’s Motion to Dismiss ADA Discrimination Complaint: https://lawstreetmedia.com/news/tech/court-denies-ubers-motion-to-dismiss-ada-discrimination-complaint/</ref><ref>Justice Department Sues Uber for Overcharging People with Disabilities: https://www.justice.gov/opa/pr/justice-department-sues-uber-overcharging-people-disabilities</ref><ref>An Uber fee unfairly impacts riders with disabilities, a DOJ lawsuit says: https://www.npr.org/2021/11/10/1054407560/justice-department-uber-wait-time-riders-disabilities</ref><ref>Justice Department Sues Uber Over Charging Wait-Time Fees for Disabled People: https://www.wsj.com/articles/justice-department-sues-uber-over-charging-wait-times-fees-for-physically-disabled-people-11636570208</ref><ref>Uber manager sobs on stand during trial over wheelchair accessibility: https://www.courthousenews.com/uber-manager-sobs-on-stand-during-trial-over-wheelchair-accessibility/</ref>
 +
# NBA: https://buckleyfirm.com/uploads/1082/doc/Complaint_for_Permanent_Injunction,_Jahoda_v_NBA.pdf
 +
# eHarmony: https://www.pacermonitor.com/public/case/8982926/West_v_eHarmony,_Inc
 +
# Rolex: https://www.pacermonitor.com/public/case/23729995/Thorne_v_Rolex_Watch_USA,_Inc
 +
# Beyonce's music promotion website: https://www.impactbnd.com/blog/is-your-website-ada-compliant-what-beyonces-website-accessibility-lawsuit-taught-us<ref>What You Should Know About the Beyoncé Website Accessibility Lawsuit: https://www.diacedesigns.com/beyonce-website-accessibility-lawsuit/</ref><ref>Beyonce's Website the Focus of an Accessibility Lawsuit: https://www.boia.org/blog/beyonces-website-the-focus-of-an-accessibility-lawsuit</ref>
 +
 +
* '''2021 Year End Report - App & Web Accessibility Lawsuits Break Records: https://blog.usablenet.com/2021-lawsuit-report-trends-and-findings'''
 +
<ref>'''2021 Website Accessibility Lawsuit Recap (REPORT): https://f.hubspotusercontent30.net/hubfs/6576634/2021 Accessibility Lawsuit Complete Report.pdf'''</ref>
 +
<ref>September 2021 recap - A11Y Lawsuits landscape: https://www.accessibility.com/digital-lawsuits/recap/september-2021</ref>
 +
<ref>'''2020 Full Year Report  Digital Accessibility Lawsuits: https://info.usablenet.com/2020-report-on-digital-accessibility-lawsuits'''</ref>
 +
<ref>Digital Accessibility Year in Review -- 2019: https://www.boia.org/blog/digital-accessibility-year-in-review-2019</ref>
 +
<ref>2018 ADA Web Accessibility Lawsuit Recap Report: https://blog.usablenet.com/2018-ada-web-accessibility-lawsuit-recap-report</ref>
 +
<ref>Recent Web Accessibility Lawsuits: http://www.webaxe.org/recent-web-accessibility-lawsuits/</ref>
 +
<ref>Are you next? Trends in Digital Accessibility Lawsuits: https://www.accessibility.com/event/2022/trends-in-digital-accessibility-lawsuits</ref>
 +
<ref>'''Overview of the Financial Penalties of AODA Non-Compliance (in Canada): https://www.boia.org/blog/overview-of-the-financial-penalties-of-aoda-non-compliance'''</ref>
 +
<ref>US House Bill [https://www.congress.gov/bill/116th-congress/house-bill/8478/text H.R.8478] Could Finally Offer Businesses Clarity on Web Accessibility: https://builtin.com/operations/web-accessibility-ADA-compliance</ref>
 +
<ref>'''Now Is the Time to Make Your Entire Sales Funnel Accessible: https://www.boia.org/blog/now-is-the-time-to-make-your-entire-sales-funnel-accessible'''</ref>
 +
<ref>Brands Are Losing Billions by Not Being Digitally Accessible: https://www.boia.org/blog/brands-are-losing-billions-by-not-being-digitally-accessible</ref>
 +
<ref>'''Looking Ahead to Potential Developments in Online Accessibility Law: https://www.natlawreview.com/article/looking-ahead-to-potential-developments-online-accessibility-law'''</ref>
 +
<ref>Practice website accessibility (or get ready to practice law) -- A new wave of AwDA litigation: https://www.cda.org/Home/News-and-Events/Newsroom/Article-Details/practice-website-accessibility-a-new-wave-of-awda-litigation</ref>
 +
<ref>A11Y Attorneys' opinion statement -- DOJ's years-long delay on regulations hurting companies facing disabilities lawsuits over their websites: https://legalnewsline.com/stories/510698224-attorneys-doj-s-years-long-delay-on-regulations-hurting-companies-facing-disabilities-lawsuits-over-their-websites</ref>
 +
<ref>Fact Sheet -- Class Actions Are Critical to Remedy Disability Discrimination: http://centerjd.org/content/fact-sheet-class-actions-are-critical-remedy-disability-discrimination</ref>
 +
<ref>Lawsuits Over Digital Accessibility for People With Disabilities Are Rising: https://www.wsj.com/articles/lawsuits-over-digital-accessibility-for-people-with-disabilities-are-rising-11626369056</ref>
 +
<ref>Equality Act Could Undermine Business Defendants In Web Access Suits: https://www.cato.org/blog/equality-act-would-spell-defeat-businesses-publishers-web-accessibility-debate</ref>
 +
<ref>New York District Court Issues Important Opinion on the Inapplicability of Title III of the ADA to Consumer-Facing Websites: https://www.blankrome.com/publications/new-york-district-court-issues-important-opinion-inapplicability-title-iii-ada</ref>
 +
<ref>NY State Court -- Title III legal position statement: https://www.blankrome.com/sites/default/files/2021-11/computerinternetlawyer_-_novdec2021_-_blankromellp.pdf (meant to take some "bite" out of frivolous Digital Accessibility lawsuits)</ref>
 +
<ref>ADP Settlement Offers Framework for Future Digital-Accessibility Agreements: https://www.wsj.com/articles/adp-settlement-offers-framework-for-future-digital-accessibility-agreements-11642699462</ref>
 +
<ref>Digital Accessibility Takes Center Stage in ADA Lawsuit: https://www.law.com/nationallawjournal/2022/01/14/11th-circuits-ada-reversal-curbed-florida-litigation-in-2021-but-digital-accessibility-suits-are-here-to-stay-398-82063/?slreturn=20220101154317</ref>
 +
<ref>'''The Importance of Having a Letter of "Reasonable Accessibility" to show intent: https://www.boia.org/blog/the-importance-of-having-a-letter-of-reasonable-accessibility</ref>
 +
<ref>Accessibility in the News, Legal Edition - Updates on ADA Title III News and More: https://www.microassist.com/digital-accessibility/accessibility-news-legal/'''</ref>
 +
<ref>Federal Courts Disagree Over Accessibility Online: https://www.theregreview.org/2021/06/16/mcdonough-federal-courts-disagree-accessibility-online/</ref>
 +
<ref>Web Accessibility Lawsuits dramatically rose in 2021... here’s why: https://www.boia.org/blog/web-accessibility-lawsuits-dramatically-rose-in-2021.-heres-why</ref>
 +
<ref>Florida Courts Rule ADA Covers Websites With Nexus To Physical Store: https://www.adatitleiii.com/2017/04/florida-courts-rule-ada-covers-websites-with-nexus-to-physical-store/</ref>
 +
<ref>Builders, Architects, Owners of 5 NC Housing Complexes Settle Discrimination Cases; Agree to Make $1.3 million in Accessibility Modifications: https://www.fairhousingnc.org/2020/builders-architects-owners-of-5-nc-housing-complexes-settle-discrimination-cases-agree-to-make-1-3-million-in-accessibility-modifications/</ref>
 +
<ref>Strategies for Defending ADA Accessibility “Tester” Lawsuits: http://www.jaburgwilk.com/news-publications/strategies-for-defending-ada-accessibility-lawsuits</ref>
 +
<ref>The State of Website Accessibility, Serial-plaintiffs, & the lack of new ADA Legislation: https://www.oomphinc.com/notes/2019/06/the-state-of-website-accessibility-2019/</ref>
 +
<ref>The Real Reason Local Governments are Facing More ADA Non-Compliance Fines: https://www.civicplus.com/blog/ce/local-governments-facing-ada-accessibility-fines</ref>
 +
<ref>Five Things Every Lawyer Needs to Know About Digital Accessibility: https://www.lawtechnologytoday.org/2018/06/digital-accessibility/</ref>
 +
<ref>Why Are More Digital Accessibility Suits Being Filed as Class Actions (And What Does It Mean?): https://www.lexology.com/library/detail.aspx?g=dbfb2323-2b58-400e-b39c-d7ef6107bff6</ref>
 +
<ref>ADA Lawsuits Are on the Rise, Website Complaints Biggest Targets: https://www.law.com/legaltechnews/2019/01/24/ada-lawsuits-are-on-the-rise-website-complaints-biggest-targets/</ref>
 +
<ref>How To Prevent a Web Accessibility Lawsuit: https://www.boia.org/blog/how-to-prevent-a-web-accessibility-lawsuit</ref>
 +
<ref>Why Websites Need an Accessibility Statement: https://www.boia.org/blog/why-websites-need-an-accessibility-statement</ref>
 +
<ref>ElementsCasino -- ACCESSIBILITY POLICY: http://www.elementscasinoflamboro.com/accessibility/</ref>
 +
<ref>Rideau Carleton Raceway Casino -- Accessibility Statement: https://www.rideaucarletoncasino.com/accessibility.htm</ref>
 +
<ref>LA Times -- Lawsuits targeting business websites over ADA violations are on the rise (Hotels, Restaurants, Entertainment destinations & Government websites targeted by lawsuits): https://www.latimes.com/business/la-fi-hotels-ada-compliance-20181111-story.html</ref>
 +
<ref>“Worldwide Web Accessibility - cases from the USA”: http://www.clickawaypound.com/bgarticle1.html</ref>
 +
<ref>New York State Division of Human Rights announces settlements of accessibility complaints against Redbox, Coinstar, ecoATM: https://www.wnypapers.com/news/article/current/2021/05/26/146782/new-york-state-division-of-human-rights-announces-settlements-of-accessibility-complaints-against-redbox-coinstar-ecoatm</ref>
 +
<ref>Lawsuit Provides Blind Individuals with Access to New York State’s Emergency Mass Notification System: https://www.legalreader.com/lawsuit-provides-blind-individuals-with-access-to-new-york-states-emergency-mass-notification-system/</ref>
 +
<ref>Judge Approves ADA Class Action Settlement Against Eyewear Company Over Website's Lack of Visibility: https://www.law.com/thelegalintelligencer/2021/10/07/judge-approves-ada-class-action-settlement-against-eyewear-company-over-websites-lack-of-visibility/</ref>
 +
<ref>CBD firms facing lawsuits over website accessibility: https://hempindustrydaily.com/cbd-firms-facing-lawsuits-over-website-accessibility/</ref>
 +
<ref>Appellate Court Finds Websites Not Covered Under ADA, Sets Up Circuit Split: https://bankingjournal.aba.com/2021/04/appellate-court-finds-websites-not-covered-under-ada-sets-up-circuit-split/</ref>
 +
<ref>10 awesome companies you didn’t know were sued for ADA website compliance: https://augustafreepress.com/ten-awesome-companies-you-didnt-know-were-sued-for-ada-website-compliance/</ref>
 +
<ref>Title III Lawsuits - 10 Big Companies Sued Over Website Accessibility: https://www.essentialaccessibility.com/blog/title-iii-lawsuits-10-big-companies-sued-over-website-accessibility</ref>
 +
<ref>4 Healthcare Companies Sued Over ADA Website Compliance (and Why it Matters!): https://healthcareweekly.com/ada-compliance-healthcare-websites/</ref>
 +
<ref>Roadmap to Web Accessibility in Higher Education: https://www.3playmedia.com/blog/white-paper-roadmap-web-accessibility-in-higher-education/</ref>
 +
<ref>Is Your WordPress Site an Accessibility Lawsuit Waiting to Happen?: https://mediatemple.net/blog/web-development-tech/is-your-wordpress-site-an-accessibility-lawsuit-waiting-to-happen/</ref>
 +
<ref>Federal Website Accessibility Lawsuits Increased in 2021 Despite Mid-Year Pandemic Lull: https://www.adatitleiii.com/2022/03/federal-website-accessibility-lawsuits-increased-in-2021-despite-mid-year-pandemic-lull/</ref>
 +
<ref>Website Access And Other ADA Title III Lawsuits Hit Record Numbers: https://www.jdsupra.com/legalnews/website-access-and-other-ada-title-iii-48088/</ref>
 +
<ref>ADA Title III Federal Lawsuit Filings Hit An All Time High: https://www.adatitleiii.com/2022/02/ada-title-iii-federal-lawsuit-filings-hit-an-all-time-high/</ref>
 +
<ref>ADA turns 30, evolves with The Digital Age: https://www.accessibility.works/blog/ada-turns-30-standards-for-ada-compliance/</ref>
 +
<ref>A Look at the Legal Landscape of Web Accessibility Compliance : https://monsido.com/blog/web-accessibility-compliance</ref>
 +
<ref>Can You Afford $25,000? Website Accessibility Lawsuits Cost Money: https://krisrivenburgh.medium.com/can-you-afford-25-000-website-accessibility-lawsuits-cost-money-21987cd913f3</ref>
 +
<ref>International Web Accessibility Laws - An Overview: https://www.boia.org/blog/international-web-accessibility-laws-an-overview</ref>
 +
<ref>Who Enforces Accessibility of Online and Digital Content?: https://www.boia.org/blog/who-enforces-accessibility-in-online-and-digital-content</ref>
 +
 +
 +
=== Accessible Procurements ===
 +
 +
"A chain's only as strong as its weakest link". This is true of organizations and their products/services as well. If you've done all the hard work to make your own products/services fully accessible, but integrate with vendors that don't understand the importance of and prioritize accessibility properly, do accessibility testing with folks from various accessibility backgrounds, and regularly audit their own product/services, then you may still end up with an inaccessible product/service in the end.
 +
 +
* "Before you spend another penny" -- Accessibility in Procurement - panel discussion: https://www.accessibility.com/event/sessions/2022/accessibility-procurement-panel
 +
 +
 +
== Accessibility Testing ==
 +
 +
See also: [[Testing#Accessibility|Accessibility Testing]]
 +
 +
* How to Automate Web Accessibility Testing: https://medium.com/@f3igao/how-to-automate-web-accessibility-testing-921512bdd4bf
 +
* The importance of Accessibility Testing for websites: https://stage-red.exadel.com/news/the-importance-of-accessibility-testing-for-websites/
 +
* Testing with "Speech Recognition": https://www.tpgi.com/testing-with-speech-recognition/<ref>5 things I learned about web accessibility by testing a screen reader: https://yellowpencil.com/articles/things-learned-about-accessibility-using-screen-reader/</ref><ref>Woman helping teach child who has speech language disorder 10 Most Common Speech-Language Disorders & Impediments: https://www.speechpathologygraduateprograms.org/2018/01/10-most-common-speech-language-disorders/</ref>
 +
* Mobile Accessibility 102 -- Mobile Web Techniques (May 2017): https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rkdWNNZUXg4<ref>Experitest’s Web and Mobile Accessibility Testing Explained in Full: https://experitest.com/mobile-app-testing/experitests-web-and-mobile-accessibility-testing-explained-in-full/</ref>
 +
* Applitools - Accessibility Testing automation (WEBINAR): http://testautomation.applitools.com/post/167301574987/webinar-recording-automating-accessibility
 +
* An Introduction To Accessibility Testing: https://saucelabs.com/blog/an-introduction-to-accessibility-testing
 +
* '''Bureau of Internet Accessibility (BOIA): https://www.boia.org/''' | [https://www.boia.org/a11yreports/?domref=www.alc.ca EXAMPLE] (free scanner and enterprise-grade annual "Manual A11Y Testing" retainer services by their team of testers with actual disabilities, government-certified and assured against lawsuits)
 +
<ref>Why Automated Web Accessibility Testing Tools Aren’t Enough: https://www.essentialaccessibility.com/blog/automated-accessibility-testing-tools-how-much-do-scans-catch</ref>
 +
<ref>Performing an accessibility self-audit: https://www.dundee.ac.uk/guides/performing-accessibility-self-audit</ref>
 +
<ref>Working Together - People with Disabilities and Computer Technology: https://www.washington.edu/doit/working-together-people-disabilities-and-computer-technology</ref>
 +
<ref>12 Facts And Figures About Having A Disability In Canada: https://www.cbc.ca/strombo/news/by-the-numbers-international-day-of-persons-with-disabilities</ref>
 +
<ref>Is The “Accessible Icon” Wheelchair Logo Due For A Redesign?: https://www.cbc.ca/strombo/news/is-the-accessible-icon-wheelchair-logo-due-for-a-redesign.html</ref>
 +
<ref>How to Effectively Support Employees With Disabilities: https://www.healthworkscollective.com/how-to-effectively-support-employees-with-disabilities/ | [https://www.healthworkscollective.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/04/Visually-Impaired.jpg Example of alternative mouse for A11Y needs]</ref>
 +
<ref>How can screen readers be used in Accessibility Testing?: https://www.tpgi.com/screen-readers-accessibility-testing/</ref>
 +
<ref>Top 20 Accessibility Testing Tools for Web Applications: https://www.softwaretestinghelp.com/accessibility-testing-tools/</ref>
 +
<ref>UsabelNet offers "A11Y User Testing" with members of the ''Disability Community'': https://info.usablenet.com/digital-accessibility-support-services/user-testing</ref>
 +
<ref>10 Accessible Web Design Examples to Model Your Site After: https://blog.usablenet.com/accessible-web-design-examples-to-model-your-site-after</ref>
 +
<ref>'''The Ultimate Guide to Achieving Website ADA Compliance: https://www.digitalauthority.me/resources/ada-compliance-website/'''</ref>
 +
<ref>Manual Accessibility Testing - Keyboard and Screen Reader Navigation: https://www.telerik.com/blogs/manual-accessibility-testing-keyboard-and-screen-reader-navigation</ref>
 +
<ref>How to set up user testing as part of your "accessibility program" (WEBINAR): https://info.usablenet.com/on-demand-webinar-how-to-set-up-user-testing-as-part-of-accessibility-program</ref>
 +
 +
 +
== Assistive Technologies ==
 +
 +
* [[wikipedia: Assistive Technology]]
 +
* Global Report on Assistive Technology (GReAT): https://www.who.int/teams/health-product-policy-and-standards/assistive-and-medical-technology/assistive-technology/global-report-on-assistive-technology
 +
<ref>Assistive Technology intro (WEBINAR): https://monsido.com/services/webinars?wchannelid=qoc8k846tm&wmediaid=n66od6tthz | [https://docs.google.com/presentation/d/1gOgGDpou1fLdDH2rz6NAKlAAfTc4u1iuEfysO7VpROA/edit#slide=id.g1169dc2718d_0_44 SLIDES]</ref>
 +
<ref>What is Assistive Technology? : https://star-center.org/what-is-assistive-technology/</ref>
 +
<ref>Assistive Technology for Visually Impaired -- Making a Difference: https://verbit.ai/assistive-technology-for-visually-impaired/</ref>
 +
<ref>Assistive Technology for Visually Impaired Individuals - What to Choose and How: https://esighteyewear.com/assistive-technology-visually-impaired/</ref>
 +
<ref>Refreshable Braille Displays: https://www.afb.org/node/16207/refreshable-braille-displays</ref>
 +
<ref>'''Braille Alphabet & Numbers: https://www.wonderbaby.org/sites/wonderbaby2.perkinsdev1.org/files/braille-letters-numbers.pdf'''</ref>
 +
<ref>DIY ‘smart’ white cane works like a self-driving car: https://www.futurity.org/blindness-white-cane-smart-technology-robotics-2643062/</ref>
 +
<ref>Multimodal sensing and intuitive steering assistance improve navigation and mobility for people with impaired vision: https://www.science.org/doi/10.1126/scirobotics.abg6594</ref>
 +
<ref>Engineers 3D-Print Personalized, Wireless Wearables That Never Need a Charge: https://news.arizona.edu/story/engineers-3d-print-personalized-wireless-wearables-never-need-charge</ref>
 +
<ref>UN guide to Assistive technology: https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/assistive-technology</ref>
 +
<ref>Rethinking Assistive Technology: https://www.edutopia.org/article/rethinking-assistive-technology</ref>
 +
<ref>Assistive Technology and Low Vision Open House: http://blog.watap.org/2013/08/assistive-technology-and-low-vision.html</ref>
 +
<ref>Understanding Assistive Technology - How Do People with Mobility Disabilities Use Technology?: https://www.levelaccess.com/understanding-assistive-technology-how-do-people-with-mobility-disabilities-use-technology/</ref>
 +
<ref>Making assistive technology better through user-centricity: https://trexorobotics.com/user-centric-assistive-technology/</ref>
 +
<ref>Back-to-School Transition with Augmentative Communication and Assistive Technology: https://franciscanchildrens.org/blog/back-to-school-augmentative-comm-assistive-tech/</ref>
 +
<ref>Devices that Empower: Celebrating Assistive Technology: https://chicagolighthouse.org/blog/celebrating-assistive-technology/</ref>
 +
<ref>Assistive Technology Can Benefit All Students: https://www.edutopia.org/blog/assistive-technology-can-benefit-all-students-jenny-grabiec</ref>
 +
<ref>7 STEPS THAT WILL HELP YOU DECIDE ON THE BEST DIGITAL ASSISTIVE TECHNOLOGY FOR YOUR CLIENTS: https://pterrer.com/2013/07/01/7-steps-that-will-help-you-decide-on-the-best-digital-technology-for-your-clients/</ref>
 +
<ref>Craig Hospital - The Don & Melba Rugg Assistive Technology Lab: https://craighospital.org/services/assistive-technology</ref>
 +
<ref>Assistive Technology Professional (ATP) : https://www.thoughtco.com/assistive-technology-professional-198921</ref>
 +
<ref>5 Assistive Technology Stores for your Techie with Special Needs : https://www.friendshipcircle.org/blog/2013/12/12/5-assistive-technology-stores-for-your-techie-with-special-needs/</ref>
 +
<ref>What is the relationship between Assistive Technology and Universal Design? : https://sulaimanhpu.blogspot.com/2016/08/what-is-relationship-between-assistive.html</ref>
 +
 +
<ref>'''US Library of Congress (LoC) – Devices & Aids: https://www.loc.gov/nls/resources/blindness-and-vision-impairment/devices-aids/'''</ref>
 +
<ref>US LoC – Braille Displays and Notetakers: https://www.loc.gov/nls/resources/blindness-and-vision-impairment/devices-aids/braille-displays-notetakers/</ref>
 +
<ref>Assistive Technology for Visually Impaired: https://lighthouseeducationcenter.org/program/assistive-technology/</ref>
 +
<ref>What is Digital Braille? https://www.electronicink.com/what-is-electronic-braillie/ (see video at bottom of article)</ref>
 +
<ref>What Is Electronic Braillie?: https://www.electronicink.com/what-is-electronic-braillie/</ref>
 +
<ref>Bonocle - Braille pocket tool: https://www.bonocle.co/en/</ref>
 +
<ref>Orbit Reader 20: https://www.orbitresearch.com/product/orbit-reader-20/</ref>
 +
<ref>Innovision - BrailleMe: http://innovisiontech.co/brailleme/</ref>
 +
 +
<ref>Mobile assistive technologies for the visually impaired: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24054999/</ref>
 +
<ref>10 Free Screen Readers For Blind Or Visually Impaired Users: https://medium.com/usabilitygeek/10-free-screen-readers-for-blind-or-visually-impaired-users-45a45c757617</ref>
 +
<ref>6 best screen readers for the blind or visually impaired people: https://tecoreviews.com/reviews/6-best-screen-readers-for-the-blind-or-visually-impaired-people/</ref>
 +
<ref>Assistive Technology for Visually Impaired and Blind People: https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/bfm%3A978-1-84628-867-8/1.pdf</ref>
 +
<ref>Sensor-Based Assistive Devices for Visually-Impaired People: Current Status, Challenges, and Future Directions: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5375851/</ref>
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +
== Tools ==
 +
 +
* Accessibility Insights - A11Y checker tool: https://accessibilityinsights.io
 +
* Deque - Axe: https://www.deque.com/axe/
 +
* '''Cynthia Says™ -- Compliance Sheriff® portal: http://www.cynthiasays.com/'''<ref>Old Cynthia URL: http://www.contentquality.com/mynewtester/cynthia.exe?rptmode=1&url1=https://www.alc.ca | [http://www.contentquality.com/mynewtester/cynthia.exe?rptmode=2&url1= Cynthia - Section 508 checker]</ref>
 +
* WAVE - web-based site accessibility evaluation tool: http://
 +
* Google Play store — Accessibility Scanner (ANDROID APP): https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.google.android.apps.accessibility.auditor&hl=en_US&e=-EnableAppDetailsPageRedesign<ref>Android Accessibility scanner guide: https://support.google.com/accessibility/android/faq/6376582</ref>
 +
* '''Google Lighthouse: https://developers.google.com/web/tools/lighthouse/''' (successor to the basic Chrome Dev Tools extension)
 +
* Chrome Accessibility inspector: https://chrome.google.com/webstore/detail/accessibility-developer-t/fpkknkljclfencbdbgkenhalefipecmb?hl=en (F12 Dev Tools add-on)
 +
* Chrome extension -- WAVE: https://chrome.google.com/webstore/detail/wave-evaluation-tool/jbbplnpkjmmeebjpijfedlgcdilocofh
 +
* A11Y - Color Contrast Accessibility Validator: https://color.a11y.com/
 +
* ColorHunt: https://colorhunt.co/ (color palette of A11Y-compatible & visually appealing color combinations)
 +
* A11y Command-line Tools: https://addyosmani.com/a11y/ | [https://github.com/addyosmani/a11y SRC] | [https://github.com/addyosmani/a11y-webapp DEMO] (pairs with "Chrome Accessibility inspector" extension)
 +
 +
* '''Pa11y: http://pa11y.org''' | [https://github.com/pa11y/pa11y SRC] (tool that loads web pages & highlights any accessibility issues it finds with WCAG/WAI-ARIA/s508)<ref>How to use PA11Y: https://bitsofco.de/pa11y/</ref>
 +
* ''tota11y'' -- accessibility visualization toolkit: https://khan.github.io/tota11y/#Installation (from Khan Academy's dev team)
 +
* Koa11y: https://open-indy.github.io/Koa11y/
 +
 +
* '''Web Accessibility Checker: https://achecker.ca/checker/index.php'''
 +
* WebsiteComply: https://websitecomply.com/#webcomply (WCAG 2.0 AAA compliancy validator)
 +
* Automated Accessibility Testing Tool (AATT): https://github.com/paypal/AATT
 +
* Contrast Checker (manual): https://contrastchecker.com/
 +
* Web Accessibility In Mind (WebAIM) -- color contrast checker: http://webaim.org/resources/contrastchecker/
 +
* Apple -- VoiceOver screen reader: https://www.apple.com/accessibility/mac/vision/
 +
* Microsoft -- Accessibility Insights for Web: https://accessibilityinsights.io/docs/en/web/overview/<ref>Microsoft -- Supplier Accessibility toolkit: https://www.microsoft.com/en-us/accessibility/supplier-toolkit-resources</ref>
 +
* Improve accessibility with the (Microsoft Office365) Accessibility Checker: https://support.microsoft.com/en-us/office/improve-accessibility-with-the-accessibility-checker-a16f6de0-2f39-4a2b-8bd8-5ad801426c7f#picktab=windows
 +
* '''Colorblind Web Page Filter: https://www.toptal.com/designers/colorfilter'''<ref>Colorblind Web Page Filter: http://www.color-blindness.com/2006/04/10/colorblind-web-page-filter/</ref>
 +
* Material Design -- Color Tool: https://material.io/tools/color/#!/?view.left=1&vie<>w.right=0&primary.color=FFD54F
 +
* Web Accessibility Toolbar (WAT) for IE 9-11: https://developer.paciellogroup.com/resources/wat/
 +
<ref>HTML CodeSniffer - A11Y bookmarklet: http://squizlabs.github.io/HTML_CodeSniffer/</ref>
 +
<ref>Automated Accessibility Testing Tool (AATT): https://github.com/paypal/AATT (free service from [[PayPal]] that wraps HTML CodeSniffer & Axe with hooks to SeLion, Nemo, Nightwatch)</ref>
 +
<ref>PA11Y: https://pa11y.org/</ref>
 +
<ref>TPGi -- Website Accessibility Scan: https://www.tpgi.com/free-website-accessibility-scan/</ref>
 +
<ref>JavaScript Bookmarklets for Accessibility Testing: https://pauljadam.com/bookmarklets/</ref>
 +
<ref>CKEditor -- Accessibility Checker: https://ckeditor.com/ckeditor-4/accessibility-checker/</ref>
 +
<ref>PowerMapper - SortSite: https://www.powermapper.com/products/sortsite/</ref>
 +
<ref>Tenon - Accessibility as a Service: https://tenon.io</ref>
 +
<ref>CommonLook: https://commonlook.com/accessibility-software/pdf/ (best "PDF document" A11Y scanning)</ref>
 +
<ref>5 Website Accessibility Checkers You Need Today: https://www.mediacurrent.com/blog/5-website-accessibility-checkers/</ref>
 +
<ref>Top 25 Awesome Accessibility Testing Tools for Websites: https://dynomapper.com/blog/27-accessibility-testing/246-top-25-awesome-accessibility-testing-tools-for-websites</ref>
 +
<ref>What are the best and free tools to perform Web accessibility testing?: https://www.quora.com/What-are-the-best-and-free-tools-to-perform-Web-accessibility-testing</ref>
 +
<ref>Website Accessibility Software Market is Booming Worldwide By Top Emerging Key Players -- Google, Siteimprove, DYNO Mapper, Deque, BoIA, Crownpeak, Level Access, DubBot, Monsido, Silktide: https://weeklywall.com/website-accessibility-software-market-is-booming-worldwide-by-top-emerging-key-playersgoogle-siteimprove-dyno-mapper-deque-boia-crownpeak-level-access-dubbot-monsido-silktide/</ref>
 +
 +
=== Screen Readers ===
 +
 +
* Job Access With Speech (JAWS): http://www.freedomscientific.com/jaws-hq.asp (leading [[TTS]] screen reader tool to help users with Accessibility needs for reading and/or visual disabilities) | [https://support.freedomscientific.com/Downloads/JAWS DOWNLOAD]<ref>[[wikipedia: JAWS (screen_reader)]]</ref> (WINDOWS)
 +
* NonVisual Desktop Access (NVDA): http://www.nvda-project.org/ (WINDOWS) | Add-ons: [https://addons.nvda-project.org/addons/focusHighlight.en.html Focus highlight] | [https://addons.nvda-project.org/addons/speech_history.en.html Speech History] | [https://addons.nvda-project.org/addons/developerToolkit.en.html DevToolkit] (for Devs with A11Y needs) | [https://addons.nvda-project.org/addons/crashHero.en.html CrashHero] | [https://addons.nvda-project.org/addons/numpadNavMode.en.html Numpad Nav] | [https://addons.nvda-project.org/addons/BluetoothAudio.en.html Bluetooth Audio] | [https://addons.nvda-project.org/addons/calibre.en.html Calibre eBooks] | [https://addons.nvda-project.org/addons/readFeeds.en.html ReadFeeds] | [https://addons.nvda-project.org/addons/outlookExtended.en.html Outlook extended] | [https://addons.nvda-project.org/addons/vlc.en.html VLC MediaPlayer] | [https://addons.nvda-project.org/addons/zoomEnhancements.en.html ZoomVideoconferencing]<ref>'''NVDA -- Keyboard Commands - Quick Reference Guide: https://dequeuniversity.com/assets/pdf/screenreaders/nvda.pdf'''</ref><ref>Quick Reference Guide -- NVDA for Windows Keyboard Commands: https://dequeuniversity.com/assets/pdf/screenreaders/nvda-guide.pdf</ref><ref>Quick Reference Guide -- NVDA Keyboard Commands: https://dequeuniversity.com/assets/pdf/screenreaders/screen-reader-nvda.pdf</ref>
 +
Browse and focus modes: https://www.accessibility-developer-guide.com/knowledge/screen-readers/desktop/browse-focus-modes/
 +
* Windows 10 Accessibility tools -- Complete guide to Narrator: https://support.microsoft.com/en-ca/help/22798/windows-10-complete-guide-to-narrator
 +
* WindowsEyes: http://www.gwmicro.com/Window-Eyes/ (commercial/expensive, WINDOWS only)
 +
* VoiceOver: http://www.apple.com/accessibility/voiceover/<ref>VoiceOver - Vision: http://www.apple.com/accessibility/macosx/vision.html</ref> (MAC)
 +
* Orca: http://projects.gnome.org/orca/ (for Gnome on Unix/Linux)
 +
* FireVox: http://firevox.clcworld.net/downloads.html (FF plugin, cross-platform)
 +
* Fangs: http://www.standards-schmandards.com/projects/fangs/ (FF plugin, cross-platform... Developer testing tool only, which shows "scripts" of what Screen Reader would read)
 +
<ref>10 Free Screen Readers For Blind Or Visually Impaired Users: https://usabilitygeek.com/10-free-screen-reader-blind-visually-impaired-users/</ref>
 +
 +
=== Voice Control ===
 +
 +
* Nuance -- Dragon - Naturally Speaking: https://www.nuance.com/dragon.html
 +
 +
 +
== Resources ==
 +
 +
* Digital Accessibility Rights Evaluation Index (DARE Index): https://www.g3ict.org/digital-accessibility-rights-evaluation-index/<ref>DARE Index 2020 - Top Performing Countries: https://g3ict.org/publication/dare-index-2020-top-performing-countries</ref>
 +
* [[wikipedia: Global Accessibility Awareness Day]] (''GAAD'')
 +
<ref>Global Accessibility Awareness Day (GAAD): https://globalaccessibilityawarenessday.org/ (3rd Thu. in May)</ref>
 +
<ref>CHALLENGE -- Accessibility know-how needs to go mainstream with developers - NOW: https://mysqltalk.wordpress.com/2011/11/27/challenge-accessibility-know-how-needs-to-go-mainstream-with-developers-now/</ref>
 +
<ref>Deque -- GAAD 2021 - Basic Accessibility Fundamentals bootcamp: https://accessibility.deque.com/thanks-for-signing-up-gaad-bootcamp</ref>
 +
<ref>Deque -- GAAD 2021 Workshop - Translating Design Wireframes into Accessible HTML/CSS: https://accessibility.deque.com/thanks-for-signing-up-wireframes-workshop</ref>
 +
<ref>UC San Diego -- GAAD 2021- Global Accessibility Awareness Fair 2021: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jjFngHfx__A (walkthrough of Screen Reader usage and blockers starts [https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jjFngHfx__A?t=39m05s 39:05])</ref>
 +
<ref>T12t meetup - accessibility mindset at your workplace - GAAD 2021: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2pQA50oGrJU | [https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aCY0C4nB4Tg&list=PL2xRuDW-GAR1IBucg5XVkYn5vZSAzZfXXStockholm GAAD 2021 discussions]</ref>
 +
* [[wikipedia: United Nations' International Day of Persons with Disabilities]]<ref>World Health Organization(WHO) -- International Day of Persons with Disabilities 2020 - A Day for All: https://www.who.int/campaigns/international-day-of-persons-with-disabilities/2020</ref><ref>United Nations (UN) - International Day of Persons with Disabilities: https://www.un.org/en/observances/day-of-persons-with-disabilities</ref><ref>How GAAD Started: https://globalaccessibilityawarenessday.org/about/</ref><ref>Disability Rights after Amsterdam - the way forward:  https://disability-studies.leeds.ac.uk/wp-content/uploads/sites/40/library/richard-whittle-Disability-Rights-after-Amsterdam.pdf</ref><ref>UN -- Ageing & disability: https://www.un.org/development/desa/disabilities/disability-and-ageing.html</ref>
 +
* [[wikipedia: Marrakesh VIP Treaty]] (Marrakesh Treaty to Facilitate Access to Published Works by '''V'''isually '''I'''mpaired Persons and Persons with Print Disabilities; signed by 63+ countries giving "copyright exceptions" for creating "accessible versions of copyrighted works" such as Transcripts, ClosedCaptions, Braille, Sub-Titles, Dubbed Audio Translations, Audio Transcriptions of non-audio for those with sight disabiities, etc)
 +
* International Labour Organization (ILO) -- An inclusive digital economy for people with disabilities: https://www.ilo.org/global/topics/disability-and-work/WCMS_769852/lang--en/index.htm
 +
* United Nations (UN) - Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD): https://www.un.org/development/desa/disabilities/convention-on-the-rights-of-persons-with-disabilities.html ('''Article 9''' of the ''CPRD'' obligates its ''182 States Parties'' to ensure that information and communication technologies, which support everything digital, are made accessible)
 +
* UN -- Statistics - Disability stats compendium (REPORT, 1990): https://unstats.un.org/unsd/publication/seriesy/seriesy_4e.pdf (last report of the "[https://unstats.un.org/unsd/demographic-social/sconcerns/disability/statistics/#!/home United Nations Disability Statistics Database - DISTAT]" group which is now archived, replaced by "[https://unstats.un.org/unsd/demographic-social/sconcerns/disability/index.cshtml United Nations Statistics Division - UNSD]")
 +
* World Health Organization (WHO) - World report on disability: https://www.who.int/disabilities/world_report/2011/report/en/ (~15% of the world's population lives with some form of disability, of whom 2-4% experience significant difficulties in functioning)<ref>World Health Organization (WHO) - "world report on disability" (2011): https://www.who.int/disabilities/world_report/2011/report.pdf</ref><ref>15% worldwide have physical or mental disability: https://www.cbsnews.com/news/15-worldwide-have-physical-or-mental-disability/</ref><ref> Dawkins is wrong – grossly wrong – about Down’s syndrome: https://www.tortoisemedia.com/2021/06/01/dawkins-is-wrong-grossly-wrong-about-downs-syndrome/</ref>
 +
* EU - Accessibility requirements for ICTproducts and services: https://standards.cen.eu/dyn/www/f?p=204:110:0::::FSP_PROJECT,FSP_ORG_ID:66602,855949&cs=1EDAD9D32175767F919BCC673EA996CFD | [https://www.etsi.org/deliver/etsi_en/301500_301599/301549/02.01.02_60/en_301549v020102p.pdf PDF] (replaces prior [https://mandate376.standards.eu EU Mandate 376])
 +
<ref>What is the European Union’s Web Accessibility Directive?: https://www.boia.org/blog/what-is-the-european-unions-web-accessibility-directive-1</ref>
 +
* Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA): https://www.ada.gov/<ref>Guidance on Web Accessibility and the ADA: https://beta.ada.gov/web-guidance/</ref><ref>Make 2020 the year your company stops waiting for an Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) letter/lawsuit to take action on A11Y: https://www.boia.org/blog/waiting-for-ada-demand-letter-to-take-accessibility-seriously</ref><ref>ADA Best Practices Tool Kit for State/Local Governments -- Chapter 6 - Curb Ramps & Pedestrian Crossings (Title II of ADA): https://www.ada.gov/pcatoolkit/chap6toolkit.htm</ref><ref>Auditing Your Website for Accessibility Compliance and Understanding How ADA Applies: https://cynthiang.ca/2018/08/16/presentation-auditing-your-website-for-accessibility-compliance-and-understanding-how-ada-applies/</ref><ref>Congress Did Not Pass ADA Amendment Clarifying Web Accessibility Standards: https://www.boia.org/blog/congress-did-not-pass-ada-amendment-clarifying-web-accessibility-standards</ref><ref>White House Embraces WCAG with Accessibility Updates: https://www.boia.org/blog/white-house-embraces-wcag-with-accessibility-updates (Dark mode, Font size options, more Spanish support, Inclusivity features)</ref><ref>'''Centers for Disease Control and prevention (CDC) -- Disability Impacts All of Us (INFOGRAPHIC): https://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/disabilityandhealth/infographic-disability-impacts-all.html'''</ref>
 +
* Japan’s Digital Accessibility Laws - an overview: https://www.boia.org/blog/japans-digital-accessibility-laws-an-overview<ref>Act on the Elimination of Disability Discrimination in Japan: https://inclusion-international.org/act-on-the-elimination-of-disability-discrimination-in-japan/</ref><ref>New law bans bias against people with disabilities, but shortcomings exist, say experts: https://www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2016/05/02/reference/new-law-bans-bias-against-people-with-disabilities-but-shortcomings-exist-say-experts/#.Xb8Dz5JKg0o</ref><ref>Disabled train passengers left disconnected in age of digital smart card use: https://japantoday.com/category/national/feature-disabled-passengers-left-disconnected-in-age-of-digital-smart-card-use</ref><ref>Japan's older population hits record high: https://www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2021/09/20/national/japans-older-population-hits-record-high/</ref>
 +
* '''The Accessible Canada Act -- Making an accessible Canada for persons with disabilities: https://www.canada.ca/en/employment-social-development/programs/accessible-people-disabilities.html'''<ref>'''An Overview of Canada’s Accessibility Laws - A Look at the Old and the New: https://www.essentialaccessibility.com/blog/canadian-accessibility-laws/'''</ref><ref>Summary of the Accessible Canada Act: https://www.canada.ca/en/employment-social-development/programs/accessible-people-disabilities/act-summary.html#section3-9</ref><ref>Accessible Canada Act (INFOGRAPHICS) - Making an accessible Canada for persons with disabilities: https://www.canada.ca/en/employment-social-development/programs/accessible-canada.html</ref><ref>Government of Canada announces appointments to the Canadian Accessibility Standards Development Organization: https://www.canada.ca/en/employment-social-development/news/2019/08/government-of-canada-announces-appointments-to-the-canadian-accessibility-standards-development-organization.html</ref><ref>Accessibility in the (Canadian) public service: https://www.canada.ca/en/government/publicservice/wellness-inclusion-diversity-public-service/diversity-inclusion-public-service/accessibility-public-service.html</ref><ref>TTC -- 2020 Accessibility Plan Status Update: http://ttc.ca/About_the_TTC/Commission_reports_and_information/Commission_meetings/2020/July_14/Reports/6_2020_Accessibility_Plan_Status_Update.pdf</ref><ref>People with disabilities around B.C. to benefit from new accessibility programs: https://news.gov.bc.ca/releases/2017SDPR0062-001760</ref><ref>High-Speed Access for All: Canada's Connectivity Strategy: https://www.ic.gc.ca/eic/site/139.nsf/eng/h_00002.html</ref><ref>Rollout of RHFAC continues cross-Canada: https://www.reminetwork.com/articles/rollout-rhfac-continues-cross-canada/</ref><ref>'''Best provinces for accessibility in Canada: https://www.zolo.ca/blog/best-provinces-accessibility'''</ref><ref>Blind New Brunswickers hopeful legislature bill offering free transit fares gets passed: https://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/new-brunswick/blind-new-brunswick-free-transit-bill-1.6382535</ref><ref>'''Statistics Canada (StatsCan) - Accessibility info/figures: https://www.statcan.gc.ca/en/topics-start/accessibility'''</ref><ref>Disability-related employment benefits: https://www.canada.ca/en/revenue-agency/services/tax/businesses/topics/payroll/benefits-allowances/disability-related-employment-benefits.html</ref>
 +
* Canada's Digital Charter - Trust in a digital world: https://www.ic.gc.ca/eic/site/062.nsf/eng/h_00108.html<ref>A Complete Overview of Canada’s Accessibility Laws: https://siteimprove.com/en-ca/blog/a-complete-overview-of-canada-s-accessibility-laws/</ref><ref>Minister Bains announces Canada’s Digital Charter: https://www.canada.ca/en/innovation-science-economic-development/news/2019/05/minister-bains-announces-canadas-digital-charter.html (Charter’s 10 principles will build a foundation of trust for Canadians in the digital sphere)</ref>
 +
 +
* Accessibility Services Canada: https://accessibilitycanada.ca/ | [https://accessibilitycanada.ca/legislation/canada/ ACA] | [https://accessibilitycanada.ca/aoda/ AODA] | [https://accessibilitycanada.ca/legislation/manitoba/ AMA] | [https://accessibilitycanada.ca/legislation/nova-scotia/ NS]
 +
* Accessibility for Ontarians with Disabilities Act (AODA) act: https://www.aoda.ca/the-act/
 +
* BC Accessibility legislation plain language summary: https://www2.gov.bc.ca/gov/content/governments/about-the-bc-government/accessibility/legislation/summary
 +
* Canadian National Institute for the Blind (CNIB): https://www.cnib.ca/<ref>[[wikipedia: CNIB Foundation]]</ref>
 +
* AODA regulations -- #14 - Accessible Websites & Web Content: https://www.aoda.ca/integrated/#awawc
 +
<ref>Accessibility for Ontarians with Disabilities Act (AODA) compliance -- A Primer on Canadian Web Accessibility Standards: https://www.3playmedia.com/2016/06/03/aoda-compliance-a-primer-on-canadian-accessibility-standards/</ref>
 +
<ref>eSSENTIAL Accessibility -- AODA Frequently Asked Questions: https://www.essentialaccessibility.com/blog/faqs-about-aoda</ref>
 +
<ref>New Accessibility Requirements Fast Approaching Under AODA: https://www.mondaq.com/canada/discrimination-disability-sexual-harassment/986958/new-accessibility-requirements-fast-approaching-under-aoda</ref>
 +
<ref>Government accessibility standards and WCAG 2 by country:https://www.powermapper.com/blog/government-accessibility-standards/</ref>
 +
<ref>About the HTML Epidemic, WebAIM “Million” Report, and Teach Access: http://www.webaxe.org/html-epidemic-webaim-millions-report-teach-access/</ref>
 +
 +
* WCAG 2.1 checklist: https://romeo.elsevier.com/accessibility_checklist/<ref>WCAG 2.1 -- UX Checklist - items broken down into POUR headings: https://github.com/JenniKobylskiUX/WCAG-Accessibility-UX-Checklist</ref><ref>WCAG 2.1 - Exploring the New Success Criteria: https://www.accessibility.dev/this-is-the-second-of-a-three-part-series-about-wcag/</ref><ref>Introducing WCAG 2.1 AA guidelines to Spree Commerce 4.2 UX: https://spreecommerce.org/introducing-wcag-guidelines-to-spree-commerce/</ref>
 +
* Deque A11Y checklist (with WCAG details): https://accessibility.deque.com/site-a11y-checklist/
 +
* UserFirst -- Digital Accessibility Checklist: https://f.hubspotusercontent30.net/hubfs/5261881/Digital Accessibility Checklist.pdf<ref>User1st creates web accessibility testing solution (Press Release): https://www.kmworld.com/Articles/News/News/User1st-creates-web-accessibility-testing-solution-141946.aspx</ref>
 +
* Section508 checklist: http://webaim.org/standards/508/checklist
 +
* '''Training Accessibility Guidelines (TAG) -- WCAG level check (self-evaluation questionnaire): http://www.cansomebodyhelpme.com/tag/'''
 +
* The ''#NoMouse'' Challenge: http://nomouse.org/ (by UCSD A11Y Lab)
 +
* UK HomeOffice - Designing for Accessibility: https://ukhomeoffice.github.io/accessibility-posters/ | [https://ukhomeoffice.github.io/accessibility-posters/posters/accessibility-posters.pdf POSTERS]<ref>Government testing identifies accessibility issues on 99% of public sector websites: https://www.publictechnology.net/articles/news/government-testing-identifies-accessibility-issues-99-public-sector-websites</ref>
 +
* DISABILITY EQUALITY INDEX® (DEI®) 7th Annual / 2021 Benchmark: https://www.disabilityequalityindex.org/DEISurvey/Annual_DEI_Questions.pdf
 +
* BOIA - Mobile A11Y checklist: https://www.boia.org/definitive-checklist-for-mobile-accessibility
 +
* US Access Board -- Guidelines & Standards: https://www.access-board.gov/guidelines-and-standards<ref>ADA Standards for Accessible Design: https://www.ada.gov/2010ADAstandards_index.htm</ref>
 +
* A11Y Wars -- The Accessibility Interpretation Problem: https://docs.google.com/document/d/1L9OYaP052j2uxVu-8IXGxzwQsHdx8G6YKrxpHo7BZ_w/edit#heading=h.fgok7u6ftau1
 +
* Roadmap for Accessible Rich Internet Applications (WAI-ARIA Roadmap): http://www.w3.org/TR/wai-aria-roadmap/
 +
* A11Y Project: https://a11yproject.com/
 +
* A11Y support test reference: https://a11ysupport.io/ (website with references of proper A11Y controls for testing Device/OS/Browser A11Y support)
 +
* Accessibility Tree spec: https://wicg.github.io/aom/accessibility-tree
 +
* Funka: https://www.funka.com/en/ (organization that analyses, develops and educates companies and groups in accessibility)
 +
* IBM --  Accessibility Building and Learning Environment (ABLE) - Equal Access toolkit: https://www.ibm.com/able/ | [https://chrome.google.com/webstore/detail/ibm-equal-access-accessib/lkcagbfjnkomcinoddgooolagloogehp Chrome ext.]
 +
<ref>IBM Launches Open Source Equal Access Toolkit: https://www.forbes.com/sites/stevenaquino/2020/05/19/ibm-launches-open-source-equal-access-toolkit/?sh=7fb050d1f776</ref>
 +
<ref>IBM launches Equal Access Toolkit to help developers build accessible websites and applications: https://developer.ibm.com/blogs/ibm-launches-equal-access-toolkit-developers-accessible-apps-and-websites/</ref>
 +
<ref>IBM introduces Agent Building and Learning Environment (ABLE): https://researcher.watson.ibm.com/researcher/view_group.php?id=979</ref>
 +
<ref>Designing for accessibility - Dos and don'ts (UK - Home Office Digital): https://imgur.com/gallery/f2vj5</ref>
 +
<ref>Stark suite -- tools to Supercharge A11Y design with Figma: https://www.figma.com/community/plugin/732603254453395948/Stark</ref>
 +
 +
* The "Accessible Icon" project: https://accessibleicon.org (International Symbol for Accessibility<ref>[[wikipedia: International Symbol of Access]] (''ISA'')</ref>)
 +
* The Great "Accessibility Blogs/influencers" Roundup: https://www.digitala11y.com/accessibility-blogs/
 +
* Accessibility drawings by Mr. Azari Mat Yasir: https://imgur.com/gallery/B7TeVkd
 +
* Accessibility Maze game: https://de.ryerson.ca/wa/maze.html
 +
<ref>What You Can Do to Remove Barriers on the Web: https://de.ryerson.ca/games/accessibility/_/accessibility_guidelines.pdf</ref>
 +
<ref>Game Accessibility Feature Tags are now Available on Microsoft Store for Xbox: https://news-xbox-com.cdn.ampproject.org/c/s/news.xbox.com/en-us/2021/11/16/game-accessibility-feature-tags-now-available/amp/</ref>
 +
<ref>Technical Language, Advice Understandability, and Perceptions of Expertise and Trustworthiness - The Case of the Financial Planner (WHITEPAPER): https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/031289620202700102</ref>
 +
 +
* Click-Away Pound Survey: http://www.clickawaypound.com | [http://www.clickawaypound.com/downloads/cap19final0502.pdf 2019 REPORT]
 +
* HTML DOM alt Property: http://w3schools.com/htmldom/prop_img_alt.asp
 +
* DropDown DEUX: http://blakehaswell.com/lab/dropdown/deux/ (accessible dropdown example)
 +
* Screen Reader survey: http://webaim.org/projects/screenreadersurvey2/#demographics
 +
* '''W3C -- EdX eLearning - Introduction to Web Accessibility: https://www.edx.org/course/web-accessibility-introduction'''
 +
<ref>Egghead courses -- Develop Accessible Web Apps with React: https://egghead.io/courses/develop-accessible-web-apps-with-react</ref>
 +
<ref>'''WAI -- Before, After, Demo (BAD) website: https://www.w3.org/WAI/demos/bad/a>fter/home.html (great reference for how a website without A11Y was able to fix most of their issues)</ref>
 +
<ref>A Beginner's Guide to Web Accessibility: https://webdesign.tutsplus.com/courses/a-beginners-guide-to-web-accessibility/lessons/pa11y-and-pa11y-dashboard</ref>
 +
* Google - Web Accessibility (E-Learning) course: https://www.udacity.com/course/web-accessibility--ud891<ref>Legacy version of Google's Web Accessibility course: https://web.archive.org/web/20160327154224/https://webaccessibility.withgoogle.com/course</ref><ref>Google's Accessibility guide for Android/Chrome developers: https://www.google.com/accessibility/for-developers/ | [https://developers.google.com/web/fundamentals/accessibility/accessible-style Accessible Styles] | [https://developers.google.com/web/fundamentals/accessibility/semantics-builtin/ Semantic HTML] | [https://developers.google.com/web/fundamentals/accessibility/ A11Y overview]</ref><ref>A11ycasts with Google Sr. Accessibility Engineer Rob Dodson: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLNYkxOF6rcICWx0C9LVWWVqvHlYJyqw7g</ref>
 +
* '''Google's excellent showcase E-Commerce website example: https://shop.polymer-project.org/''' (implemented in WebComponents/Polymer)
 +
* W3C guide to developing a Web Accessibility Business Case for Your Organization: https://www.w3.org/WAI/bcase/Overview
 +
* Better Web Browsing - Tips for Customizing Your Computer: https://www.w3.org/WAI/users/browsing.php
 +
* How to use the keyboard (TAB) to navigate on Safari: https://www.tempertemper.net/blog/how-to-use-the-keyboard-to-navigate-on-safari
 +
* Universal Design for Science -- Best for All: https://www.perkinselearning.org/accessible-science/blog/universal-design-science-best-all (7 principles: Equitable, Flexible, Simple/intuitive, Perceptible, Error tolerant, Low physical effort, Appropriate Size/Space)<ref>Perkins -- eLearning, School for the Blind - App Accessibility Checklist: https://www.perkinselearning.org/technology/blog/app-accessibility-checklist</ref>
 +
* '''Do's & Don'ts on designing for Accessibility (A11Y posters for various disabilities): https://accessibility.blog.gov.uk/2016/09/02/dos-and-donts-on-designing-for-accessibility/'''
 +
* WebAIM's WCAG 2.0 Checklist for HTML documents: http://webaim.org/standards/wcag/checklist<ref>A Quick Primer On The WCAG 2.0 Accessibility Standard: https://www.thrivewebdesigns.com/wcag20-accessibility-standard/</ref><ref>WCAG 2.0 — Accessibility Principles And Guidelines: vanseodesign.com/web-design/wcag-principles-guidelines/</ref>
 +
* Techniques for WCAG 2.0: http://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG20-TECHS/Overview.html
 +
* HTML and XHTML Techniques for WCAG 2.0: http://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG20-TECHS/html.html
 +
* '''Making Content Usable for People with Cognitive and Learning Disabilities: https://www.w3.org/TR/coga-usable/'''<ref>Common Types Of Learning Disabilities: http://learningdisabilitiesnekanso.blogspot.com/2015/10/common-types-of-learning-disabilities.html</ref><ref>The impact of motion animation on cognitive disability: https://www.tpgi.com/the-impact-of-motion-animation-on-cognitive-disability/</ref>
 +
* Inclusive Design Principles: https://inclusivedesignprinciples.org
 +
<ref>Inclusive user testing - and empathy - are core to inclusive design: https://sdtimes.com/softwaredev/inclusive-user-testing-and-empathy-are-core-to-inclusive-design/?activecampaign_id=123002</ref>
 +
* Checklist for Creating Accessible Videos: https://www.boia.org/blog/checklist-for-creating-accessible-videos
 +
* Top 5 Ways to Make Podcasts Accessible: https://www.boia.org/blog/top-5-ways-to-make-podcasts-accessible
 +
 +
* '''Microsoft Adaptive Accessories: https://www.microsoft.com/en-us/store/b/microsoft-adaptive-accessories'''<ref>Increasing our Focus on Inclusive Technology: https://blogs.microsoft.com/accessibility/increasing-our-focus-on-inclusive-technology/</ref><ref>Microsoft launches new lab for building inclusive tech, unveils new adaptive accessoriesL https://sdtimes.com/msft/microsoft-launches-new-lab-for-building-inclusive-tech-unveils-new-adaptive-accessories/</ref>
 +
* Xbox Accessibility Guidelines (XAG) 2.0: https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/gaming/accessibility<ref>Xbox Accessibility Guidelines Provide Best Practices So More Gamers Can Play: https://www.boia.org/blog/xbox-accessibility-guidelines-provide-best-practices-so-more-gamers-can-play</ref><ref>Xbox One and Windows 10 Add In-Game Transcription: https://www.boia.org/blog/xbox-one-and-windows-10-add-in-game-transcription</ref><ref>Microsoft starts new program to help (game developers) make more accessible games: https://www.theverge.com/2021/2/16/22286216/microsoft-xbox-games-tested-accessibility-guidelines</ref><ref>XBox's new "Adaptive Controller": https://www.xbox.com/en-US/accessories/controllers/xbox-adaptive-controller</ref><ref>Microsoft’s new Xbox controller is designed entirely for players with disabilities: https://www.polygon.com/2018/5/17/17363528/xbox-adaptive-controller-disability-accessible</ref><ref>Microsoft is testing Xbox party chat accessibility features: https://www.engadget.com/xbox-party-chat-previews-text-to-speech-and-speech-transcription-102644434.html</ref>
 +
 +
* Simply Accessible (example WCAG-friendly search results, forms, etc): http://simplyaccessible.org/
 +
* Accessibility Inspector: https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Tools/Accessibility_inspector (added to FF DevTools in 2018)
 +
* Survey of Users with "Low Vision" Results: https://webaim.org/projects/lowvisionsurvey/
 +
<ref>Low Vision .vs. Legally Blind: https://www.2020detroit.com/low-vision-vs-legal-blindness/</ref>
 +
<ref>IALVS -- What’s the Difference Between Low Vision and Blindness?: https://ialvs.com/whats-the-difference-between-low-vision-and-being-legally-blind/</ref>
 +
<ref>Low Vision -- Definition, Causes and Disability: https://wecapable.com/low-vision-disability/</ref>
 +
<ref>Low Vision and Legal Blindness Terms and Descriptions: https://www.afb.org/blindness-and-low-vision/eye-conditions/low-vision-and-legal-blindness-terms-and-descriptions</ref>
 +
<ref>Revision of visual impairment definitions in the International Statistical Classification of Diseases: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1435919/</ref>
 +
<ref>What is Macular Degeneration?: https://www.macular.org/what-macular-degeneration</ref>
 +
<ref>What is Macular Degeneration (alternate/additional info)?: https://www.macular.org/what-macular-degeneration-alt</ref>
 +
 +
* A11Y Academy -- Digital Accessibility courses: [https://www.a11yacademy.com/catalog/info/id:129 PDF Accessibility] | [https://www.a11yacademy.com/catalog/info/id:130 Accessibility Best Practices] | [https://www.a11yacademy.com/catalog/info/id:131 Mobile Accessibility]
 +
* A11Y rules podcast: https://a11yrules.com/
 +
 +
* Google - Accessibility Talks: https://www.youtube.com/c/accessibilitytalks
 +
* Android - Accessibility features: https://www.android.com/accessibility/<ref>'''Android -- Test your app's accessibility: https://developer.android.com/guide/topics/ui/accessibility/testing'''</ref><ref>Android -- Using Espresso for automated Accessibility Checking: https://developer.android.com/training/testing/espresso/accessibility-checking#java</ref>
 +
* Mozilla - Accessibility: https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/Accessibility | [https://blog.mozilla.org/accessibility/ BLOG]
 +
* Microsoft Inclusive Design: https://www.microsoft.com/design/inclusive/<ref>Microsoft Inclusive Toolkit wins 2017's "Best Empowering category" in the annual "World Changing Ideas" competition: https://awards.ixda.org/entry/2017/microsoft-inclusive-toolkit-2/</ref><ref>Microsoft - our approach to Accessibility: https://www.microsoft.com/en-us/accessibility/approach</ref><ref>Microsoft Is 'Doubling Down' on Accessibility to Help Close Disability Divide: https://www.boia.org/blog/microsoft-is-doubling-down-on-accessibility-to-help-close-disability-divide</ref>
 +
* Apple -- Mac/iOS - Accessibility for Developers: https://developer.apple.com/accessibility/<ref>Apple A11Y features landing page: https://www.apple.com/accessibility/</ref><ref>Apple introduces SignTime... ASL for iOS, more accessibility features for people with disabilities: https://www.usatoday.com/story/tech/2021/05/19/apple-new-software-signtime-feature-iphone-ipad-watch-hearing-impaired/5162279001/</ref><ref>Accessibility in SwiftUI: https://developer.apple.com/videos/play/wwdc2019/238/</ref>
 +
 +
* SmashingMagazine -- A Smashing Guide to Accessibility: https://www.smashingmagazine.com/guides/accessibility/
 +
* BOIA - Developing the Accessibility Mindset: https://boia.docsend.com/view/qeyc45swqknu7caq
 +
* IAAP - State of Digital Accessibility report (2020): https://learn.levelaccess.com/webmail/487581/521071591/2ebeeff922b32d7016bed1b7765c8e3d59f3cf563bf88f4bcec0915d3fcd9f94 | [https://www.levelaccess.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/05/2020-State-of-Digital-Accessibility-Final.pdf PDF]
 +
* '''Smashing TV -- Harris Schneiderman on Translating Design Wireframes into Accessible HTML/CSS(Nov 20th): https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5gFSru8yGaU&t=3627s'''
 +
* eslint-plugin-jsx-a11y: https://www.npmjs.com/package/eslint-plugin-jsx-a11y | [https://github.com/evcohen/eslint-plugin-jsx-a11y SRC]
 +
* "No JavaScript UI" lib: https://github.com/nzakas/nui (experimental but nice PoC on 5kb library for dynamic Tabs, ARIA controls, etc)
 +
* Deque University -- Accessibility for Designers - curriculum package ($100USD): https://dequeuniversity.com/curriculum/packages/designers
 +
 +
* The business case for accessibility: https://www.deque.com/blog/the-business-case-for-accessibility/<ref>The Business Case for an Accessible Website: https://www.boia.org/blog/the-business-case-for-an-accessible-website</ref>
 +
* '''The ROI of Digital Accessibility (A11Y) initiatives: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eKirvsm4KGM'''
 +
* How to Convince your Boss to Care About Accessibility: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CfhBwSwVEzc
 +
* Business Case for Digital Accessibility: https://www.essentialaccessibility.com/infographic/BusinessCaseForAccessibility_Infographic.pdf
 +
* The Real Cost of Accessibility Complaints and Litigation (SLIDES): https://docs.google.com/presentation/d/1x8gt5qahAmew6lRekKXmDWFlRnGJN8QNrvbLJXkkV44/edit#slide=id.p1 | [https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=K8Ha8FeEth4 VIDEO]
 +
<ref>'''American Institutes for Reasearch (AIR) -- Hidden Market - The Purchasing Power of Working-Age Adults With Disabilities: https://www.air.org/system/files/downloads/report/Hidden-Market-Spending-Power-of-People-with-Disabilities-April-2018.pdf'''</ref>
 +
<ref>Canadian Survey on Disability Reports: https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/en/catalogue/89-654-X</ref>
 +
<ref>The 2006 Participation and Activity Limitation Survey: Disability in Canada: https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/en/catalogue/89-628-X</ref>
 +
<ref>eCH -- 0059 - Accessibility Standard for European Union (German): https://www.ech.ch/de/dokument/45a5ea94-5955-4206-a647-0f795b5f72b2</ref>
 +
<ref>"How Accessible Are We?" -- Digital India report (2020): https://my.visme.co/view/vdjjm3dp-how-accessible-are-we</ref>
 +
<ref>SiteImprove -- CX strategy - Drive ROI with Accessibility (E-BOOK): https://hello.siteimprove.com/en-us/content/ebook/empathyroi</ref>
 +
<ref>The ROI of Accessibility: http://www.accessibilitypartners.com/the-roi-of-accessibility/</ref>
 +
<ref>Optimizing Your eCommerce Site? Accessibility is a Must-Have!: https://www.essentialaccessibility.com/uncategorized/trends-and-impact-of-digital-accessibility-on-ecommerce-in-2021</ref>
 +
<ref>6 companies that boosted business with accessibility: https://bighack.org/business-case-accessibility-6-companies-who-boosted-business-with-accessibility/</ref>
 +
<ref>Valuable Truth Report (2022): https://www.thevaluable500.com/wp-content/uploads/2022/05/The-Valuable-Truth-2022.pdf</ref>
 +
 +
 +
== Tutorials ==
 +
 +
* Launching a Sustainable Accessibility Program (WEBINAR): https://www.tpgi.com/on-demand-webinar-launching-a-sustainable-accessibility-program/ | [https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rrHe3-4UZhA VIDEO]
 +
* How To Do an Accessibility Review: https://developers.google.com/web/fundamentals/accessibility/how-to-review
 +
* Deque - Accessibility Testing with the NVDA Screenreader: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Vx1vSd5uYS8
 +
* 15 Ways to Improve Web Accessibility: https://monsido.com/blog/improve-web-accessibility
 +
* Why Keyboard Traps Are One of the Most Frustrating Accessibility Issues: https://www.boia.org/blog/why-keyboard-traps-are-one-of-the-most-frustrating-accessibility-issues<ref>Avoid "Keyboard Traps" To Make Your Site More Accessible: https://www.boia.org/blog/avoid-keyboard-traps-to-make-your-site-more-accessible</ref>
 +
* '''How to Use Reader View in Your Desktop Browser: https://www.groovypost.com/howto/use-reader-view-desktop-browser/ (covers Chrome, Edge, FireFox, Opera, Vivaldi)'''
 +
* How to Use Safari’s Reader View Automatically on iOS and macOS: https://www.groovypost.com/howto/use-safari-reader-view-automatically-ios-macos/
 +
 +
* EggHead - Start Building Accessible Web Applications Today: https://egghead.io/courses/start-building-accessible-web-applications-today
 +
* EggHead - ARIA Accessible icon buttons: https://egghead.io/lessons/aria-accessible-icon-buttons
 +
 +
* Constructing a POUR Website: https://webaim.org/articles/pour/ (Perceivable, Operable, Understandable, Robust)
 +
* Equivalent Experiences - What Are They?: https://www.smashingmagazine.com/2020/05/equivalent-experiences-part1/
 +
* A Short Guide to Screen Reader Friendly Code: https://medium.com/hackernoon/a-short-guide-to-screen-reader-friendly-code-9ccf31b7e36a
 +
* Understanding the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG): https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/Accessibility/Understanding_WCAG
 +
* How to Review Your Website to Meet Ontario’s Accessibility Laws (AODA): http://www.eyelight.com/article/how-to-review-your-website-to-meet-ontarios-accessibility-laws-aoda
 +
<ref>Accessibility compliance deadline looms in Ontario: https://betakit.com/as-accessibility-compliance-deadline-looms-cnib-ottawa-firm-partner-to-offer-website-audits-to-businesses/</ref><ref>Ontario Making Public Spaces More Accessible: https://news.ontario.ca/en/release/1001367/ontario-making-public-spaces-more-accessible</ref>
 +
* Integrating Accessibility Throughout Design with ''User-Centered Design'' (UCD): uiaccess.com/accessucd/background.html#ucd<ref>MIT -- The role of accessibility in a universal web (WHITEPAPER): http://dspace.mit.edu/handle/1721.1/88013</ref>
 +
 +
* '''A Complete Guide To Accessible Front-End Components: https://www.smashingmagazine.com/2021/03/complete-guide-accessible-front-end-components/'''
 +
* Inclusive Components: https://inclusive-components.design/#components
 +
* AccessibleWeb - example website that deliberately excludes sighted users via CSS: https://accessibleweb.net/about/ (full support for Screen Readers via Semantic HTML)
 +
* Practical ARIA examples: https://web.archive.org/web/20190421050718/http://heydonworks.com/practical_aria_examples/
 +
* Examples of "Accessibility patterns": https://www.accessibility-developer-guide.com/examples/
 +
* '''Deque -- Building Accessible Components (WEBINAR): https://accessibility.deque.com/building-accessible-components-thank-you'''
 +
* How to Make Accessible Web Components — a Brief Guide: https://www.sitepoint.com/accessible-web-components/
 +
<ref>Accessible jQuery-ui Components Demonstration: http://hanshillen.github.io/jqtest/#goto_dialog</ref>
 +
<ref>Accessible Icon Buttons: https://www.sarasoueidan.com/blog/accessible-icon-buttons/</ref>
 +
<ref>HTMHell special - close buttons: https://www.htmhell.dev/20-close-buttons/</ref>
 +
* '''How Can I Make Breadcrumbs Accessible for People with Disabilities?: https://www.boia.org/blog/how-can-i-make-breadcrumbs-accessible-for-people-with-disabilities'''
 +
* How to Provide Accessible Form Error Identification: https://www.levelaccess.com/how-to-provide-accessible-error-identification/
 +
* Building a fully-accessible help tooltip (...is harder than I thought): https://www.sarasoueidan.com/blog/accessible-tooltips/ | [http://pauljadam.com/demos/tooltip.html DEMO]
 +
* JavaScript & Accessibility (A11Y) - Accordions: https://www.a11ywithlindsey.com/blog/javascript-accessibility-accordions
 +
<ref>Implementing A Pure CSS Collapsible (that can still have keyboard support via a tiny bit of JS): https://www.digitalocean.com/community/tutorials/css-collapsible</ref>
 +
<ref>'''Carnegie Museums -- Web Accessibility Guidelines - Accordions: http://web-accessibility.carnegiemuseums.org/code/accordions/'''</ref>
 +
<ref>Aditus -- Accessible Accordion: https://www.aditus.io/patterns/accordion/</ref>
 +
* '''Making AJAX Work with Screen Readers''': http://juicystudio.com/article/making-ajax-work-with-screen-readers.php
 +
<ref>'''MozDev -- WAI-ARIA roles - Using the ''aria-live'' property:: https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/Accessibility/ARIA/ARIA_Live_Regions'''</ref>
 +
<ref>Getting screen reader to read new content added (post-pageload) with JavaScript: https://stackoverflow.com/questions/3670570/getting-screen-reader-to-read-new-content-added-with-javascript</ref>
 +
<ref>ARIA -- "Live" Region Playground: http://schne324.github.io/live-region-playground/ (testing ''aria-live=""'' attribute variations: off, polite, assertive... .vs. default/non-present)</ref>
 +
<ref>'''WAI-ARIA -- roles: https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/Accessibility/ARIA/Roles'''</ref>
 +
<ref>MozDev -- WAI-ARIA roles - Using the ''timer'' role: https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/Accessibility/ARIA/Roles/ARIA_timer_role</ref>
 +
<ref>MozDev -- WAI-ARIA roles - Using the ''Navigation'' role: https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/Accessibility/ARIA/Roles/Navigation_Role</ref>
 +
<ref>MozDev -- WAI-ARIA roles - Using the ''region'' role: https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/Accessibility/ARIA/Roles/Region_role</ref>
 +
<ref>MozDev -- WAI-ARIA roles - Using the ''complimentary'' role: https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/Accessibility/ARIA/Roles/Complementary_role</ref>
 +
<ref>DigitalA11Y -- overview of ''aria-atomic'' property: https://www.digitala11y.com/aria-atomic-properties/</ref>
 +
<ref>Study on ''aria-atomic'' & ''aria-relevant'' on ''aria-live'' regions: https://pauljadam.com/demos/aria-atomic-relevant.html</ref>
 +
 +
* Accessible Forms using WCAG 2.0: http://www.usability.com.au/resources/wcag2/
 +
* Accessible Forms: http://www.jimthatcher.com/webcourse8.htm
 +
* Make Your ARIA Labels Sing on Key: https://knowbility.org/blog/2019/ARIA-labels/
 +
* Accessibility Basics -- Testing Your Page For Color Blindness: https://css-tricks.com/accessibility-basics-testing-your-page-for-color-blindness/
 +
* Monitoring Web Accessibility Compliance With Pa11y Dashboard: https://www.lullabot.com/articles/monitoring-web-accessibility-compliance-with-pa11y-dashboard
 +
* Accessibility Dashboard – Pa11y Dashboard: https://surfthedream.com.au/writing/accessibility-dashboard-pa11y-dashboard/
 +
* Setting up An Accessibility Dashboard from Scratch with Pa11y: https://una.im/pa11y-dash/
 +
* Creating Accessible Frames and IFrames: https://webaim.org/techniques/frames/<ref>Why Are iFrame Titles Important for Accessibility?: https://www.boia.org/blog/why-are-iframe-titles-important-for-accessibility</ref>
 +
* Use Valid Markup to Prevent Possible Accessibility Issues: https://dequeuniversity.com/tips/use-valid-markup
 +
 +
* Accessible SVGs: https://css-tricks.com/accessible-svgs/
 +
* Design Considerations -- Text on Images: https://css-tricks.com/design-considerations-text-images/<ref>Color Blindness & Web Design: https://www.usability.gov/get-involved/blog/2010/02/color-blindness.html</ref><ref>Color Contrast for Better Readability: https://www.viget.com/articles/color-contrast/</ref><ref>Ensure High Contrast for Text Over Images: https://www.nngroup.com/articles/text-over-images/</ref><ref>NIH -- Types of Color Blindness: https://www.nei.nih.gov/learn-about-eye-health/eye-conditions-and-diseases/color-blindness/types-color-blindness</ref><ref>[[wikipedia: Ishihara test]]</ref>
 +
* Writing good text alternatives: https://www.ryerson.ca/websupport/seo-accessibility/alternative-text/
 +
* Designing for all users — why you should care about color-blindness: https://medium.com/@courtneyjordan/designing-for-all-users-why-you-should-care-about-color-blindness-beabd61943eb<ref>Getting Typography Right in Digital Design: https://medium.springboard.com/the-guide-to-getting-typography-right-in-digital-design-bb61214ff3ad</ref><ref>Web Design is 95% Typography: https://ia.net/topics/the-web-is-all-about-typography-period</ref><ref>Best Fonts To Use for Website Accessibility: https://www.boia.org/blog/best-fonts-to-use-for-website-accessibility</ref>
 +
* The complete guide for how to marry text & images in your designs: https://www.canva.com/learn/how-to-marry-text-and-images/
 +
* How To Build Accessible Tables: https://www.boia.org/blog/how-to-build-accessible-tables
 +
* Tables, CSS Display Properties, and ARIA: http://adrianroselli.com/2018/02/tables-css-display-properties-and-aria.html
 +
 +
* '''Cross-Browser Tabindex Woes: https://www.alexlande.com/articles/cross-browser-tabindex-woes/'''
 +
* tabindex, Keyboard Focus and Some ARIA features in Screen Readers: http://accessibleculture.org/articles/2010/05/tabindex/
 +
* Using the tabindex attribute: https://developer.paciellogroup.com/blog/2014/08/using-the-tabindex-attribute/
 +
* Using tabindex: https://developers.google.com/web/fundamentals/accessibility/focus/using-tabindex
 +
* What's the tabindex=“-1” in bootstrap for: https://stackoverflow.com/questions/32911355/whats-the-tabindex-1-in-bootstrap-for
 +
* WAI-ARIA support on iOS: http://www.iheni.com/wai-aria-support-on-ios/
 +
* 7 Ways To Make Your Web Application More Accessible: https://codeburst.io/seven-ways-to-make-your-web-app-more-accessible-411a8c716fcb
 +
Don't disable outline, master it instead!: https://websightly.net/en/tutorial/dont-disable-outline-master-it-instead/
 +
* When To Use The Button Element: https://css-tricks.com/use-button-element/
 +
* Responsive Template Accessibility Features: https://www.ryerson.ca/websupport/seo-accessibility/responsive-template-accessibility-features/
 +
* How accessibility trees inform assistive tech: https://hacks.mozilla.org/2019/06/how-accessibility-trees-inform-assistive-tech/
 +
* Semantics to Screen Readers: https://alistapart.com/article/semantics-to-screen-readers/
 +
<ref>Tricks for ARIA on the iPad/iOS: http://blog.codinginparadise.org/2010/12/tricks-for-aria-on-ipadios.html</ref>
 +
 +
* How to Automatically Add Captions to Instagram Stories: https://www.howtogeek.com/726962/how-to-automatically-add-captions-to-instagram-stories/
 +
* Accessible Custom Select Dropdowns: https://www.webaxe.org/accessible-custom-select-dropdowns/
 +
<ref>Building a Universally Accessible Blog: https://whatsortsofpeople.wordpress.com/2008/07/28/building-a-universally-accessible-blog/</ref>
 +
 +
* '''Web Accessibility Guidelines v1.0 Foundations - Dialogs: http://web-accessibility.carnegiemuseums.org/code/dialogs/'''
 +
* MozDev -- WAI-ARIA roles - Using the ''dialog'' role: https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/Accessibility/ARIA/ARIA_Techniques/Using_the_dialog_role
 +
* The Incredible Accessible Modal Window, Version 3: https://web.archive.org/web/20150423111326/http://accessibility.oit.ncsu.edu/blog/2015/02/13/the-incredible-accessible-modal-window-version-3 | [https://web.archive.org/web/20150928220111/http://accessibility.oit.ncsu.edu/training/aria/modal-window/version-3/ DEMO] | [https://github.com/gdkraus/accessible-modal-dialog SRC]
 +
* W3C - Acessible Modal dialog guidelines: https://www.w3.org/TR/wai-aria-practices/#alertdialog | [https://www.w3.org/TR/wai-aria-practices/examples/dialog-modal/dialog.html DEMO]
 +
* Considerations for Styling a Modal: https://css-tricks.com/considerations-styling-modal/
 +
* How To Make Modal Windows Better For Everyone: https://www.smashingmagazine.com/2014/09/making-modal-windows-better-for-everyone/
 +
* '''The current state of modal dialog accessibility: https://developer.paciellogroup.com/blog/2018/06/the-current-state-of-modal-dialog-accessibility/'''
 +
<ref>MozDev -- ARIA - live regions: https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/Accessibility/ARIA/ARIA_Live_Regions</ref>
 +
<ref>MozDev -- ARIA - alertdialog role: https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/Accessibility/ARIA/Roles/alertdialog_role</ref>
 +
<ref>MozDev -- ARIA - dialog role: https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/Accessibility/ARIA/Roles/dialog_role</ref>
 +
<ref>ARIA Dialog role example (Modal): http://accessibility.athena-ict.com/aria/examples/dialog.shtml</ref>
 +
<ref>W3C -- Making a Dialog Modal: https://www.w3.org/TR/2010/WD-wai-aria-practices-20100916/#modal_dialog</ref>
 +
<ref>Modal dialogs: https://accessuse.eu/en/modal-dialogs.html</ref>
 +
<ref>Dialog (Modal): http://www.html5accessibility.com/dhtmlStyleGuide.html#dialogmodal</ref>
 +
<ref>Creating An Accessible Modal Dialog: https://bitsofco.de/accessible-modal-dialog/ | [https://ireade.github.io/accessible-modal-dialog/ DEMO] | [https://github.com/ireade/accessible-modal-dialog SRC]</ref>
 +
<ref>CodePen Home Some Accessible Modal Techniques: https://codepen.io/noahblon/pen/yJpXZa</ref>
 +
<ref>jQuery simple and accessible modal window, using ARIA: https://a11y.nicolas-hoffmann.net/modal/</ref>
 +
<ref>Building better accessibility primitives: https://robdodson.me/posts/building-better-accessibility-primitives/</ref>
 +
<ref>Making Elements Focusable with Tabindex: https://snook.ca/archives/accessibility_and_usability/elements_focusable_with_tabindex</ref>
 +
<ref>Is there a way to do an accessible modal?: https://stackoverflow.com/questions/10016433/is-there-a-way-to-do-an-accessible-modal</ref>
 +
<ref>Keep tabbing within modal pane only: https://stackoverflow.com/questions/14572084/keep-tabbing-within-modal-pane-only</ref>
 +
<ref>Best Practices for Modal Windows: https://uxmovement.com/forms/best-practices-for-modal-windows/</ref>
 +
<ref>Popups -- 10 Problematic Trends and Alternatives: https://www.nngroup.com/articles/popups/</ref>
 +
<ref>Semantically-Accurate HTML5 Element for a Modal Dialog: https://stackoverflow.com/questions/3072597/semantically-accurate-html5-element-for-a-modal-dialog</ref>
 +
<ref>Best Practices for Modals / Overlays / Dialog Windows: https://uxplanet.org/best-practices-for-modals-overlays-dialog-windows-c00c66cddd8c</ref>
 +
<ref>The a11y Monthly - Making modals accessible: https://developer.yoast.com/blog/the-a11y-monthly-making-modals-accessible/</ref>
 +
<ref>Inclusive components -- making modals accessible: https://dev.to/alenanik/inclusive-components-making-modals-accessible-1hn9</ref>
 +
<ref>Web Accessibility Guidelines v1.0: http://web-accessibility.carnegiemuseums.org/code/dialogs/</ref>
 +
<ref>How to trap focus inside modal to make it ADA compliant: https://uxdesign.cc/how-to-trap-focus-inside-modal-to-make-it-ada-compliant-6a50f9a70700</ref>
 +
<ref>Considerations for Styling a Modal: https://css-tricks.com/considerations-styling-modal/</ref>
 +
<ref>Demonstration of a keyboard- and screen-reader accessible modal dialog: http://ncamftp.wgbh.org/sp/tests/dialog/modalDialog.html</ref>
 +
<ref>Benefits and drawbacks of modal windows: https://ux.stackexchange.com/questions/39778/benefits-and-drawbacks-of-modal-windows</ref>
 +
<ref>How To Make Modal Windows Better For Everyone: https://www.smashingmagazine.com/2014/09/making-modal-windows-better-for-everyone/</ref>
 +
<ref>Is there a way to do an accessible modal?: https://stackoverflow.com/questions/10016433/is-there-a-way-to-do-an-accessible-modal</ref>
 +
<ref>Creating An Accessible Modal Dialog: http://bitsofco.de/accessible-modal-dialog/</ref>
 +
<ref>Accessible modal window using ARIA and Vanilla JS: https://van11y.net/downloads/modal/demo/index.html</ref>
 +
<ref>jQuery simple and accessible modal window, using ARIA: https://a11y.nicolas-hoffmann.net/modal/</ref>
 +
<ref>jQuery trap input plugin: https://github.com/julienw/jquery-trap-input</ref>
 +
<ref>React Modals: https://react-bootstrap.github.io/components/modal/</ref>
 +
<ref>React-Bootstrap Modal Accessibility Warnings from React-A11y: https://stackoverflow.com/questions/38596675/react-bootstrap-modal-accessibility-warnings-from-react-a11y</ref>
 +
 +
* The Myth of Inaccessible React: https://www.mediacurrent.com/blog/myth-inaccessible-react
 +
* Explorations in the Virtual DOM - How React.js Impacts Accessibility: https://marcysutton.github.io/react-a11y-presentation/
 +
<ref>Notes On Client-Rendered Accessibility: https://www.smashingmagazine.com/2015/05/client-rendered-accessibility/</ref>
 +
<ref>ReactJS docs - Accessibility: https://reactjs.org/docs/accessibility.html</ref>
 +
<ref>Deque - React Accessiblity best practices (WEBINAR): https://accessibility.deque.com/react-accessibility-webinar</ref>
 +
<ref>Getting Started with Web Accessibility in React: https://medium.com/@emilymears/getting-started-with-web-accessibility-in-react-9e591fdb0d52</ref>
 +
 +
* Checklist for Creating Accessible Videos: https://www.boia.org/blog/checklist-for-creating-accessible-videos
 +
* Longtail Video - Making Video Accessible: https://web.archive.org/web/20110605160852/http://www.longtailvideo.com/support/jw-player/22/making-video-accessible
 +
 +
* Building apps for everyone -- discover why inclusivity & accessibility truly matter: https://medium.com/googleplaydev/building-apps-for-everyone-inclusivity-accessibility-matter-624500334afc
 +
* How To Make Live Chat Accessible: https://www.maxability.co.in/2018/11/11/how-to-make-live-chat-accessible/
 +
* Unfocus (JS lib to provide an "accessible way of removing '':focus'' outline on click"): https://github.com/nuclei/unfocus | [https://raw.githubusercontent.com/nuclei/unfocus/master/dist/unfocus.js SRC]
 +
<ref>'''WCAG 2.2 -- Understanding Success Criterion 2.4.7 - Focus Visible: https://www.w3.org/WAI/WCAG22/Understanding/focus-visible.html'''</ref>
 +
<ref>Accessibility -- Never Remove the Outlines: https://medium.com/better-programming/a11y-never-remove-the-outlines-ee4efc7a9968</ref>
 +
<ref>Outline NONE in CSS -- ''a { outline: none; }'' - DON'T DO IT!: http://www.outlinenone.com/</ref>
 +
<ref>The plague of ''outline:0'': https://webaim.org/blog/plague-of-outline-0/</ref>
 +
<ref>Digital Scotland -- Design System - Focus states: https://designsystem.gov.scot/styles/states/ (good basic example screenshot)</ref>
 +
<ref>Style hover, focus, and active states differently: https://zellwk.com/blog/style-hover-focus-active-states/</ref>
 +
<ref>Active, Hover, and Focus States for Designers: https://uxplanet.org/active-hover-and-focus-states-for-designers-d789531fe767</ref>
 +
 +
* How To Make Your Email Signature Screen Reader Friendly: https://www.moreycreative.com/blog/accessible-email-signature<ref>The Friendly Inbox - Making Emails Accessible For Subscribers With Disabilities: https://www.mediapost.com/publications/article/367871/the-friendly-inbox-making-emails-accessible-for-s.html</ref>
 +
* Yale University -- Usability & Web Accessibility - Links section: https://usability.yale.edu/web-accessibility/articles/links
 +
<ref>WCAG 2.0 -- Link Purpose (In Context): https://www.w3.org/TR/UNDERSTANDING-WCAG20/navigation-mechanisms-refs.html</ref>
 +
<ref></ref>
 +
<ref></ref>
 +
<ref></ref>
 +
<ref>Links must be distinguished from surrounding text in a way that does not rely on color: https://dequeuniversity.com/rules/axe/4.3/link-in-text-block</ref>
 +
<ref>Accessibility -- Web Links Should Be Links, and Web Buttons Should Be Buttons: https://medium.com/better-programming/accessibility-web-links-should-be-links-and-web-buttons-should-be-buttons-182ff042d087</ref>
 +
<ref>WebAIM -- Link A11Y best practices: https://webaim.org/techniques/hypertext/#link_to_link</ref>
 +
<ref>WebAIM -- Links and Hypertext: https://webaim.org/techniques/hypertext/link_text</ref>
 +
<ref>Text Links - Best Practices for Screen Readers: https://www.deque.com/blog/text-links-practices-screen-readers/</ref>
 +
<ref>Don't Rely on the Title Attribute for Accessibility: https://www.mediacurrent.com/blog/dont-rely-title-attribute-accessibility-seo/</ref>
 +
<ref>Create accessible social media content: https://accessibility.iu.edu/creating-content/social-media/index.html | [https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pjBzXV4lP68 VIDEO]</ref>
 +
<ref>Improving the Accessibility of Social Media in Government: https://digital.gov/resources/improving-the-accessibility-of-social-media-in-government/</ref>
 +
<ref>YouTube Expands Speech Recognition and Translation AI Features: https://voicebot.ai/2021/10/11/youtube-expands-speech-recognition-and-translation-ai-features/</ref>
 +
<ref>Facebook's Accessibility help page: https://www.facebook.com/help/273947702950567?cms_id=141636465971794</ref>
 +
<ref>Twitter’s web redesign isn’t as accessible as it should be, experts say: https://techcrunch.com/2021/08/13/twitters-web-redesign-isnt-as-accessible-as-it-should-be-experts-say/</ref>
 +
 +
 +
== External Links ==
 +
 +
* [[wikipedia: Accessibility]]
 +
* [[wikipedia: Computer accessibility]]
 +
* [[wikipedia: Accessibility apps]]
 +
* [[wikipedia: Assistive technology]]
 +
* [[wikipedia: Screen readers]]
 +
* [[wikipedia: List of screen readers]]
 +
* [[wikipedia: Web accessibility]]
 +
* [[wikipedia: Disability in Canada]]
 +
* [[wikipedia: List of Canadian provinces and territories by Human Development Index]] (Canada's provinces ranked by ''HDI'')
 +
* [[wikipedia: Tactile_paving]]<ref>Seiichi Miyake: 5 Brilliantly Simple Uses for His "Tenji Blocks": https://www.inverse.com/article/54134-seiichi-miyake-google-doodle-tactile-paving</ref>
 +
* What is a "Chief Accessibility Officer"?: https://www.accessibility.com/blog/you-need-a-chief-accessibility-officer-now
 +
* (All The Same" Mini-Documentary on ''Digital Accessibility'' and the ''Digital Divide'': https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0epofm5AK8U (see related YouTube series/playlist)<ref>The Unexpected Benefits of Web Accessibility: Why It’s More Than Just “The Right Thing To Do”: https://www.essentialaccessibility.com/blog/the-unexpected-benefits-of-web-accessibility-why-its-more-than-just-the-right-thing-to-do</ref>
 +
* The Evolution Of Assistive Technologies: https://www.irwinmitchell.com/design-for-life-timeline.html<ref>History of Assistive Technology: https://www.sutori.com/story/history-of-assistive-technology--RJ35ffpub31fn4qokozTFtNg</ref><ref>Assistive Technology timeline: https://earshot103.wixsite.com/assistive-technology/history</ref>
 +
* A short history of the audiobook, 20 years after the first portable digital audio device: https://www.pbs.org/newshour/arts/a-short-history-of-the-audiobook-20-years-after-the-first-portable-digital-audio-device
 +
* The web we broke: https://ethanmarcotte.com/wrote/the-web-we-broke/
 +
* Make your Outlook email accessible to people with disabilities: https://support.microsoft.com/en-us/office/make-your-outlook-email-accessible-to-people-with-disabilities-71ce71f4-7b15-4b7a-a2e3-cf91721bbacb
 +
* WCAG Samurai's errata for "Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) 1.0": https://web.archive.org/web/20130113063317/http://www.wcagsamurai.org/erratas/introduction/<ref>To Hell with WCAG 2: http://www.alistapart.com/articles/tohellwithwcag2</ref>
 +
* Getting to the Heart of Digital Accessibility: https://alistapart.com/article/getting-to-the-heart-of-digital-accessibility/
 +
* Electronic Curb Cuts Have Benefits for All: https://learn.org/articles/Electronic_Curb_Cuts_Have_Benefits_for_All.html
 +
* Why we should default to Tabs instead of Spaces for an 'accessible first' development environment: https://dev.to/alexandersandberg/why-we-should-default-to-tabs-instead-of-spaces-for-an-accessible-first-environment-101f
 +
* Why Headings Aren't Simply Style Elements: https://www.boia.org/blog/why-headings-arent-simply-style-elements
 +
* '''NCAM -- Tools & Guidelines''': http://ncam.wgbh.org/invent_build/web_multimedia/tools-guidelines
 +
 +
* Accessible Drop-Down Menus: http://learningtheworld.eu/2008/accessible-drop-down-menus/
 +
* Let’s Focus on (accessible) Slide-Out Navigation: https://knowbility.org/blog/2020/accessible-slide-menus/
 +
<ref>Creating Accessible Menus and Mega Menus: https://www.levelaccess.com/challenges-mega-menus-standard-menus-make-accessible/</ref>
 +
<ref>Accessible Mega Menu: https://adobe-accessibility.github.io/Accessible-Mega-Menu/#accessible-megamenu-1638280592218-1</ref>
 +
<ref>Creating an animated Menu indicator with CSS Selectors: https://css-tricks.com/creating-an-animated-menu-indicator-with-css-selectors/ (bottom)</ref>
 +
<ref>Line Menu "currently active" indicator styles: https://tympanus.net/Development/LineMenuStyles/ (many examples if you don't mind scrolling through them all hah)</ref>
 +
<ref>Bootstrap - subtle but sufficient indicator on dynamic "Mega Menu": https://preview.colorlib.com/theme/bootstrap/website-menu-03/index.html</ref>
 +
 +
* '''Accessible Web Page Design (from the University of Minnesota):''' http://cap.umn.edu/demo/
 
* CSS Solution to ALT Text and Image Blocking: http://www.campaignmonitor.com/blog/archives/2006/07/a_css_solution.html
 
* CSS Solution to ALT Text and Image Blocking: http://www.campaignmonitor.com/blog/archives/2006/07/a_css_solution.html
* Alt Attributes: Describing Your Images for Better Web Accessibility: http://webdesign.about.com/od/beginningtutorials/a/aa122004.htm
+
* Alt Attributes Describing Your Images for Better Web Accessibility: http://webdesign.about.com/od/beginningtutorials/a/aa122004.htm
 
* Image blocking, alt tags and why CSS rules: http://www.campaignmonitor.com/blog/2006/12/image_blocking_alt_tags_and_wh.html
 
* Image blocking, alt tags and why CSS rules: http://www.campaignmonitor.com/blog/2006/12/image_blocking_alt_tags_and_wh.html
 +
* Flash ''wmode'' considered harmful: http://freear.org.uk/node/22
 +
* Accessible custom focus indicators: https://uxdesign.cc/accessible-custom-focus-indicators-da4768d1fb7b
 +
* CSS3 ''box-shadow'': https://css-tricks.com/almanac/properties/b/box-shadow/
 +
* Open Source Screen Readers?: http://blindconfidential.blogspot.com/2006/12/open-source-screen-readers.html
 +
* Videos of screen readers using ARIA, updated: http://zomigi.com/blog/videos-of-screen-readers-using-aria-updated/
 +
* Things the W3C Should Stop Doing: http://www.nofluffjuststuff.com/blog/alex_russell/2011/09/things_the_w3c_should_stop_doing
 +
* An Evaluation of VoiceOver, the Macintosh Screen Reader: http://www.afb.org/afbpress/pub.asp?DocID=aw090603
 +
* How Do Blind People Read a Web Page?: http://www.evengrounds.com/blog/how-blind-people-read-web-page
 +
* Accessibility QA Test Case - web content with JAWS screen reader in Firefox: http://viewvc.svn.mozilla.org/vc/projects/mozilla.org/branches/cvs/access/qa/win-webcontent-jaws.html?revision=46606&view=co&pathrev=46606<ref>Moz dev docs -- FireFox - Accessibility Inspector: https://firefox-source-docs.mozilla.org/devtools-user/accessibility_inspector/index.html</ref>
 +
* Accessibility Whack-A-Mole: http://alistapart.com/article/accessibility-whack-a-mole
 +
* A New Home For Pa11y: http://rowanmanning.com/posts/a-new-home-for-pa11y/
 +
* Marcy Sutton - blog of a leading Web Accessibility activist: https://marcysutton.com/
 +
* Pinterest Just Redesigned Its App For Blind People: https://www.fastcodesign.com/90169317/pinterest-just-redesigned-its-app-for-blind-people
 +
* Designing For Accessibility And Inclusion: https://medium.com/@smashingmag/designing-for-accessibility-and-inclusion-b3d5fac8dc87
 +
* A Primer to Web Accessibility for Designers: https://uxplanet.org/a-primer-to-web-accessibility-for-designers-2c548448c612
 +
* Designing for accessibility is not that hard: https://uxdesign.cc/designing-for-accessibility-is-not-that-hard-c04cc4779d94
 +
* 4A’s Digital Horizons Series Whitepaper -- Accessibility: https://www.aaaa.org/4as-digital-horizons-series-whitepaper-accessibility/
 +
* CNN Publishes Home Page Version For Hurricane Areas: https://www.mediapost.com/publications/article/326472/cnn-publishes-home-page-version-for-hurricane-area.html
 +
* Indicating focus to improve accessibility: https://hacks.mozilla.org/2019/06/indicating-focus-to-improve-accessibility/
 +
* A Call-to-Action to Make Your Calls-to-Action (CTA buttons/links) Accessible: https://www.boia.org/blog/a-call-to-action-to-make-your-calls-to-action-accessible
 +
* Make sure your website’s "Help/FAQ resources" are available & Accessible: https://www.boia.org/blog/make-sure-your-websites-help-resources-are-available-and-accessible
 +
* Avoid "Keyboard Traps" to make your site more Accessible: https://www.boia.org/blog/avoid-keyboard-traps-to-make-your-site-more-accessible
 +
 +
* How to check/uncheck a box with using only your keyboard?: https://answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20100424064514AAJ4DFI
 +
* To check/uncheck a checkbox on hitting either enter or spacebar in keyboard?: https://stackoverflow.com/questions/43539044/to-check-uncheck-a-checkbox-on-hitting-either-enter-or-spacebar-in-keyboard
 +
* Tick/Untick check box/radio button/toggle button from the keyboard: https://superuser.com/questions/460933/tick-untick-check-box-radio-button-toggle-button-from-the-keyboard
 +
* Check & Uncheck the control without using the mouse, as when we hit enter key the button control gets triggered: https://stackoverflow.com/questions/30117108/check-and-uncheck-the-control-without-using-the-mouse-as-when-we-hit-enter-key-t
 +
* NY Times blog -- Improving Article Accessibility: https://open.blogs.nytimes.com/2014/06/24/improving-article-accessibility/
 +
* Making an accessible dialog box: https://humanwhocodes.com/blog/2013/02/12/making-an-accessible-dialog-box/
 +
* How to use skip navigation links: https://a11yproject.com/posts/skip-nav-links/
 +
<ref>A Deep Dive on Skipping to Content: https://css-tricks.com/a-deep-dive-on-skipping-to-content/</ref>
 +
<ref>How to Create a “Skip to Content” Link : https://css-tricks.com/how-to-create-a-skip-to-content-link/</ref>
 +
<ref>Skip to Main Content – Accessibility for AEM Web-applications (AEM 6.5.9 & AEMaaCs): https://aemsimplifiedbynikhil.wordpress.com/2021/07/16/skip-to-main-content-accessibility-for-aem-web-applications-aem-6-5-9-aemaacs/</ref>
 +
<ref>How to skip some content from screen reader: https://stackoverflow.com/questions/22932134/how-to-skip-some-content-from-screen-reader</ref>
 +
<ref>WebAIM - Skip Navigation Links: https://webaim.org/techniques/skipnav/</ref>
 +
<ref>What Is Skip Navigation Link and Why Is It Useful? : https://pineco.de/what-is-skip-navigation-link-and-why-is-it-useful/</ref>
 +
<ref>Carnegie Museum -- Skip Link: web-accessibility.carnegiemuseums.org/code/skip-link/</ref>
 +
<ref>I found a hidden youtube button (SKIP NAVIGATION). To see it, open youtube and hit tab twice: https://www.reddit.com/r/interestingasfuck/comments/hwii59/i_found_a_hidden_youtube_button_skip_navigation/fyzt4st/</ref>
 +
 +
* Introduction to web accessibility: https://humanwhocodes.com/blog/2009/11/10/introduction-to-web-accessibility/
 +
* How People with Disabilities Use the Web: https://www.w3.org/WAI/people-use-web/
 +
* Is There a Legal Requirement to Implement WCAG?: https://www.boia.org/blog/is-there-a-legal-requirement-to-implement-wcag
 +
* Why Web Accessibility Is Important and How You Can Accomplish It: https://medium.com/fbdevclagos/why-web-accessibility-is-important-and-how-you-can-accomplish-it-4f59fda7859c<ref>WCAG 2.0 AA is the new Accessibility standard for any "Federal Agency" websites: https://www.adatitleiii.com/2017/01/wcag-2-0-aa-is-the-new-accessibility-standard-for-federal-agency-websites/</ref>
 +
* '''Deque Workshop -- Translating Wireframes into Accessible UI: https://accessibility.deque.com/virtual-workshop-translating-design-wireframes''' [https://f.hubspotusercontent00.net/hubfs/153358/Translating Design Wireframes into Accessible UI-1.pdf SLIDES] | [https://github.com/dequelabs/smashing-workshop SRC] | [https://broken--deque-workshop.netlify.app/ EXAMPLE - poor A11Y] | [https://deque-workshop.netlify.app EXAMPLE - good A11Y]
 +
<ref>Translating Design Wireframes Into Accessible HTML/CSS: https://www.smashingmagazine.com/2020/07/design-wireframes-accessible-html-css/</ref>
 +
<ref>Disability 3Barriers in Customer Service: https://www.aoda.ca/disability-barriers-in-customer-service/</ref>
 +
<ref>Accessibility - Definition, Meaning, Examples and Types of Barriers: https://wecapable.com/accessibility-definition-meaning-examples-barriers/</ref>
 +
<ref>Public Education Campaign on the Business Case for Accessibility: https://aoda.ca/public-education-campaign-on-the-business-case-for-accessibility/</ref>
 +
* Even High-Ranking Websites In Google Search Results Fail Visual Accessibility: https://www.mediapost.com/publications/article/338258/even-high-ranking-websites-in-google-search-result.html
 +
* Hulu Makes Content More Accessible to People Who Are Blind, Have Visual Impairments: https://www.boia.org/blog/new-hulu-enhancements-make-content-more-accessible-to-people-who-are-blind-or-have-visual-impairments
 +
* The World's Most Popular Websites Share a Commitment to Accessibility -- Here's How They Approach It: https://www.boia.org/blog/the-worlds-most-popular-websites-share-a-commitment-to-accessibility-heres-how-they-approach-it
 +
* Brands Are Losing Billions by Not Being Digitally Accessible: https://www.boia.org/blog/brands-are-losing-billions-by-not-being-digitally-accessible
 +
* Smashing TV -- Harris Schneiderman on Translating Design Wireframes into Accessible HTML/CSS (2019-11-20): https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5gFSru8yGaU
 +
* Getting Started with Website Accessibility: https://medium.com/statuscode/getting-started-with-website-accessibility-5586c7febc92
 +
<ref>Top 5 Most Common Web Accessibility Mistakes: https://www.mcdpartners.com/news/top-5-common-web-accessibility-mistakes/</ref>
 +
<ref>Top Ten Most Common Web Accessibility issues: https://www.tpgi.com/ten-common-web-accessibility-issues/ (1.Image ALT text, 2.KeyboardNav visual focus indicator, 3.Use of proper labels, 4.Links without descriptive text, 5.Links/Buttons too small, 6.Tables without proper markup, 7.Headings hierarchy & Section nesting, 8.Color Contrast, 9.Embedding or Linking to inaccessible docs & media, 10.Identical descriptive text for content - multiple related or separate unrelated)</ref>
 +
<ref>6 easy ways to make your projects more accessible: https://www.richmedia.com/richideas/articles/6-ways-to-make-your-projects-accessible</ref>
 +
<ref>Beyond the screenreader - Online accessibility for assistive devices: https://www.richmedia.com/richideas/articles/beyond_the_screenreader_online_accessibility_for_assistive_devices</ref>
 +
* Four Easy Accessibility Resolutions for the New Year: https://www.boia.org/blog/four-easy-accessibility-resolutions-for-the-new-year
 +
* Weaving Web Accessibility With Usability: https://www.smashingmagazine.com/2020/11/weaving-web-accessibility-usability/
 +
* Simple Usability - The cost of accessibility: https://www.simpleusability.com/inspiration/2020/01/the-cost-of-accessibility/
 +
* Disability symbols on wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Disability_symbols.png
 +
* Understanding the Universal Symbols of Accessibility: https://accessiblecampus.ca/reference-library/symbols-of-accessibility/
 +
* A Guide to the UK's 32 Accessibility Symbols: https://www.accessable.co.uk/access-symbols
 +
 +
* CBC Podcasts -- Sickboy - Accessibility Evangelist, Tech People Who Are Blind: https://open.spotify.com/show/1bV0f6aPGNwkMA6MP9cIIw
 +
* Accessibility for customers with impairments is at the heart of our concerns: https://stanley-robotics.com/blog/accessibility-at-the-heart-of-our-concerns/ (includes black & white chart of A11Y symbols used in the US)
 +
* Passing My Disability On to My Children: https://www.nytimes.com/2016/09/07/opinion/passing-my-disability-on-to-my-children.html
 +
* Eugenics timeline: http://eugenicsarchive.ca/discover/timeline/5324990e132156674b00026a
 +
* Disabilities flipped: http://www.culturepub.fr/videos/edf-diversite/ (in this theoretical "mirror world" its shown that Disability is not about a person's abilities or impairments, it’s about the design. That is, bad design is disabling. When designs & code provide the flexibility to meet all users' needs, then they are enabling. This is often called the "social model" of disability.)
 +
 +
* Assistive and Instructional Technology Supporting Learners with Disabilities ASSISTIVE TECHNOLOGY SUPPORTS FOR EARLY LITERACY AND NUMERACY: https://www.ctdinstitute.org/sites/default/files/file_attachments/AT for Early Literacy %26 Numeracy.pdf
 +
* Assistive Technology for Math - 10 Tips for TVIs: https://www.pathstoliteracy.org/blog/assistive-technology-math-10-tips-tvis
 +
<ref>Unit in Developing Literacy Skills with Assistive Technology: https://dyslexiaaction.org.uk/developing-literacy-skills-with-assistive-technology/</ref>
 +
<ref>Do Dyslexia Fonts Improve Accessibility?: https://www.boia.org/blog/do-dyslexia-fonts-improve-accessibility</ref>
 +
<ref>AUSTRALIAN CURRICULUM – NUMERACY CAPABILITIES: https://mrscovichsclassroom.com/numeracy-capabilities/</ref>
 +
<ref>How a Glasgow, Scotland school celebrated "National Numeracy Day" (2020): https://blogs.glowscotland.org.uk/ea/hillsideprimaryamain2019/2020/05/10/weekly-challenge-numeracy/</ref>
 +
 +
 +
* NSC University - The Principles of Universal Design: https://projects.ncsu.edu/ncsu/design/cud/about_ud/udprinciplestext.htm
 +
* UX Series - Universal Design and Digital Accessibility: [https://www.tpgi.com/ux-series-universal-design-and-digital-accessibility/ Pt.1] | [https://www.tpgi.com/user-experience-and-digital-accessibility/ Pt.2] | [https://www.tpgi.com/ux-series-digital-accessibility-and-the-ux-design-process/ Pt.3] | [https://www.tpgi.com/ux-series-digital-accessibility-and-the-ux-testing-process/ Pt.4] | [https://www.tpgi.com/ux-series-usability-testing-and-digital-accessibility/ Pt.5] | [https://www.tpgi.com/ux-series-connecting-ux-with-digital-accessibility-strategy/ Pt.6]
 +
<ref>UX Planet -- Color, psychology and design: https://uxplanet.org/how-color-can-effect-emotion-ccab0431b1d</ref>
 +
<ref>An argument for incorporating color early on in UX design: https://uxhacker.co/an-argument-for-incorporating-color-early-on-in-ux-design/</ref>
 +
<ref>Color meanings and the art of using color symbolism (in UI/UX Design): https://99designs.ca/blog/tips/color-meanings/</ref>
 +
<ref>Ishihara’s Test for Colour Deficiency - 38 Plates Edition: https://www.color-blindness.com/ishiharas-test-for-colour-deficiency-38-plates-edition/</ref>
 +
<ref>Color Meanings – The Power and Symbolism of Colors: https://www.color-meanings.com</ref>
 +
<ref>Real People, Real Stories Episode #9 (2021) -- Charlotte Dales from Inclusively and Aubrey Northam from Mobelux: https://www.tpgi.com/real-people-real-stories-episode-9-2021-charlotte-dales-from-inclusively-and-aubrey-northam-from-mobelux/</ref>
 +
<ref>What is a screen reader, and why are they important?: https://www.tpgi.com/what-is-a-screen-reader-and-why-are-they-important/</ref>
 +
<ref>Canadians with disabilities face barriers to financial security, researchers find: https://phys.org/news/2020-08-canadians-disabilities-barriers-financial.html</ref>
 +
<ref>How America failed students with disabilities during the pandemic: https://www.washingtonpost.com/education/2021/05/20/students-disabilities-virtual-learning-failure/</ref>
 +
<ref>Australian study shows "those with disability are disproportionally affected by COVID" – New Report From CBM: https://www.96five.com/stories/life/news/2021/those-with-a-disability-disproportionally-affected-by-covid-new-report/</ref>
 +
<ref>COVID closures disproportionately affecting those with disabilities: https://health.ucdavis.edu/health-news/newsroom/covid-closures-disproportionately-affecting-those-with-disabilities-/2020/10</ref>
 +
<ref>The pandemic isn’t over — particularly for people with disabilities: https://www.health.harvard.edu/blog/the-pandemic-isnt-over-particularly-for-people-with-disabilities-202105252464</ref>
 +
<ref>COVID-19's Impact on People with Disabilities: https://www.massgeneral.org/news/coronavirus/Covid-19s-impact-on-people-with-disabilities</ref>
 +
<ref>Impacts of COVID-19 disproportionately affect poor and vulnerable - UN chief: https://news.un.org/en/story/2020/06/1067502</ref>
 +
<ref>COVID-19 has disproportionately impacted those living with developmental disabilities: https://www.cnn.com/2020/08/28/health/covid-19-intellectual-development-disabilities-impact-wellness/index.html</ref>
 +
<ref>COVID-19 Outbreak and Persons with Disabilities: https://www.un.org/development/desa/disabilities/covid-19.html</ref>
 +
<ref>Impact of COVID-19 on people with physical disabilities - A rapid review: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7603994/</ref>
 +
<ref>Policy Brief -- A "Disability-Inclusive" Response to COVID-19: https://www.un.org/sites/un2.un.org/files/sg_policy_brief_on_persons_with_disabilities_final.pdf</ref>
 +
<ref>Workers With Disabilities Disproportionately Impacted By Covid-19 Pandemic: https://www.forbes.com/sites/allisonnorlian/2020/06/22/workers-with-disabilities-disproportionately-impacted-by-covid-19-pandemic/</ref>
 +
<ref>Role of Governor in promoting disability employment in COVID-19 recovery strategies: https://www.nga.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/03/SEED_Memo.pdf</ref>
 +
<ref>Gloating about a surplus is callous, says New Brunswick Coalition of Persons with Disabilities: https://nbmediacoop.org/2022/09/03/gloating-about-a-surplus-is-callous-new-brunswick-coalition-of-persons-with-disabilities/</ref>
 +
<ref>How to Use Color Blind Friendly Palettes to Make Your Charts Accessible: https://venngage.com/blog/color-blind-friendly-palette/</ref>
 +
<ref>Microsoft Working on System That Could Benefit Color-blind Gamers: https://gamerant.com/microsoft-patent-system-benefit-color-blind-gamers/</ref>
 +
 +
* Financial Literacy Statistics: https://www.financialeducatorscouncil.org/financial-literacy-statistics/
 +
* Literacy rates – an official indicator of poverty: https://brigidhayes.wordpress.com/2020/09/21/literacy-rates-an-official-indicator-of-poverty/
 +
* World literacy charts: https://ourworldindata.org/literacy
 +
* Life Literacy Canada ABC - Literacy (in Canada) at a Glance: https://abclifeliteracy.ca/literacy-at-a-glance/
 +
* What’s the latest U.S. literacy rate?: https://www.wyliecomm.com/2020/11/whats-the-latest-u-s-literacy-rate/
 +
* Shocking Facts: 23 Statistics on Illiteracy in America: https://www.creditdonkey.com/illiteracy-in-america.html
 +
* American Institutes for Research (AIR) - Literacy Around the World: https://www.air.org/resource/literacy-around-world
 +
* Literacy Rate by Country 2020: https://worldpopulationreview.com/country-rankings/literacy-rate-by-country
 +
* Conference Board of Canada - Education and Skills: https://www.conferenceboard.ca/hcp/Provincial/Education.aspx?AspxAutoDetectCookieSupport=1
 +
* Conference Board of Canada - Canada .vs. world on "adult literacy" rates: https://conferenceboard.ca/hcp/provincial/education/adlt-lowlit.aspx?AspxAutoDetectCookieSupport=1
 +
* Canada's Centre for Digital & Media Literacy: https://mediasmarts.ca/digital-media-literacy
 +
 +
* BBC - Accessibility Champions: https://www.bbc.co.uk/accessibility/forproducts/champions<ref>BBC - Accessibility for Products: https://www.bbc.co.uk/accessibility/forproducts/</ref>
 +
* '''Using Personas as an Inclusive Design Tool: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ln1-S8G1aL4'''<ref>Personas with Disabilities: https://medium.com/swlh/personas-with-disabilities-9da8d12f1255</ref><ref>Persona Spectrums - Building for Inclusion and Accessibility: https://www.uxbooth.com/articles/persona-spectrums-building-for-inclusion-and-accessibility/</ref>
 +
* Gov.uk personna examples -- Ashleigh - partially sighted screenreader user : https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/understanding-disabilities-and-impairments-user-profiles/ashleigh-partially-sighted-screenreader-user
 +
* Stories of Web Users (with various A11Y needs): https://www.w3.org/WAI/people-use-web/user-stories/
 +
* Deque -- Virtual Workshop - Translating Design Wireframes into Accessible HTML/CSS: https://accessibility.deque.com/thank-you-translating-design-wireframes
 +
* Web Accessibility Perspectives - Compilation of 10 Topics/Videos of common disabilities and issues: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3f31oufqFSM
 +
* Cognitive Accessibility 103: https://spacedoutandsmiling.com/presentations/cognitive-accessibility-103-csun-2017
 +
* Inclusive Design Principles -- Be Consistent: https://developer.paciellogroup.com/blog/2017/08/inclusive-design-principle-be-consistent/
 +
* A web of anxiety -- accessibility for people with anxiety and panic disorders: https://developer.paciellogroup.com/blog/2018/08/a-web-of-anxiety-accessibility-for-people-with-anxiety-and-panic-disorders-part-1/
 +
* How to Act and Understand Accessibility Right Now: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S8zhFWHV6Bw
 +
* How does the recent SCOTUS decision impact the accessibility legal landscape?: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-W3D-_LkOjM
 +
* How to Introduce People to Digital Accessibility - 7 Tips: https://www.boia.org/blog/how-to-introduce-people-to-digital-accessibility-7-tips
 +
* Brands Are Losing Billions by Not Being Digitally Accessible: https://www.boia.org/blog/brands-are-losing-billions-by-not-being-digitally-accessible
 +
* If Customer Retention Matters to Your Business, Accessibility Should Too: https://www.boia.org/blog/if-customer-retention-matters-to-your-business-accessibility-should-too
 +
* 7 ways to make your WebApp more Accessible: https://codeburst.io/seven-ways-to-make-your-web-app-more-accessible-411a8c716fcb
 +
* eSSENTIAL Accessibility at "Collision Toronto" (Growth Summit Stage 2019): https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=q_CU0HACz-I
 +
* Verizon Media To Launch "A11Y Hub" Ahead Of American With Disabilities Act 30th Anniversary: https://www.mediapost.com/publications/article/353830/verizon-media-to-launch-hub-ahead-of-american-with.html
 +
* New research reveals strategies for global disability inclusion: https://www.theglobalrecruiter.com/new-research-reveals-strategies-for-global-disability-inclusion/
 +
* Annual OCR Report, Touting Dedication to Website Accessibility, Delivered with Major Accessibility Flaws: https://www.boia.org/blog/annual-ocr-report-touting-website-accessibility-delivered-with-major-accessibility-barriers
 +
* Diversity Data Shows Apple, Google, Microsoft, Facebook Fail To Deliver: https://www.mediapost.com/publications/article/355012/diversity-data-shows-apple-google-microsoft-fac.html
 +
* Why W3C Calls for Accessibility Standards Harmonization (across geo-political laws) and What That Means: https://www.boia.org/blog/why-w3c-calls-for-accessibility-standards-harmonization-and-what-that-means
 +
* '''Facebook issues new accessibility guidelines for VR developers: https://www.engadget.com/facebook-oculus-quest-180053872.html'''
 +
* Dots is a gesture-recognition system for people with disabilities: https://www.dezeen.com/2020/11/03/dots-gesture-recognition-system-disabilities-technology/
 +
* How we made GOV.UK more accessible: https://accessibility.blog.gov.uk/2020/12/17/how-we-made-gov-uk-more-accessible/
 +
* VR games open new doors for people with disabilities: https://koreajoongangdaily.joins.com/2020/12/15/culture/gamesWebtoons/VR-game-recovery/20201215193206600.html
 +
* GSMA Promotes Inclusion with New Set of "Digital Accessibility Principles" for Mobile: https://mobileidworld.com/gsma-promotes-inclusion-new-set-digital-accessibility-principles-121107/
 +
* Google develops app to help motor impaired patients 'speak' with their eyes: https://www.zdnet.com/article/google-develops-app-to-help-motor-impaired-patients-speak-with-their-eyes/ (eye-gazing technology to let people select pre-written phrases to be spoken aloud)
 +
* iPhones can now automatically recognize and label buttons and UI features for blind users: https://techcrunch.com/2020/12/03/iphones-can-now-automatically-recognize-and-label-buttons-and-ui-features-for-blind-users/
 +
* U.S. Businesses Potentially Spent Billions on Legal Fees for Inaccessible Websites in 2020: https://www.boia.org/blog/did-u-s-businesses-spend-billions-on-legal-fees-for-inaccessible-websites-in-2020
 +
* The National Organization on Disability Urges Companies to Act Now & Advance Workforce Disability Inclusion Practices: https://www.nod.org/the-national-organization-on-disability-urges-companies-to-act-now-advance-workforce-disability-inclusion-practices/
 +
* Samsung makes its 2021 TVs more accessible for people with vision or hearing disabilities: https://www.cnet.com/news/samsung-makes-its-2021-tvs-more-accessible-for-people-with-vision-or-hearing-disabilities/
 +
* Facebook improves alt text photo descriptions for blind, visually impaired users: https://www.cnet.com/news/snag-a-google-nest-hub-for-just-49-at-your-local-walmart/<ref>How to Add Alt Text to Images on Facebook: https://www.howtogeek.com/761718/how-to-add-alt-text-to-images-on-facebook/</ref>
 +
* This Software Lets Disabled Gamers Play Minecraft with Their Eyes: https://beebom.com/software-lets-disabled-gamers-play-minecraft-with-eyes/
 +
* Study suggests smart assistant design improvements for deaf users: https://news.psu.edu/story/643330/2021/01/07/research/study-suggests-smart-assistant-design-improvements-deaf-users
 +
<ref>5 ways to make websites more accessible for deaf people: https://www.hearinglikeme.com/5-ways-to-make-websites-more-accessible-for-deaf-people/</ref>
 +
<ref>How to make a website accessible for the deaf and hearing impaired: https://www.paradigmmarketinganddesign.com/how-to-make-a-website-accessible-for-the-deaf-and-hearing-impaired/</ref>
 +
<ref>Web accessibility for hearing impairments: https://uxdesign.cc/web-accessibility-for-hearing-impairment-3f49fc7b5a34</ref>
 +
* Ten basic accessibility facts: https://sheribyrnehaber.medium.com/ten-basic-accessibility-facts-abcaf0acfe3e
 +
* From The Experts -- Global Digital Accessibility Developments During COVID-19 — Smashing Magazine: https://www.smashingmagazine.com/2020/11/global-digital-accessibility-developments-during-covid/
 +
* IT and Environmental, Social, and Corporate Governance (ESG), Part One -- A CEO and Board Concern: https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/enterprise-strategy/it-and-environmental-social-and-corporate-governance-esg-part-one-a-ceo-and-board-concern/
 +
* IT and ESG Part Two: How IT Can and Must Further the Company’s ESG Efforts: https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/enterprise-strategy/it-and-esg-part-two-how-it-can-and-must-further-the-companys-esg-efforts/
 +
* NYC -- Mayor's Office for People with Disabilities - Open Restaurants Accessibility Requirements: https://mcusercontent.com/c9e95602d3d7209e71c920bfa/files/7d77650d-e650-4ea3-89ab-430aaf5d7196/Open_Restaurant_Accessibility.pdf (interesting info on minimum elevation and "line-of-sight" angles for ordering screens or to view cashiers, waiters/waitresses, hosts/hostesses, table heights and distances between tables, etc)
 +
* Zoom will launch automatic closed captioning for all free accounts: https://www.usatoday.com/story/tech/2021/02/25/zoom-meeting-automatic-closed-captioning-coming-free-accounts/6813037002/
 +
* Apple Stores offering free sign language interpreter appointments: https://9to5mac.com/2021/02/25/apple-retail-store-sign-language-interpreter-appointments/
 +
* Fingerspelling.xyz app helps people to learn the sign language alphabet: https://www.dezeen.com/2021/08/27/fingerspelling-xyz-app-learn-sign-language-alphabet-design/
 +
* VMWare -- An Innovation Path to a More Accessible World - Office of the CTO Blog: https://octo.vmware.com/innovation-path-accessible-world/
 +
* Spring Cleaning -- Keeping Content Accessible Through Periodic Checks: https://www.boia.org/blog/spring-cleaning-keeping-content-accessible-through-periodic-checks
 +
* Microsoft and Deque make accessibility easy for millions of developers: https://www.windowscentral.com/microsoft-and-deque-make-accessibility-easy-millions-developers
 +
* Greenstein Bill to Improve Accessibility of State Websites Advances: https://www.insidernj.com/press-release/greenstein-bill-improve-accessibility-state-websites-advances/
 +
* Apple-friendly debugger tool "Evinced" (fully xCode compatible) helps make apps and websites accessible: https://www.computerworld.com/article/3610333/apple-friendly-debugger-helps-make-apps-and-websites-accessible.html
 +
* Classic Typewriter (example of one of many "A11Y-driven innovation" success case): https://site.xavier.edu/polt/typewriters/tw-history.html
 +
* Degree's New 'Inclusive' Is Roll-On For People With Disabilities: https://www.mediapost.com/publications/article/363105/degrees-new-inclusive-is-roll-on-for-people-wit.html
 +
* Customer Service for People (personas) with Disabilities: https://www.deque.com/blog/customer-service-for-people-with-disabilities/
 +
* Stark opens Public Library to shape ‘largest’ digital accessibility resource: https://150sec.com/stark-opens-public-library-to-shape-largest-digital-accessibility-resource/16045/
 +
* AUS-first digital platform supporting young Aussies living with incurable movement disorder: https://www.medianet.com.au/releases/199046/
 +
* Dashboard expands to include accessibility rankings of state vaccine websites: https://hub.jhu.edu/2021/04/06/data-visualization-dashboard-ranks-vaccine-websites/
 +
* New Global Research Exposes Challenges Of Data Collection On Disabled Employees: https://www.forbes.com/sites/gusalexiou/2021/04/20/new-global-research-exposes-challenges-of-data-collection-on-disabled-employees/
 +
* How Nina Oria-Loureiro Designed an "Accessible Login" experience with Voice (in AdobeXD): https://uxmag.com/articles/how-nina-oria-loureiro-designed-an-accessible-login-experience-with-voice
 +
* Microsoft Edge - Web dev tools, A11y, and PWAs: https://channel9.msdn.com/Shows/Tabs-vs-Spaces/Microsoft-Edge-Web-dev-tools-A11y-and-PWAs
 +
* Google’s UX Algorithm Update Will Benefit Accessible Websites: https://www.boia.org/blog/googles-ux-algorithm-update-will-benefit-accessible-websites
 +
* Why It's Important That Apple's Software Updates Were 'Designed for People with Disabilities': https://www.boia.org/blog/why-its-important-that-apples-software-updates-were-designed-for-people-with-disabilities
 +
* EA’s Patent Pledge will give competitors free access to accessibility technology: https://venturebeat.com/2021/08/24/eas-patent-pledge-will-give-competitors-free-access-to-accessibility-technology/
 +
* Accessibility Will Crown the Digital Retail Kings in the New Era of E-Commerce: https://www.boia.org/blog/accessibility-will-crown-the-digital-retail-kings-in-the-new-era-of-e-commerce
 +
* How Accessible Design Can Improve 4 Key eCommerce Metrics: https://www.boia.org/blog/how-accessible-design-can-improve-4-key-ecommerce-metrics
 +
* Dark Mode Can Improve Text Readability — But Not for Everyone: https://www.boia.org/blog/dark-mode-can-improve-text-readability-but-not-for-everyone
 +
* Myths & Facts About Photosensitivity and Seizures: https://www.boia.org/blog/myths-and-facts-about-photosensitivity-and-seizures
 +
* Accessibility and Compliance -- How to Measure Digital Accessibility: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_eDRLi0C6a4
 +
* 7 Ways Cities Should Improve Their Accessibility for Disabled Citizens: https://www.rushprnews.com/2019/01/11/7-ways-cities-should-improve-their-accessibility-for-disabled-citizens/
 +
* Ninth Circuit overturns judgment in a legal battle over the wheelchair accessibility at a Seattle baseball par: https://www.courthousenews.com/ninth-circuit-overturns-judgment-in-a-legal-battle-over-the-wheelchair-accessibility-at-a-seattle-baseball-park/
 +
* More companies are considering hiring accessibility specialists: https://texasnewstoday.com/more-companies-are-considering-hiring-accessibility-specialists/440061/
 +
* Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) Updated to Incorporate Revised 508 Standards: https://www.access-board.gov/news/2021/09/13/federal-acquisition-regulation-far-updated-to-incorporate-revised-508-standards/
 +
* McDonald’s Partners with Vispero to Provide Access for Blind and Low Vision Customers in US Self Order Kiosks: https://www.tpgi.com/mcdonalds-partners-with-vispero-accessible-kiosks
 +
* 5 tips to help people with anxiety navigate your website: https://uxdesign.cc/5-tips-to-help-people-with-anxiety-navigate-your-website-e20ab4bbdb1d
 +
* This $400 "Smart" Cane Uses Autonomous Vehicle Tech to Help Guide The Visually Impaired: https://www.sciencealert.com/this-400-cane-uses-autonomous-vehicle-tech-to-help-guide-the-visually-impaired
 +
* Stark, a hub for accessible software design, launches a Mac app in beta: https://techcrunch.com/2021/09/28/stark-a-hub-for-accessible-software-design-launches-a-mac-app-in-beta/
 +
* The world's largest movie theater chain is adding open captions at 240 U.S. locations: https://www.npr.org/2021/10/21/1048017853/amc-theatres-open-captioning-movie-accessibility
 +
* New Database Helps Players Find Games With Accessibility Features: https://kotaku.com/new-database-helps-players-find-games-with-accessibilit-1847811106
 +
* New Chromebook accessibility feature aims to help people with dyslexia: https://www.cnet.com/tech/computing/googles-new-chromebook-accessibility-feature-aims-to-help-those-with-dyslexia/
 +
* Canadian company builds a better box of chocolates using braille (to identify chocolate flavours): https://www.cbc.ca/news/business/braille-boxes-accessible-packaging-1.6296659?cmp=rss
 +
* Bose smart glasses help me navigate as a blind person: https://www.reviewed.com/accessibility/features/bose-frames-tempo-review-great-choice-blind
 +
* Reviewed launches new vertical dedicated to accessibility: https://www.usatoday.com/story/money/reviewed/2022/01/10/reviewed-launches-new-focus-accessibility-and-aging/9134353002/
 +
* McMaster researchers ready to reimagine workplaces for employees with disabilities: https://brighterworld.mcmaster.ca/articles/mcmaster-researchers-ready-to-reimagine-workplaces-for-disabled-employees/
 +
* Accessible Cars Aren’t Born, They’re (quite intentionally) Made: https://www.wired.com/story/accessible-car-options/
 +
* 3D-printed DualSense attachment lets you play PS5 with one hand: https://www.engadget.com/3-d-printed-dualsense-attachment-ps-5-one-hand-accessibility-174915143.html
 +
* Team Gleason and Comcast team up to make new TV remote for those with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS): https://www.kxly.com/team-gleason-and-comcast-team-up-to-make-new-tv-remote-for-those-with-als/
 +
* Assistive tech startup led by former NASA engineer uses an AI ‘parrot’ to help people with disabilities: https://www.geekwire.com/2022/assistive-tech-startup-led-by-former-nasa-engineer-uses-an-ai-parrot-to-help-people-with-disabilities/
 +
* Why Americans With Disabilities Use The Internet Less Frequently: https://www.boia.org/blog/why-americans-with-disabilities-use-the-internet-less-frequently
 +
* Time to close the disability employment gap: https://www.thesun.co.uk/news/17462132/time-to-close-the-disability-employment-gap/
 +
* Digital Accessibility Enters The Spotlight As A Business Priority: https://www.forrester.com/blogs/digital-accessibility-enters-the-spotlight-as-a-business-priority/
 +
* Starbucks commits to a higher standard of accessibility for disabled Americans: https://www.nrn.com/quick-service/starbucks-commits-higher-standard-accessibility-disabled-americans
 +
* Twitter tests alt text changes to make platform more accessible: https://www.siliconrepublic.com/business/twitter-alt-text-image-description-accessibility-feature
 +
* Disabled IT professionals are building access for themselves: https://www.itpro.co.uk/business-strategy/careers-training/367131/disabled-it-professionals-building-access
 +
* What Are "Invisible Disabilities"?: https://www.accessibility.com/blog/what-are-invisible-disabilities
 +
 +
 +
== References ==
 +
 +
<references />
 +
 +
== See Also ==
 +
 +
[[i18n]] | [[l10n]] | [[W3C]] | [[Web]] | [[SEO]] | [[HCI]] | [[UI]]/[[UX]] [[Design]] | [[Captions]] | [[Subtitles]] | [[Video Annotation]] | [[HTML]]/[[HTML5]] | [[E-Learning]] | [[STT]]/[[TTS]] | [[Speech Recognition]] | [[Voice Recognition]] | [[Image Recognition]] | [[Biometrics]] | [[Sustainability]]

Latest revision as of 13:21, 27 September 2022

Accessibility (commonly abbreviated as A11Y, also refered to as universal support) is the support for disabled or otherwise impaired persons.


Specifications

WCAG

Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (commonly abbreviated WCAG) is part of a series of accessibility guidelines, including the Authoring Tool Accessibility Guidelines (ATAG) and the User Agent Accessibility Guidelines (UAAG)[1][2].


                                           WCAG 1.0   |   WCAG 2.0
importance of the content A AA AAA A AA AAA
(closed) captionsXXXX*XX
(closed) audio descriptionXXXX*XX
full text alternativeX*X
sign languageX
  1. A = Priority 1, Web developers must satisfy these requirements, otherwise it will be impossible for one or more groups to access the Web content. Conformance to this level is described as A.
  2. AA = Priority 2, Web developers should satisfy these requirements, otherwise some groups will find it difficult to access the Web content. Conformance to this level is described as AA or Double-A.
  3. AAA = Priority 3, Web developers may satisfy these requirements, in order to make it easier for some groups to access the Web content. Conformance to this level is described as AAA or Triple-A.

[3] [4] [5]

POUR principles

In addition to the specific multimedia accessibility techniques, WCAG defines defines four key principles of accessibility:

  1. Perceivable - Information can be presented in different ways; for example, in braille, different text sizes, text-to-speech, or symbols, etc.
  2. Operable - Functionality can be used in different modalities; for example, keyboard, mouse, sip-and-puff, speech input, touch, etc.
  3. Understandable - Information and functionality is understandable; for example consistent navigation, simple language, etc.
  4. Robust - Content can be interpreted reliably by a wide variety of browsers, media players, and assistive technologies.

[6]

There are currently two stable versions of WCAG that are both supported by W3C:

WCAG 2.0 was published in December 2008, and has become widely adopted as the standard for web accessibility by many businesses and governments around the world. It defines 12 Guidelines under the four POUR principles. Under each Guideline there are more specific Success Criteria divided into three Conformance Levels: A, AA, and AAA. WCAG 2.0 defines 61 Success Criteria.


WCAG 2.1 was published in June 2018, to better address accessibility for people with cognitive and learning disabilities, people with low vision, and people with disabilities using mobile devices. WCAG 2.1 is fully backward compatible with WCAG 2.0, so that if your content conforms to WCAG 2.1 it also conforms to WCAG 2.0. WCAG 2.1 defines 13 Guidelines and 78 Success Criteria.

WCAG 2.0 – Quick Facts and Guide: https://www.hurix.com/wcag-quick-facts-and-guide/ [10] [11] [12] [13]

[14] [15]


WAI

Web Accessibility Initiative (commonly abbreviated WCAG).

[16] [17] [18] [19]

ARIA

ARIA Landmarks Example: https://w3c.github.io/aria-practices/examples/landmarks/index.html [21] [22] [23] [24] [25] [26]

ATAG

UAAG

ARRM

[28] [29] [30] [31] [32] [33] [34] [35] [36]



Kiosks

[37] [38]

Printed Materials

  • Best Practices and Guidelines for Large Print Documents used by the Low Vision Community authored by the Council of Citizens with Low Vision: https://perma.cc/MQ2K-5UAQ

[39] [40] [41] [42] [43] [44] [45] [46]


a11y

Wordpress as of v4.3.x offers Accessibility prompts via JavaScript to communicate with Screen Reader software (where available natively in the client's browser or via Plugin). Simply

wp.a11y.speak('YOUR TEXT TO BE SPOKEN HERE'); 
  • a11y
  • The Accessibility (a11y) Project: https://www.a11yproject.com/ (aside from tons of great blogs/tutorials/resources, a nice visual explaining the 11 characters between "A" and "Y" of the word AccessibilitY)

AAM

ACC Name


Section 508

United States government initiative towards Accessibility for IT.

[47] [48] [49] [50] [51] [52] [53]

12 categories

Utilities

A person may for personal or financial reasons not have full access to modern society's common amenities including power/electricity, internet, telephone, mobile phone, heat, hot water, etc... they may also have some amenities such as power and internet or mobile data services but it may be limited or cost-prohibitively expensive to the point it needs to be rationed or only used sparingly at specific times, page loads should thus be small and fast; in general, there should be alternate ways to provide service to these customers as well.

Literacy & Numeracy

Ability to read and understand textual information on a screen or printed material, as well as issues that can arise for folks who have trouble reading text when layered on top of images or with insufficient spacing, color contrasts, etc - literacy in Canada is typically measured by levels ranging from 1 (illiterate) to 3 (basic literacy required to function independently in society) to 5 (highly proficient and capable of critical analysis); equally important to reading itself are "numerical literacy" considerations, as some folks may be perfectly capable of reading text but not of processing numbers, statistics, doing basic mathematics, or, may lack financial literacy in terms of sensibly managing their own money or the money of others in their household.

Cognitive

Reading comprehension, mental barriers to learning, or even cognitive realization of how one is expected to interact with a given screen or experience (checkout flow, registration/signup flow, login/logout flow, regular usage, etc) could be an issue, as could memory and information retention (or not remembering how to perform a task or processing/understanding the information that was successfully read or result of an action that was taken); problem-solving skills also fall into this category, which could be problematic for any of the more complex UI/UX expectations thrust upon the user.

[54] [55] [56]y [57] [58] [59]

Tactile

Having an inability or challenge to control the common Human Computer Interface (HCI) and related peripheral devices could be reduced, this includes a mouse/keyboard (for Desktop computers), directional pad and/or QWERT or numerical keys (for legacy or basic Mobile devices), or increasingly, on-screen/virtual keyboards and touch-based controls for Smartphones and Mobile Tablet-type devices (which introduce their own "fat finger" potential design issues), lastly there are those who can use none of the above and require a special stylus or pointing device for instance sometimes even using their mouth or feet to point rather than hands.

Vision

Not just full blindness, this category also includes "partially sighted" (legal blindness but still some vision at high zooms), "reduced vision" (near/far-sightedness), color-blindness, and similar categories of vision disabilities... Braille for print or Screen Readers for digital are the most common tools, and we to need to ensure compatibility of these assistive technologies with our systems.

Hearing

Inability or challenges to be able ot hear information in an audio delivery format such as a radio ad, podcast, music player, video, spoken word, presentations, phone calls, tele-confernces, etc.... correctly sequenced/timed captions should be provided for native language speakers with such issues, subtitles may need to be required for foreign or second language speakers, transcripts with timestamps can also help cover all folks' needs and have the added benefit of Search Engine Optimization and improved content discoverability. Sign language may be a requirement.

[60] [61] [62]

Speech

When intentionally designing Voice controls, there are those persons whom have a Speech impediment, disorder of the Vocal folds or throat, or other Speaking disabilities whom need special textual or audio representations for Voice controls to be usable in an accessible manner while interacting with a given system. This can pose a real challenge, so having a baseline experience that doesn't require complex vocal interaction can be a key design area to focus on whenever speech-related controls are intended to be used.

Physical & Mobility

As with any of the other categories these could be permanent (lifelong conditions, chronic illnesses) or temporary (injury which a person is recovering from or situational due to physical location/environment); just as building designers particularly need to think about wheelchair accessibility, as well as use of canes, walkers and other assisted mechanisms (bathroom/elevator emergency bells, hand-rails, safety barriers, curb heights & cuts, etc) or accommodate guided helpers (two-person hallways/doorways, seeing eye-dogs or other comfort/therapy animals, etc) software designers need to think about physical limitations that could impede use of a digital product/service. In addition, there are many mobility disabilities which could factor into accessibility concerns including one's ability to sit at a desk, angle one's head/neck/eyes and/or arms, those who may be bed-ridden; there are many in these groups and others whom need to use Voice controls, such as Speech-To-Text (STT) and/or Text-To-Speech (TTS) to control their screen rather than a keyboard, mouse and/or mobile device touch interface.

Vestibular

This category of disorders and personal challenges include seizures, migraines & disorientation or dizziness caused by any combination or isolated instance of flashing lights, suddenly changing color schemes, or, even basic animation motion trails and seemingly harmless "stylistic transitions" between screens or displayed sections; so these must be capable of being toggled on/off or permanently disabled via personalized settings; pausing/deactivation controls should also be available without a login/account requirement for things like auto-scrolling feeds, auto-transitioning carousels, carousel slide animations and other page-level or component-level transitions.

Vestibular Disorders and those who can become triggered into seizures are the major health concern here, but there are also simply those who do not like such "special effects" (or for whom it makes the content harder to read/understand or makes them dizzy, confused or otherwise uncomfortable); so we should respect their preferences and offer them an experience without such effects. The current way to communicate a preference not to be shown animations and related effects is the CSS3 markup "@prefers-reduced-motion".

[63] [64] [65] [66] [67] [68] [69] [70] [71] [72]

Device & Screen

A person may have a very old device and for financial or personal reasons be unwilling or unable to upgrade or replace that device, what is the lowest common experience we can guarantee to all such users? (perhaps it could be a bit better than "please get a new device and/or upgrade your browser" message); similarly, a person may have a smaller or less than optimal screen size or resolution available for displaying digital content, may be unable to view their screen due to viewing angles, reflections, lighting conditions, cracks/damage to screen, etc... so some baseline experience must be preserved, and on touch-enabled screens good UI/UX around "fat fingering must be followed.

Location

A person might not be able to access a given physical retail location or other facility, and needs a close proxy user experience via a combination of other medium (web and/or mobile typically being the first choice, packaged/offline software being another digital option). Traditionally companies are often also expected to ensure any service offered can also potentially be provided by telephone, email, chat, print materials, guided in-person help or traveling kiosks or customer service representatives that come to given neighbourhoods (not necessarily all of these for every offering, but a strategic combination to cover users' needs).

[73] [74]


Timing

A person may not be able to complete a given task within an alotted amount of time, or, on the flip side for those without blocking disabilities an otherwise "fully-abled" person may still not be able to access a physical or even digital service at a specific time (i.e. "get your purchase in before draw break") this could include workers stuck on the "night shift", those in remote areas with no internet access, temporarily out of mobile service area, etc.



Diversity & Inclusion

Concerns "Accessible employment" and workplace inclusivity (equal participation & opportunities).

[75] [76] [77] [78] [79] [80] [81] [82] [83] [84] [85] [86] [87] [88] [89]

Societal approaches

Equality-vs-Equity-vs-Justice.png

Equality


Equity

Justice


Information Architecture

Content Strategy

Accessibility Auditors

There are three "tiers" or types of 3rd-party Accessibility providers:

  1. Tier 1 - scan & overlay (no "preventive" coverage against lawsuits) $2-5k USD
  2. Tier 2 - hybrid, scan & overlay with wait & see approach (partial coverage) $6-12k USD
  3. Tier 3 - full legal coverage (guaranteed compliance & insurance coverage options against lawsuits) $12-25k USD

[97]

Over 10000 cases/year go to court, almost 100% go to court, average of over $20000 USD awarded to plaintiffs.


Desktop Technology-specific A11Y

PDF accessibility

[98] [99] [100]

PPT accessiblity

[101] [102] [103] [104] [105]

Email accessibility

Here are a few tips to help you send accessible emails:

  • Provide a clear, brief, and informative subject line
  • Choose a font style that is easy to read in at least 12-14 point font
  • Use spaces to break up paragraphs
  • Use plain text and avoid using lots of special characters and symbols
  • Avoid flashing or flickering content (think: gifs in your email signature

[106] [107]


Web Technology-specific A11Y

HTML accessibility

[109]

CSS accessibility

[110]

JS accessibility

[111]

Charts/Graphs/Diagrams/Tables


Special A11Y concerns

Visual

[112]

Motion preferences

A number of people may suffer from permanent/chronic, temporary/resolvable or situational/environmental issues around motion, flicker and related content changes (often categorized as "Vestibular Disorders"). These could be triggered through:

  • content animations
  • moving, growing or shrinking pictures/text
  • strobing effects
  • sudden color changes
  • screen transitions

[113] [114] [115] [116] [117] [118]

[119] [120] [121] [122] [123] [124]

[125] (MD) [126] [127] [128] [129] [130]


Contrast

Text & Images must have sufficient contrast between one another and their respective containers/backgrounds.

[131] [132]

Screen Reader

  • WebAIM -- Designing for Screen Reader compatibility: https://webaim.org/techniques/screenreader/ (similar considerations for all types of apps Desktop/Mobile/Web, but approaches slightly different depending on platform)

[133] [134] [135] [136] [137]

[138] [139] [140] [141] [142] [143] [144] [145] [146] [147]


Keyboard navigation

Keyboard Accessibility defines the ability to use a standard or custom (i.e. Braille, RSI positioned keys, etc) keyboard input device rather than any other HCI peripheral device (such as mouse, stylus, finger/touch, voice, etc) to interact with a given Website, WebApp, Desktop App or Mobile App.


When verifying "Keyboard Accessibility" you should check that:

  1. 'Tab to all - users can tab to all the active elements including links, form fields, buttons, and a media player control.
  2. Tab away - users can tab away from (out of) all elements that can be tabbed into.
  3. Tab order - the tab order follows the logical reading order according to the language on the page.
  4. Visual focus - the focus is clearly visible as users tab through the elements, and users can tell if navigating away to another application or tab upon returning, precisely which element has focus at any point in time.
  5. Functionality - users can do everything with the keyboard. That is you don't need to use a mouse to activate actions options, visible changes, and other functionality.
  6. Drop-downs - after users tab to a drop-down list using the arrow keys to move through the options without triggering another action.
  7. Image links - when images are links they have clear & visible focus and they can be activated using the keyboard.

The following table shows some common keyboard shortcuts and keymap conventions:

Interaction

Keystrokes

Navigate to most elements

  • Tab
  • Shift + Tab - navigate backward

Link

Enter

Button

Enter or Spacebar

Checkbox

Spacebar - check/uncheck a checkbox

Radio buttons

  • ↑/↓ or ←/→ - select an option
  • Tab - move to the next element

Select (dropdown) menu

  • ↑/↓ - navigate between menu options
  • Spacebar - expand

Autocomplete

  • Type to begin filtering
  • ↑/↓ - navigate to an option
  • Enter - select an option

Dialog

Esc - close

Slider

  • ↑/↓ or ←/→ - increase or decrease slider value
  • Home/End - beginning or end

Menu bar

  • ↑/↓ - Previous/next menu option
  • Enter - expand the menu (optional) and select an option.
  • ←/→ - expand/collapse submenu

Tab panel

  • Tab - once to navigate into the group of tabs and once to navigate out of the group of tabs
  • ↑/↓ or ←/→ - previous/next tab.

'Tree' menu

  • ↑/↓ - Navigate Previous/next menu option
  • ←/→ - expand/collapse submenu, move up/down one level

Scroll

  • ↑/↓ - scroll vertically
  • ←/→ - scroll horizontally
  • Spacebar/Shift + Spacebar - scroll by page

[148] [149]

[150] [151] [152]


Mobile technology-specific A11Y approaches

[153] [154] [155] [156] [157] [158] [159] [160] [161] [162]

Apple (iOS)

[163] [164] [165] [166] [167] [168] [169] [170]

Google (Android)

Touch Target

Minimum sizes for interactive areas are needed to prevent an inability to trigger required events or operate controls in the desired manner (aka. "Fat Fingering"). Most "Mobile Design guidelines" encourage practices to prevent any issues here such as 32px padding on either side of any button or link, and use of labels tied to input fields within forms that cause the correct corresponding field to become in focus.

Accessibility Overlays

"Accessibility Overlays" are bolt-on solutions that attempt to "embed" accessibility features and options into an inaccessible or incompletely accessible website or mobile app with many or a specific few unfixed access barriers of certain types. While these can be slightly better than doing nothing, they are no substitute for building a fully accessible experience and often fall far short of primary accessibility and risk (lawsuit exposure, customer churn) reduction goals. Studies have shown that it is always better to "bake accessibility in" from the beginning.

The following issues aren't fully covered by Overlays (and can sometimes be worsened or made more confusing by having the extra layer):

  1. Unlabeled/mislabeled form fields
  2. Zoom disabled
  3. Minimum width
  4. Use of layout tables
  5. Ambiguous anchor text links
  6. Images of text
  7. Focus order
  8. Alt text[171][172][173][174][175][176][177][178]
  9. Consistent identification
  10. Keyboard only usage
  11. Error prevention
  12. Error suggestions
  13. Keyboard traps
  14. Incorrect heading structure
  15. Missing links
  16. No input change
  17. Parsing
  18. Misidentified language
  19. Closed captions
  20. Locked display orientation


[179] [180] [181] [182] [183] [184] [185] [186] [187] [188] [189]


A11Y Lawsuits

  1. Winn-Dixie grocery: https://www.forbes.com/sites/legalnewsline/2017/06/13/first-of-its-kind-trial-goes-plaintiffs-way-winn-dixie-must-update-website-for-the-blind/?sh=a3b943f1b38a
  2. McDonald's self-serve kiosks: https://www.wsj.com/articles/mcdonalds-starts-making-self-service-easier-for-blind-diners-11631900280
  3. Harvard & MIT Universities: https://www.insidehighered.com/news/2019/04/08/mit-and-harvard-fail-get-out-video-captioning-court-case
  4. UC Berkley on textbooks: https://www.3playmedia.com/blog/dra-v-uc-berkeley-a-win-win-with-structured-negotiation/
  5. CVS Pharmacy: https://icharts.net/ada-compliance/
  6. Amazon: https://www.classaction.org/media/bishop-v-amazon-com-inc.pdf[190]
  7. Netflix: https://digitalcommons.law.scu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?referer=https://www.google.com/&httpsredir=1&article=1092&context=historical[191][192][193][194][195][196]
  8. Fox News: https://topclassactions.com/lawsuit-settlements/lawsuit-news/836448-fox-news-website-not-accessible-blind-class-action-says/
  9. Nike: https://www.accessiblemetrics.com/blog/4-key-takeaways-from-2018-web-accessibility-lawsuits/
  10. Burger King: https://www.classaction.org/media/mendizabal-v-burger-king-corporation.pdf[197][198]
  11. Five Guys': https://topclassactions.com/lawsuit-settlements/lawsuit-news/485124-five-guys-class-action-says-website-not-accessible-blind-users/
  12. Domino's: https://www.courthousenews.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/01/Dominos-Ruling.pdf[199][200][201][202][203][204][205][206][207][208][209][210][211][212][213]
  13. Winn-Dixie: https://www.courthousenews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/06/Winn-Dixie-ADA-verdict-.pdf[214][215][216][217][218]
  14. Blue Apron: https://www.levelaccess.com/new-hampshire-court-denies-blue-aprons-motion-dismiss-digital-accessibility-suit/
  15. Conair/CuisinArt: https://www.leagle.com/decision/infdco20201217g35[219]
  16. Amtrak: https://www.ada.gov/amtrak_sa.html[220][221]
  17. HCA hospitals: https://www.fredlaw.com/news__media/2017/01/18/1427/healthcare_sector_is_newest_target_for_website_accessibility_lawsuits/
  18. Hulu: https://www.3playmedia.com/blog/hulu-agrees-to-caption-100-percent-of-english-and-spanish-videos/[222]
  19. eBay: https://www.3playmedia.com/blog/earll-v-ebay-is-a-website-a-place-of-public-accommodation/
  20. Bank of America: https://www.lflegal.com/2015/06/bofa-travel-agreement/
  21. FedEx: https://www.3playmedia.com/blog/fedex-ground-sued-by-eeoc-nad-for-ada-violation/
  22. Hobby Lobby: https://lovata.com/blog/ada-website-compliance-lawsuits-recent-and-high-profile.html
  23. Bank of America (first major bank sued, all the way back in 2000): https://thefinancialbrand.com/27448/could-your-banking-website-be-the-target-of-a-lawsuit/
  24. Hard Rock Casino & Gulf Coast restaurant chains: https://www.sunherald.com/news/local/counties/harrison-county/article141331553.html
  25. NY city MTA: https://www.6sqft.com/judge-rules-that-an-accessibility-lawsuit-against-the-mta-in-queens-can-move-forward/
  26. Robinhood (stock trading platform): https://www.fredlaw.com/wp-content/uploads/2021/02/Website-Accessibility-Complaint-Sanchez-v-Robinhood-SDNY-2-3-2021.pdf[223]
  27. American Airlines: https://www.paddleyourownkanoo.com/2021/07/24/man-sues-american-airlines-because-its-website-discriminates-against-blind-people/ ($40 million)
  28. ViacomCBS: https://www.fiercevideo.com/video/fcc-slaps-viacomcbs-3-5m-fine-over-pluto-tv-closed-captions ($3.5 million)[224][225][226]
  29. Fox News: https://topclassactions.com/lawsuit-settlements/lawsuit-news/fox-news-website-not-accessible-blind-class-action-says/
  30. WWE: https://heelbynature.com/wrestling-news/wwe-news/wwe-settles-lawsuit-for-violation-of-americans-with-disabilities-act/ (settled out of court)[227][228]
  31. Dell: https://regmedia.co.uk/2021/03/04/giannaros_vs_dell_complaint.pdf[229]
  32. Apple: https://appleinsider.com/articles/18/08/20/apple-sued-over-claims-website-is-inaccessible-to-visually-impaired-users[230][231][232][233]
  33. Uber: https://www.docketalarm.com/cases/District_Of_Columbia_District_Court/1--17-cv-01272/EQUAL_RIGHTS_CENTER_v._UBER_TECHNOLOGIES_INC._et_al/55/[234][235][236][237][238]
  34. NBA: https://buckleyfirm.com/uploads/1082/doc/Complaint_for_Permanent_Injunction,_Jahoda_v_NBA.pdf
  35. eHarmony: https://www.pacermonitor.com/public/case/8982926/West_v_eHarmony,_Inc
  36. Rolex: https://www.pacermonitor.com/public/case/23729995/Thorne_v_Rolex_Watch_USA,_Inc
  37. Beyonce's music promotion website: https://www.impactbnd.com/blog/is-your-website-ada-compliant-what-beyonces-website-accessibility-lawsuit-taught-us[239][240]

[241] [242] [243] [244] [245] [246] [247] [248] [249] [250] [251] [252] [253] [254] [255] [256] [257] [258] [259] [260] [261] [262] [263] [264] [265] [266] [267] [268] [269] [270] [271] [272] [273] [274] [275] [276] [277] [278] [279] [280] [281] [282] [283] [284] [285] [286] [287] [288] [289] [290] [291] [292] [293] [294] [295] [296] [297]


Accessible Procurements

"A chain's only as strong as its weakest link". This is true of organizations and their products/services as well. If you've done all the hard work to make your own products/services fully accessible, but integrate with vendors that don't understand the importance of and prioritize accessibility properly, do accessibility testing with folks from various accessibility backgrounds, and regularly audit their own product/services, then you may still end up with an inaccessible product/service in the end.


Accessibility Testing

See also: Accessibility Testing

[301] [302] [303] [304] [305] [306] [307] [308] [309] [310] [311] [312] [313]


Assistive Technologies

[314] [315] [316] [317] [318] [319] [320] [321] [322] [323] [324] [325] [326] [327] [328] [329] [330] [331] [332] [333] [334] [335]

[336] [337] [338] [339] [340] [341] [342] [343]

[344] [345] [346] [347] [348]



Tools

[354] [355] [356] [357] [358] [359] [360] [361] [362] [363] [364] [365] [366]

Screen Readers

Browse and focus modes: https://www.accessibility-developer-guide.com/knowledge/screen-readers/desktop/browse-focus-modes/

[372]

Voice Control


Resources

[374] [375] [376] [377] [378] [379]

[388]

[416] [417] [418] [419] [420]

[427] [428] [429] [430] [431]

[433] [434] [435]

[436] [437] [438]

[447]

[456] [457] [458] [459] [460] [461] [462]

[472] [473] [474] [475] [476] [477] [478] [479] [480] [481]


Tutorials

[483][484]

  • Integrating Accessibility Throughout Design with User-Centered Design (UCD): uiaccess.com/accessucd/background.html#ucd[485]

[486] [487] [488]

[489] [490] [491]

[492] [493] [494] [495] [496] [497] [498] [499] [500] [501]

Don't disable outline, master it instead!: https://websightly.net/en/tutorial/dont-disable-outline-master-it-instead/

[511]

[512]

[513] [514] [515] [516] [517] [518] [519] [520] [521] [522] [523] [524] [525] [526] [527] [528] [529] [530] [531] [532] [533] [534] [535] [536] [537] [538] [539] [540] [541] [542] [543] [544] [545]

[546] [547] [548] [549]

[550] [551] [552] [553] [554] [555] [556]

[558] Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; refs with no name must have content Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; refs with no name must have content Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; refs with no name must have content [559] [560] [561] [562] [563] [564] [565] [566] [567] [568] [569]


External Links

[575] [576] [577] [578] [579]

[581] [582] [583] [584] [585] [586] [587] [588]

[590] [591] [592] [593]

[594] [595] [596] [597]

[598] [599] [600] [601]


[602] [603] [604] [605] [606] [607] [608] [609] [610] [611] [612] [613] [614] [615] [616] [617] [618] [619] [620] [621] [622] [623] [624]

[629] [630] [631]


References

  1. W3C working group on WCAG: http://www.w3.org/WAI/intro/wcag.php
  2. Accessibility Principles of WAI: https://www.w3.org/WAI/fundamentals/accessibility-principles/
  3. Essential Components of Web Accessibility: https://www.w3.org/WAI/fundamentals/components/
  4. The WCAG-EM Web Accessibility Evaluation Process: https://www.boia.org/blog/what-is-wcag-em-an-introduction-to-accessibility-evaluation-methodology (5 Steps: #1-Scope, #2-Test, #3-Sample, #4-Audit, #5-Report)
  5. W3C -- WCAG 2.0 - Understanding Conformance: https://www.w3.org/TR/UNDERSTANDING-WCAG20/conformance.html
  6. WCAG 2.0 – The 4 POUR Principles and 12 Guidelines: https://www.tngconsulting.ca/wcag-2-0-the-4-pour-principles-and-12-guidelines/
  7. wikipedia: Web Content Accessibility Guidelines
  8. What’s new in WCAG 2.1?: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=f5qv7AnTUHk
  9. WCAG 2.1 techniques/examples: https://www.w3.org/WAI/WCAG21/Techniques/
  10. First Public Draft of WCAG 2.2 Published: https://www.boia.org/blog/first-public-draft-of-wcag-2-2-published
  11. WCAG 2.2 Overview and Feedback: https://webaim.org/blog/wcag-2-2-overview-and-feedback/
  12. Latest Public Draft of WCAG 2.2 Features Nine New Success Criteria, Other Updates: https://www.boia.org/blog/latest-public-draft-of-wcag-2.2-features-nine-new-success-criteria-other-updates
  13. WCAG 2.2 Release Impacts 2021 Web Accessibility: https://www.essentialaccessibility.com/blog/new-wcag-22-release-impacts-2021-web-accessibility
  14. Understanding the Differences Between WCAG 2.2 and WCAG 3.0: https://www.boia.org/blog/understanding-the-differences-between-wcag-2.2-and-wcag-3.0
  15. What to Expect From The First Public Working Draft of WCAG 3.0: https://www.deque.com/blog/first-public-working-draft-wcag-3/
  16. WCAG 2.1 (A) -- Intent Benefits Examples Techniques Key Terms Understanding Success Criterion 2.5.1 - Pointer Gestures: https://www.w3.org/WAI/WCAG21/Understanding/pointer-gestures.html
  17. WCAG 2.1 (AA) -- Understanding Success Criterion 1.4.11 - Non-text Contrast: https://www.w3.org/WAI/WCAG21/Understanding/non-text-contrast
  18. The Unbearable Inaccessibility of Slideshows: https://www.sitepoint.com/unbearable-accessible-slideshow/
  19. Essential Component parts of (achieving) Web Accessibility: https://www.w3.org/WAI/fundamentals/components/
  20. W3C -- full listing of WAI-ARIA standards: https://www.w3.org/WAI/standards-guidelines/aria/
  21. wikipedia: Web Accessibility Initiative
  22. Mozilla Dev Docs -- ARIA: https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/Accessibility/ARIA
  23. Google Developers -- Introduction to ARIA: https://developers.google.com/web/fundamentals/accessibility/semantics-aria/
  24. MozDev -- Using ARIA - Roles, States & Properties: https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/Accessibility/ARIA/ARIA_Techniques
  25. WebAIM - Alternative Text guideines: https://webaim.org/techniques/alttext/
  26. Should I use an aria-label or screen-reader only text?: https://accessible360.com/accessible360-blog/use-aria-label-screen-reader-text/
  27. Authoring Tool Accessibility Guidelines (ATAG) 2.0: http://www.w3.org/TR/ATAG20/
  28. Accessibility Roles and Responsibilities Mapping (ARRM) project: https://www.w3.org/WAI/EO/wiki/ARRM_Project_-_Accessibility_Roles_and_Responsibilities_Mapping
  29. W3C -- ARRM - overview: https://www.w3.org/WAI/EO/wiki/ARRM_overview
  30. W3C -- ARRM - framework: https://www.w3.org/WAI/EO/wiki/ARRM_framework_introduction
  31. W3C -- ARRM - Success criteria: https://deploy-preview-3--wai-arrm.netlify.app/planning/arrm/sc-map/
  32. W3C -- ARRM - Role definition document:https://deploy-preview-3--wai-arrm.netlify.app/planning/arrm/ | WIKI | DOCS
  33. W3C -- ARRM - UX Designer Responsibilities Mapping: https://www.w3.org/WAI/EO/wiki/UX_Designer_Responsibilities_Mapping
  34. W3C -- ARRM - Visual Designer Responsibilities Mapping: https://www.w3.org/WAI/EO/wiki/Visual_Designer_Responsibilities_Mapping
  35. W3C -- ARRM - Content Author Responsibilities Mapping: https://www.w3.org/WAI/EO/wiki/Content_Author_Responsibilities_Mapping
  36. W3C -- ARRM - Front-End Developer Responsibilities Mapping: https://www.w3.org/WAI/EO/wiki/Front-End_Developer_Responsibilities_Mapping
  37. Does WCAG Apply to Kiosks?: https://www.tpgi.com/does-wcag-apply-to-kiosks/
  38. McDonald’s Starts Making Self-Service Easier for Blind Diners: https://www.wsj.com/articles/mcdonalds-starts-making-self-service-easier-for-blind-diners-11631900280
  39. Downloadable Disability Access Symbols: https://perma.cc/TFZ7-BKFV
  40. Braille Transcription Resource List: https://perma.cc/DPU9-944D
  41. Accessibility Guidelines for Print Materials: https://perma.cc/JN75-2WDQ
  42. Creating Accessible Print Materials -- Tip Sheet (Oct. 2017): https://www.vera.org/downloads/publications/print_materials_101617.pdf
  43. Accessibility Guidelines for Print Materials: https://perma.cc/JN75-2WDQ
  44. Appropriate Terms to Use for those with "Accessibility challenges" (which is preferred over "Handicapped" or "Disabled"): https://www.nda.ie/Publications/Attitudes/Appropriate-Terms-to-Use-about-Disability/
  45. Clear Print Accessibility Guidelines: https://perma.cc/HS6Q-LUM7
  46. A Guide to Making Documents Accessible to People Who Are Blind or Visually Impaired: https://perma.cc/9W4Y-SAFK
  47. wikipedia: Section 508 Amendment to the Rehabilitation Act of 1973
  48. Information & Communication Technology (ICT) - Revised 508 Standards & 255 Guidelines: https://www.access-board.gov/ict/
  49. Guide to the ADA Accessibility Standards -- Chapter 3 - Clear Floor or Ground Space and Turning Space: https://www.access-board.gov/ada/guides/chapter-3-clear-floor-or-ground-space-and-turning-space/ | PDF
  50. ADA checklist -- SURVEY FORM 24 - MEDICAL CARE FACILITIES (includes wheelchair physical spacing requirements for turning/maneuverability): https://web.archive.org/web/20090508103508/https://www.access-board.gov/adaag/checklist/Medical.html
  51. US Census Infograph on the Commonality of Specific Disabilities: http://www.disabilityresource.org/3-us-census-infograph-on-the-commonality-of-specific-disabilities
  52. Recent U.S. Disability Statistics from the Census Bureau: https://www.disabled-world.com/disability/statistics/census-stats.php
  53. Google Maps - Section 508 Compliance: https://developers.google.com/maps/premium/accessibility
  54. Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) - Concussion (INFOGRAPHIC): https://visual.ly/community/Infographics/health/brain-injury-concussion-infographic
  55. UK gov -- Health statistics - TBI (INFOGRAPHIC): https://www.pinterest.ca/pin/legal-infographic--463378249151088021/
  56. Traumatic Brain Injuries in California: https://visual.ly/community/Infographics/health/traumatic-brain-injuries-california
  57. An Overview of Cognitive Impairment in Multiple Sclerosis: https://www.verywellhealth.com/cognitive-impairment-in-ms-2440794
  58. Empathy in Accessibility Design - A Focus on Cognitive Disability Persona Spectrum: https://medium.com/@chinemeozumba/empathy-in-accessibility-design-e0360746fed8
  59. Why Analytics, Accessibility Are Essential for Designing Digital Customer Experiences: https://www.cmswire.com/digital-experience/why-analytics-accessibility-is-essential-for-designing-digital-customer-experiences/
  60. Johns Hopkins -- All Children's Hospital - Audiology Types of Hearing Disorders: https://www.hopkinsallchildrens.org/Services/Rehabilitation/Audiology/Types-of-Hearing-Disorders
  61. (What’d You Say?) 7 Common Types of Hearing Disorders: https://www.soundrelief.com/common-hearing-disorders/
  62. Do All Deaf People Use Sign Language?: https://www.accessibility.com/blog/do-all-deaf-people-use-sign-language
  63. A11Y 101 -- Reduced motion: https://a11y-101.com/development/reduced-motion
  64. MozDev -- A11Y - @media "prefers-reduced-motion": https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/CSS/@media/prefers-reduced-motion
  65. Revisiting "prefers-reduced-motion", the reduced motion media query: https://css-tricks.com/revisiting-prefers-reduced-motion-the-reduced-motion-media-query/
  66. prefers-reduced-motion -- Sometimes less movement is more: https://web.dev/prefers-reduced-motion/
  67. How to Insert an Animated GIF into a Word Document (and make it more Accessible with "alt" text description): https://www.howtogeek.com/718985/how-to-insert-an-animated-gif-into-a-word-document/
  68. Short note on prefers-reduced-motion and puzzled (Windows & Mac) users: https://www.tpgi.com/short-note-on-prefers-reduced-motion-and-puzzled-windows-users/
  69. New in Chrome 74 (2019-05-03) Prefers-reduced-motion media query: https://blog.logrocket.com/new-in-chrome-74-prefers-reduced-motion-media-query-50cd89d3e769/
  70. How to prevent "prefers-reduced-motion" OS setting from impacting animations on the browser (such as FF/Chrome): https://superuser.com/questions/1532014/how-to-prevent-prefers-reduced-motion-setting-from-ever-working-on-chrome
  71. Reduced Motion Setting: https://support.discord.com/hc/en-us/articles/360040613412-Reduced-Motion-Setting
  72. How Light Sensitivity & Photophobia Affect Vestibular Disorders: https://vestibular.org/how-light-sensitivity-photophobia-affect-vestibular-disorders/
  73. Association of Convenience Stores (ACS) - Everyone Welcome Guide: https://www.acs.org.uk/everyone-welcome-guide
  74. ACS launches guide to help stores deal better with disabled customers: https://www.talkingretail.com/news/industry-news/acs-launches-guide-to-help-stores-deal-better-with-disabled-customers-18-05-2022/
  75. Employer Assistance and Resource Network (EARN) on "Disability Inclusion" -- Encouraging applicants with disabilities - job descriptions & announcements, employer assistance, and resource network on "Disability Inclusion": https://production-askearn-org.s3.amazonaws.com/EARN_Explainer_Job_Descriptions_Checklist_ab47437635.pdf
  76. What are "land acknowledgements" to (First Nations) and why do they matter?: https://locallove.ca/issues/what-are-land-acknowledgements-and-why-do-they-matter/
  77. Implicit Age Cues in Resumes - Subtle Effects on Hiring Discrimination: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5554369/
  78. When an “Educated” Black Man Becomes Lighter in the Mind’s Eye - Evidence for a Skin Tone Memory Bias: https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/2158244013516770#ref-32
  79. Do We Need Safe or Brave Spaces?: https://alternativebreaks.org/safe-or-brave-spaces/
  80. From Safe Spaces to Brave Spaces: https://tlss.uottawa.ca/site/perspective-autochtone/1d-_From-Safe-Spaces-to-Brave-Spaces.pdf
  81. Biden Signs Executive Order (EO) to Advance Diversity, Equity in Federal Workforce (DEIA): https://www.meritalk.com/articles/biden-signs-eo-to-advance-diversity-equity-in-federal-workforce/
  82. Americans and ‘Cancel Culture’ - Where Some See Calls for Accountability, Others See Censorship, Punishment: https://www.pewresearch.org/internet/2021/05/19/americans-and-cancel-culture-where-some-see-calls-for-accountability-others-see-censorship-punishment/
  83. 10 Best Name Pronunciation Tools: https://beebom.com/name-pronunciation-tools/ (because a name is worth pronouncing properly)
  84. New Brunswick appoints independent commissioner on systemic racism: https://www.msn.com/en-ca/news/canada/new-brunswick-appoints-independent-commissioner-on-systemic-racism/ar-AAOMEGx
  85. Here are the N.B. beaches that have accessibility features: https://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/new-brunswick/new-brunswick-accessible-beaches-1.6465760
  86. Swansea model with Down's syndrome, Beth Matthews, signs with agency: https://www.bbc.com/news/uk-wales-60140181
  87. Scholarship for Black students launched at King’s School of Journalism by Global News: https://globalnews.ca/news/8582893/global-news-j-school-scholarship-halifax/
  88. The Importance of Diversity in the Workplace: https://perelson.com/the-importance-of-diversity-in-the-workplace/
  89. Why Your Employees Don't Report Hidden Disabilities: https://www.accessibility.com/blog/why-your-employees-dont-report-hidden-disabilities
  90. Content Strategists: What Do They Do?: http://contentini.com/content-strategists-what-do-they-do/
  91. Context As A Content Strategy: Creating More Meaningful Web Experiences Through Contextual Filtering: https://www.slideshare.net/danieleizans/context-as-a-content-strategy-creating-more-meaningful-web-experiences-through-contextual-filtering
  92. Complete Beginner’s Guide to Content Strategy: https://www.uxbooth.com/articles/complete-beginners-guide-to-content-strategy/
  93. The Discipline of Content Strategy: https://alistapart.com/article/thedisciplineofcontentstrategy/
  94. A Checklist for Content Work: https://alistapart.com/article/a-checklist-for-content-work/
  95. To Hell With Bad Browsers: https://alistapart.com/article/tohell/
  96. Content Strategy - The Philosophy of Data: http://boxesandarrows.com/content-strategy-the-philosophy-of-data/
  97. US Dept Justice WCAG PeaPod case: https://www.justice.gov/opa/pr/justice-department-enters-settlement-agreement-peapod-ensure-peapod-grocery-delivery-website
  98. Siteimprove FAQ -- What do you check for in PDFs?: https://files.nwesd.org/website/Accessbility/PDFChecker Info Sheet.pdf
  99. 5 key steps to a successful "Document Accessibility Program": https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/20140903163244-6856374-5-key-steps-to-a-successful-document-accessibility-program/
  100. Introduction To Creating Accessible PDFs (WEBINAR): https://www.tpgi.com/on-demand-webinar-important-aspects-of-pdf-remediation/
  101. Make your PowerPoint presentations accessible to people with disabilities: https://support.microsoft.com/en-us/office/make-your-powerpoint-presentations-accessible-to-people-with-disabilities-6f7772b2-2f33-4bd2-8ca7-dae3b2b3ef25
  102. How to Make an Accessible PowerPoint Presentation: https://business.tutsplus.com/tutorials/accessible-powerpoint-presentations--cms-30018
  103. How to Create 508 Compliant Microsoft PowerPoint Presentations: https://www.dau.edu/sites/governance-and-training/SitePages/How to Create 508 Compliant PowerPoint Presentations.aspx
  104. Creating Accessible Presentations in Microsoft PowerPoint: https://www.washington.edu/accessibility/documents/creating-accessible-presentations-in-microsoft-powerpoint/
  105. Accessible Presentations: https://ottawaheart.ca/document/accessible-presentations-slide-deck
  106. One Trick To Make Your HTML Emails More Accessible: https://www.boia.org/blog/one-trick-to-make-your-html-emails-more-accessible
  107. Why Accessibility in Email Marketing matters: https://www.responsemedia.com/why-accessibility-in-email-marketing-matters/
  108. Writing CSS with A11Y in mind: https://medium.com/@matuzo/writing-css-with-accessibility-in-mind-8514a0007939
  109. Writing HTML with A11Y in mind: https://medium.com/alistapart/writing-html-with-accessibility-in-mind-a62026493412
  110. Writing CSS with A11Y in mind: https://medium.com/@matuzo/writing-css-with-accessibility-in-mind-8514a0007939
  111. Writing JS with A11Y in mind: https://medium.com/@matuzo/writing-javascript-with-accessibility-in-mind-a1f6a5f467b9
  112. Improving The Color Accessibility For Color-Blind Users: https://www.smashingmagazine.com/2016/06/improving-color-accessibility-for-color-blind-users/
  113. Associations among Strength, Steadiness, and Hand Function across the Adult Life Span: https://journals.lww.com/acsm-msse/Fulltext/2011/04000/Associations_among_Strength,_Steadiness,_and_Hand.2.aspx
  114. Top 5 Reasons to Address Gross Motor Skills of Children with ASD: https://www.seekfreaks.com/index.php/2019/02/13/article-review-top-5-reasons-to-address-gross-motor-skills-of-children-with-asd/
  115. What is Dyspraxia?: www.lourdeswellnessspa.com/dyspraxia-motor-skills.html
  116. Disorders of Childhood - Motor Skills Disorders and tests to indentify & evaluate severity: https://www.mentalhelp.net/disorders-of-childhood/motor-skills-disorders/
  117. Motor Skills Disorders: https://www.emedicinehealth.com/motor_skills_disorder/article_em.htm#motor_skills_disorder_causes
  118. Fine Motor Disability: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK563266/
  119. wikipedia: Cerebral Palsy
  120. Cerebral Palsy (CP) awareness (INFOGRAPHICS): https://www.gillettechildrens.org/get-involved/cerebral-palsy-awareness#infographics
  121. Cerebral Palsy lawyers: https://www.abclawcenters.com/practice-areas/types-of-birth-injuries/cerebral-palsy/
  122. Cerebral Palsy - Stats And Facts: https://assistivetechnologyblog.com/2016/08/cerebral-palsy-stats-and-facts.html
  123. What is "Cerebral Palsy" and how many people suffer through it (INFOGRAPHIC): https://globalstemcells.com/new-version/wp-content/uploads/2016/10/cerebral-palsy-infographic.png
  124. University of Sydney researchers create sensor bracelet for hand-impaired persons: https://www.mobihealthnews.com/news/anz/university-sydney-researchers-create-sensor-bracelet-hand-impaired-persons (particularly aimed at helping folks with Cerebral Palsy but could help folks with other conditions as well, works using Bluetooth & ML to recognize gesture intentions from wrist and/or finger movements)
  125. wikipedia: Muscular Dystrophy
  126. Muscular Dystrophy symptoms & causes: https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/muscular-dystrophy/symptoms-causes/syc-20375388
  127. Muscular Dystrophy - What Causes This Disabling Condition?: https://universityhealthnews.com/daily/aging-independence/muscular-dystrophy/
  128. DART Therapeutics Completes Study of New Biomarker for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Treatment: https://clinicounselor.com/dart-therapeutics-completes-study-of-new-biomarker-for-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy-treatment/
  129. CDC -- Disease facts - What is Muscular Dystrophy?: https://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/musculardystrophy/facts.html
  130. Muscular Dystrophy info & graphics: https://arthritis-rheumatism.com/muscular-dystrophy/
  131. CSS Working Group resolved to begin working on a spec to standardize "High Contrast" based on MS Edge's implementation story: https://twitter.com/gregwhitworth/status/1100515214355648513
  132. 86 Percent of Websites Fail this Accessibility Basic (color contrast): https://www.boia.org/blog/86-percent-of-websites-fail-this-accessibility-basic
  133. The difference between keyboard and screen reader navigation: https://tink.uk/the-difference-between-keyboard-and-screen-reader-navigation/
  134. Reading Efficiently with a Screen Reader -- JAWS - Headings: https://www.perkinselearning.org/technology/blog/reading-efficiently-screen-reader-headings
  135. Testing with Screen Readers: http://webaim.org/articles/screenreader_testing/
  136. HTML For Screen Readers - Labelling Elements: https://bitsofco.de/html-for-screen-readers-labelling-elements/
  137. Screen reader support for HTML5 sections: https://tink.uk/screen-reader-support-for-html5-sections/
  138. BBC News - Accessibility & Testing with JAWS Screen Reader (guideline): https://bbc.github.io/accessibility-news-and-you/accessibility-and-testing-with-jaws.html
  139. WebAIM - ScreenReader survey: https://webaim.org/projects/screenreadersurvey8/#used (includes OS/ScreenReader/Browser combos)
  140. Global Screen Reader Market Size Status and Forecast 2019-2025: https://www.orbismarketreports.com/global-screen-reader-market-size-status-and-forecast-2019-2025
  141. Configuring Your Machine For Testing With A Screen Reader: http://yuiblog.com/blog/2008/12/30/configuring-screen-readers/
  142. SmashingTV shows How a Screen Reader user surfs the web (WEBINAR): https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OUDV1gqs9GA | Excerpt - Léonie Watson on why semantic HTML document landmarks assist her using a screenreader
  143. Optimizing Pages for Screen Reader Accessibility: http://www.webbie.org.uk/Veli-Pekka/web_access.html
  144. Setting up a screen reader test environment: http://www.iheni.com/screen-reader-testing/
  145. Deque - Why Don’t Screen Readers Always Read What’s on the Screen? Part 1: Punctuation and Typographic Symbols: https://www.deque.com/blog/dont-screen-readers-read-whats-screen-part-1-punctuation-typographic-symbols/
  146. Should I use an aria-label or screen-reader only text?: https://accessible360.com/accessible360-blog/use-aria-label-screen-reader-text/
  147. 5 Myths About Screen Readers That Can Hurt Accessibility: https://www.boia.org/blog/5-myths-about-screen-readers-that-can-hurt-accessibility
  148. Keyboard-based navigation compatibility (even on mobile): https://a11y-guidelines.orange.com/en/web/develop/keyboard-navigation/
  149. WCAG 2.1 -- Understanding Success Criterion 2.4.3 - Focus Order: https://www.w3.org/WAI/WCAG21/Understanding/focus-order.html#examples
  150. Keyboard-Only Navigation for Improved Accessibility: https://www.nngroup.com/articles/keyboard-accessibility/
  151. US government -- Social Security Administration (SSA) - Use the Keyboard to Navigate Screens: https://www.ssa.gov/accessibility/keyboard_nav.html
  152. Give Yourself an Accessibility Test - Don't Use a Mouse: https://www.boia.org/blog/give-yourself-an-accessibility-test-dont-use-a-mouse
  153. How to Test Touch Target Size (buttons, links, …) to Meet UX & Accessibility Standards in 4 Steps: https://medium.com/sketch-app-sources/how-to-test-touch-target-size-buttons-links-to-meet-ux-accessibility-standards-in-4-steps-f1efead7590
  154. Hand tremors and the giant-button-problem: https://axesslab.com/hand-tremors/
  155. Focus Trapping for Accessibility (A11Y) - NOTE that this is a dangerous double-edged sword so use carefully: https://medium.com/@im_rahul/focus-trapping-looping-b3ee658e5177
  156. Focus Trapping - Trap focus inside an element: https://dev.to/r3l_k3r/focus-trappinglooping-for-keyboard-navigation-l6m
  157. Perfecto -- Automated Mobile Accessibility Tseting: https://www.perfecto.io/blog/automated-accessibility-testing
  158. Experitest -- How to incorporate Accessibility into Mobile App Testing: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=d3HpCKNv8Ew
  159. 6-STEP MOBILE APP ACCESSIBILITY CHECKLIST: https://blog.usablenet.com/mobile-app-accessibility-techniques-for-inclusive-design-part-1
  160. App Accessibility is The New Must in Mobile Development: https://buildfire.com/app-accessibility-mobile-development/
  161. Building apps for everyone; why inclusivity & accessibility truly matter: https://appsgamesinsights.libsyn.com/building-apps-for-everyone-why-inclusivity-and-accessibility-truly-matter-episode-6
  162. Flutter -- a11y & i18n: https://docs.flutter.dev/development/accessibility-and-localization/accessibility
  163. HP Notebook PCs - Using the Touchpad, Pointer, and Keyboard in Mobile Internet Experience: https://support.hp.com/us-en/document/c01633349
  164. Getting Started with Touchscreen UIs in Java Platform, Micro Edition (JME, on legacy Mobile devices or tiny screens): https://www.oracle.com/technical-resources/articles/javame/touchscreen-ui.html
  165. How to detect touch screen device using CSS?: https://www.geeksforgeeks.org/how-to-detect-touch-screen-device-using-css/
  166. Extendable Pointer Presenter Whiteboard PPT Point Stick Touch Screen Pen: https://www.walmart.com/ip/Extendable-Pointer-Presenter-Whiteboard-PPT-Point-Stick-Touch-Screen-Pen/710925497
  167. Staples Slim Stylus Pen - Black: https://www.staples.ca/products/2618968-en-staples-slim-stylus-pen-black
  168. Telescopic Teachers Pointer (Extendable/Retractable Presenter Classroom Whiteboard Pointer): https://www.amazon.ca/Telescopic-Extendable-Retractable-Presenter-Whiteboard/dp/B07K5W2DTZ/
  169. Testing for Accessibility on OS X: https://developer.apple.com/library/archive/documentation/Accessibility/Conceptual/AccessibilityMacOSX/OSXAXTestingApps.html
  170. Writing Great iOS Accessibility Labels: https://medium.com/macoclock/writing-great-ios-accessibility-labels-6d903ba17f7f
  171. WebAIM - Alternative Text: https://webaim.org/techniques/alttext/
  172. How Do I Know If an Image Needs "Alt Text"?: https://www.boia.org/blog/how-do-i-know-if-an-image-needs-alt-text
  173. Writing great alt text -- Emotion matters: https://jakearchibald.com/2021/great-alt-text/
  174. Microsoft Research - Designing Tools for High-Qality Alt Text Authoring: https://kmack3.github.io/mack_etal_high_quality_alt_text.pdf
  175. What is alt text?: (and why its so important): https://moz.com/learn/seo/alt-text
  176. Microsoft - Add alternative text to a shape, picture, chart, SmartArt graphic, or other object: https://support.microsoft.com/en-us/office/add-alternative-text-to-a-shape-picture-chart-smartart-graphic-or-other-object-44989b2a-903c-4d9a-b742-6a75b451c669
  177. Pope Tech - Alternative Text: https://blog.pope.tech/2022/04/05/alternative-text-alt-text/ | PLAYLIST
  178. There’s More to Web Accessibility Than Alt Text: Part 1 - Color Contrast | Part 2 - Captioning | Part 3 - Alternative Text
  179. Overlay Fact Sheet: https://overlayfactsheet.com
  180. Why Accessibility Overlay Solutions Fail to Protect or Serve: https://www.accessibility.works/blog/avoid-accessibility-overlay-tools-toolbar-plugins/
  181. The Many Pitfalls of Accessibility Overlays: https://www.essentialaccessibility.com/blog/the-many-pitfalls-of-accessibility-overlays
  182. Honor the ADA - Avoid Web Accessibility Quick-Fix Overlays: https://www.lflegal.com/2020/08/quick-fix/
  183. Are ADA Overlays a Liability? Here’s What Accessibility Experts Had to Say: https://web.archive.org/web/20201026061821/https://216digital.com/ada-website-overlays/
  184. The Problem with Not Making Websites Accessible by Default: https://www.boia.org/blog/the-problem-with-not-making-websites-accessible-by-default
  185. Why Accessibility Overlays On Your Website Can Make Things Worse: https://www.boia.org/blog/why-accessibility-overlays-on-your-website-can-make-things-worse
  186. US Supreme Court verdict -- Sole reliance on accessiBe will not be sufficient in ensuring full and equal access to a website (Exhibit A For 21-cv-00017, 2020-11-01): https://www.scribd.com/document/490740167/Exhibit-A-for-21-cv-00017
  187. People With Disabilities Say This AcessiBe "AI A11Y Tool" Is Making the Web Worse for Them: https://www.vice.com/en/article/m7az74/people-with-disabilities-say-this-ai-tool-is-making-the-web-worse-for-them
  188. This Company Tapped AccessiBe and its "Overlay + AI" solution for Its Website — and Landed in Court for its troubles: https://www.wired.com/story/company-tapped-ai-website-landed-court/
  189. InclusiveDesign Conference -- Overlays Underwhelm (VIDEO): https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=c-effkHJfU8
  190. Amazon Class Action Lawsuit Says Website Not Accessible to the Blind: https://topclassactions.com/lawsuit-settlements/lawsuit-news/amazon-class-action-lawsuit-says-website-not-accessible-blind/
  191. NAD v. Netflix ADA Lawsuit Requires Captioning for Streaming Video: https://www.3playmedia.com/blog/nad-v-netflix-ada-lawsuit-requires-closed-captioning-on-streaming-video/
  192. NAD Calls Out Netflix on “Deaf Tax”: https://www.nad.org/2010/12/17/nad-calls-out-netflix-on-deaf-tax/
  193. Disability History, Part 4: NAD v. Netflix -- A lawsuit that shook the internet: https://listenuptodisabilities.com/2021/04/25/disability-history-part-4-nad-v-netflix/
  194. NAD Files Disability Civil Rights Lawsuit Against Netflix: https://www.disabled-world.com/communication/broadcasts/netflix.php
  195. NAD Files Disability Civil Rights Lawsuit against Netflix: https://www.nad.org/2011/06/16/nad-files-disability-civil-rights-lawsuit-against-netflix/
  196. NAD v. Netflix: https://dredf.org/legal-advocacy/nad-v-netflix/
  197. Burger King Class Action Says Fast Food Chain’s Website Violates ADA : https://topclassactions.com/lawsuit-settlements/lawsuit-news/burger-king-class-action-says-fast-food-chains-website-violates-ada/
  198. : https://topclassactions.com/lawsuit-settlements/lawsuit-news/831860-burger-king-class-action-says-fast-food-chains-website-violates-ada/
  199. Domino's A11Y case: http://cdn.ca9.uscourts.gov/datastore/opinions/2019/01/15/17-55504.pdf
  200. Court Says Domino’s Pizza Website Must Be Accessible to the Blind" https://www.courthousenews.com/court-says-dominos-pizza-website-must-be-accessible-to-the-blind/
  201. Accessibility, the future, and why Domino’s matters: https://arstechnica.com/tech-policy/2019/10/accessibility-the-future-and-why-dominos-matters/
  202. Domino's Website Violated Americans With Disabilities Act, Judge Finds: https://www.mediapost.com/publications/article/364699/dominos-website-violated-americans-with-disabilit.html
  203. Domino’s accessibility lawsuit update: https://sheribyrnehaber.medium.com/dominos-accessibility-lawsuit-update-a66e7e592eab
  204. Lexis-Nexus legal news -- Domino’s, Blind Patron Settle ADA, Website Accessibility Suit: https://www.lexislegalnews.com/mealeys-cyber-tech-e-commerce/articles/69324?nl_pk=741a37e7-1565-473f-baaa-0984144b9f07
  205. California Federal Court Holds Domino’s Website Violates the ADA, Limits Penalties Under Unruh Act to $4,000 : https://www.bclplaw.com/en-US/insights/california-federal-court-holds-dominos-website-violates-the-ada-limits-penalties-under-unruh-act-to-dollar4000.html
  206. Federal Website Access Lawsuit Numbers Increase 7 Percent in 2019, With Possible Bump from Supreme Court Denial of Cert in Domino’s: https://www.adatitleiii.com/2019/11/federal-website-access-lawsuit-numbers-increase-7-percent-in-2019-with-possible-bump-from-supreme-court-denial-of-cert-in-dominos/
  207. The Impact of the Robles V. Domino’s Pizza Lawsuit on Hearing-Impaired Community: https://cielo24.com/2019/11/domino-v-robles-lawsuit-accessibility/
  208. How your small business website can get you sued : https://www.inquirer.com/business/small-business-website-sued-suits-ada-20200211.html
  209. What does the Domino’s ADA case mean for small-medium-businesses: https://accessibe.com/blog/trends/what-does-the-dominos-ada-case-mean-for-small-medium-businesses
  210. Blind man sued Domino's over its website. Here's what the Supreme Court had to say: https://mashable.com/article/supreme-court-reject-dominos-inaccessible-website
  211. Supreme Court hands victory to blind man who sued Domino’s over site accessibility: https://www.cnbc.com/2019/10/07/dominos-supreme-court.html
  212. Another Big Win in the Domino’s Pizza Accessibility Saga: https://www.lflegal.com/2021/06/dominos-june-2021/
  213. Court finds Domino’s Pizza Violated the ADA by Having an Inaccessible Website and Orders WCAG Compliance: https://www.adatitleiii.com/2021/06/court-finds-dominos-pizza-violated-the-ada-by-having-an-inaccessible-website-and-orders-wcag-compliance/
  214. Gil .vs. Winn-Dixie -- D.C. Docket No. 1:16-cv-23020-RNS: https://media.ca11.uscourts.gov/opinions/pub/files/201713467.pdf
  215. D.C. Docket No. 1:16-cv-23020-RNS: https://www.employmentlawspotlight.com/wp-content/uploads/sites/18/2021/04/ADA.pdf
  216. Judge Holds Winn-Dixie Supermarket’s Website Violates the ADA: https://www.courthousenews.com/judge-holds-winn-dixie-supermarkets-website-violates-ada/
  217. Court rules grocery store’s inaccessible website isn’t an ADA violation: https://arstechnica.com/tech-policy/2021/04/appeals-court-rules-stores-dont-need-to-make-their-websites-accessible/
  218. Eleventh Circuit Holds Websites Are Not Places of Public Accommodation and Rejects Commonly Relied-Upon Nexus Standard: https://www.jdsupra.com/legalnews/eleventh-circuit-holds-websites-are-not-1083843/
  219. Conair Website For CuisinArt Is Sued For Excluding Visual Impaired: http://www.innercitypress.com/sdny36steincuisineartwebicp120920.html
  220. $2.25 Million Fund Available in Justice Department Settlement with Amtrak: https://www.justice.gov/opa/pr/225-million-fund-available-justice-department-settlement-amtrak
  221. Amtrak Settles ADA Claims For Stations in Connecticut and Rhode Island: https://ctexaminer.com/2021/01/29/amtrak-settles-ada-claims-for-stations-in-connecticut-and-rhode-island/
  222. The NAD and Hulu Reach Agreement: https://www.nad.org/2016/09/06/the-nad-and-hulu-reach-agreement/
  223. Robinhood Sued in Class Action, Alleging Website Inaccessibility and Discrimination Against Blind Users: https://www.fredlaw.com/news__media/robinhood-sued-in-class-action-alleging-website-inaccessibility-and-discrimination-against-blind-users/
  224. FCC Settles Accessibility Rules Violation With Pluto, ViacomCBS: https://news.bloomberglaw.com/tech-and-telecom-law/fcc-settles-accessibility-rules-violation-with-pluto-viacomcbs
  225. Pluto & ViacomCBS Will Pay $3.5M for Violation of Accessibility Rules: https://www.fcc.gov/document/pluto-viacomcbs-will-pay-35m-violation-accessibility-rules
  226. ViacomCBS and Pluto TV Fined $3.5 Million by FCC for Violating Closed-Caption Rules: https://variety.com/2021/digital/news/pluto-tv-fcc-closed-captioning-rules-1235077364/
  227. WWE Settles Legal Dispute on Accessibility for Blind & Visually Impaired for Online Shop: https://411mania.com/wrestling/wwe-settles-legal-dispute-online-website-blind-ada/
  228. WWE Settles Lawsuit Over Shop Website: https://www.wrestlinginc.com/news/2020/12/wwe-settles-lawsuit-over-shop-website-677800/
  229. Screen access technology has existed for decades': Visually impaired man sues Dell over 'inaccessible' website: https://www.theregister.com/2021/03/05/giannaros_v_dell/
  230. Apple Store accessibility lawsuit (Robert Shaw vs. Apple): https://blog.fawny.org/2020/02/20/shawvapple/
  231. Mendez v. Apple Inc.: https://www.pacermonitor.com/public/case/25398561/Mendez_v_Apple_Inc
  232. Apple sued over claims website is inaccessible to visually impaired users: https://appleinsider.com/articles/18/08/20/apple-sued-over-claims-website-is-inaccessible-to-visually-impaired-users
  233. The Apple Park Visitor's Center is a demonstration of an accessible building when cost is no object. 1/?: https://threadreaderapp.com/thread/967652885604450305.html
  234. Court Denies Uber’s Motion to Dismiss ADA Discrimination Complaint: https://lawstreetmedia.com/news/tech/court-denies-ubers-motion-to-dismiss-ada-discrimination-complaint/
  235. Justice Department Sues Uber for Overcharging People with Disabilities: https://www.justice.gov/opa/pr/justice-department-sues-uber-overcharging-people-disabilities
  236. An Uber fee unfairly impacts riders with disabilities, a DOJ lawsuit says: https://www.npr.org/2021/11/10/1054407560/justice-department-uber-wait-time-riders-disabilities
  237. Justice Department Sues Uber Over Charging Wait-Time Fees for Disabled People: https://www.wsj.com/articles/justice-department-sues-uber-over-charging-wait-times-fees-for-physically-disabled-people-11636570208
  238. Uber manager sobs on stand during trial over wheelchair accessibility: https://www.courthousenews.com/uber-manager-sobs-on-stand-during-trial-over-wheelchair-accessibility/
  239. What You Should Know About the Beyoncé Website Accessibility Lawsuit: https://www.diacedesigns.com/beyonce-website-accessibility-lawsuit/
  240. Beyonce's Website the Focus of an Accessibility Lawsuit: https://www.boia.org/blog/beyonces-website-the-focus-of-an-accessibility-lawsuit
  241. 2021 Website Accessibility Lawsuit Recap (REPORT): https://f.hubspotusercontent30.net/hubfs/6576634/2021 Accessibility Lawsuit Complete Report.pdf
  242. September 2021 recap - A11Y Lawsuits landscape: https://www.accessibility.com/digital-lawsuits/recap/september-2021
  243. 2020 Full Year Report Digital Accessibility Lawsuits: https://info.usablenet.com/2020-report-on-digital-accessibility-lawsuits
  244. Digital Accessibility Year in Review -- 2019: https://www.boia.org/blog/digital-accessibility-year-in-review-2019
  245. 2018 ADA Web Accessibility Lawsuit Recap Report: https://blog.usablenet.com/2018-ada-web-accessibility-lawsuit-recap-report
  246. Recent Web Accessibility Lawsuits: http://www.webaxe.org/recent-web-accessibility-lawsuits/
  247. Are you next? Trends in Digital Accessibility Lawsuits: https://www.accessibility.com/event/2022/trends-in-digital-accessibility-lawsuits
  248. Overview of the Financial Penalties of AODA Non-Compliance (in Canada): https://www.boia.org/blog/overview-of-the-financial-penalties-of-aoda-non-compliance
  249. US House Bill H.R.8478 Could Finally Offer Businesses Clarity on Web Accessibility: https://builtin.com/operations/web-accessibility-ADA-compliance
  250. Now Is the Time to Make Your Entire Sales Funnel Accessible: https://www.boia.org/blog/now-is-the-time-to-make-your-entire-sales-funnel-accessible
  251. Brands Are Losing Billions by Not Being Digitally Accessible: https://www.boia.org/blog/brands-are-losing-billions-by-not-being-digitally-accessible
  252. Looking Ahead to Potential Developments in Online Accessibility Law: https://www.natlawreview.com/article/looking-ahead-to-potential-developments-online-accessibility-law
  253. Practice website accessibility (or get ready to practice law) -- A new wave of AwDA litigation: https://www.cda.org/Home/News-and-Events/Newsroom/Article-Details/practice-website-accessibility-a-new-wave-of-awda-litigation
  254. A11Y Attorneys' opinion statement -- DOJ's years-long delay on regulations hurting companies facing disabilities lawsuits over their websites: https://legalnewsline.com/stories/510698224-attorneys-doj-s-years-long-delay-on-regulations-hurting-companies-facing-disabilities-lawsuits-over-their-websites
  255. Fact Sheet -- Class Actions Are Critical to Remedy Disability Discrimination: http://centerjd.org/content/fact-sheet-class-actions-are-critical-remedy-disability-discrimination
  256. Lawsuits Over Digital Accessibility for People With Disabilities Are Rising: https://www.wsj.com/articles/lawsuits-over-digital-accessibility-for-people-with-disabilities-are-rising-11626369056
  257. Equality Act Could Undermine Business Defendants In Web Access Suits: https://www.cato.org/blog/equality-act-would-spell-defeat-businesses-publishers-web-accessibility-debate
  258. New York District Court Issues Important Opinion on the Inapplicability of Title III of the ADA to Consumer-Facing Websites: https://www.blankrome.com/publications/new-york-district-court-issues-important-opinion-inapplicability-title-iii-ada
  259. NY State Court -- Title III legal position statement: https://www.blankrome.com/sites/default/files/2021-11/computerinternetlawyer_-_novdec2021_-_blankromellp.pdf (meant to take some "bite" out of frivolous Digital Accessibility lawsuits)
  260. ADP Settlement Offers Framework for Future Digital-Accessibility Agreements: https://www.wsj.com/articles/adp-settlement-offers-framework-for-future-digital-accessibility-agreements-11642699462
  261. Digital Accessibility Takes Center Stage in ADA Lawsuit: https://www.law.com/nationallawjournal/2022/01/14/11th-circuits-ada-reversal-curbed-florida-litigation-in-2021-but-digital-accessibility-suits-are-here-to-stay-398-82063/?slreturn=20220101154317
  262. The Importance of Having a Letter of "Reasonable Accessibility" to show intent: https://www.boia.org/blog/the-importance-of-having-a-letter-of-reasonable-accessibility
  263. Accessibility in the News, Legal Edition - Updates on ADA Title III News and More: https://www.microassist.com/digital-accessibility/accessibility-news-legal/
  264. Federal Courts Disagree Over Accessibility Online: https://www.theregreview.org/2021/06/16/mcdonough-federal-courts-disagree-accessibility-online/
  265. Web Accessibility Lawsuits dramatically rose in 2021... here’s why: https://www.boia.org/blog/web-accessibility-lawsuits-dramatically-rose-in-2021.-heres-why
  266. Florida Courts Rule ADA Covers Websites With Nexus To Physical Store: https://www.adatitleiii.com/2017/04/florida-courts-rule-ada-covers-websites-with-nexus-to-physical-store/
  267. Builders, Architects, Owners of 5 NC Housing Complexes Settle Discrimination Cases; Agree to Make $1.3 million in Accessibility Modifications: https://www.fairhousingnc.org/2020/builders-architects-owners-of-5-nc-housing-complexes-settle-discrimination-cases-agree-to-make-1-3-million-in-accessibility-modifications/
  268. Strategies for Defending ADA Accessibility “Tester” Lawsuits: http://www.jaburgwilk.com/news-publications/strategies-for-defending-ada-accessibility-lawsuits
  269. The State of Website Accessibility, Serial-plaintiffs, & the lack of new ADA Legislation: https://www.oomphinc.com/notes/2019/06/the-state-of-website-accessibility-2019/
  270. The Real Reason Local Governments are Facing More ADA Non-Compliance Fines: https://www.civicplus.com/blog/ce/local-governments-facing-ada-accessibility-fines
  271. Five Things Every Lawyer Needs to Know About Digital Accessibility: https://www.lawtechnologytoday.org/2018/06/digital-accessibility/
  272. Why Are More Digital Accessibility Suits Being Filed as Class Actions (And What Does It Mean?): https://www.lexology.com/library/detail.aspx?g=dbfb2323-2b58-400e-b39c-d7ef6107bff6
  273. ADA Lawsuits Are on the Rise, Website Complaints Biggest Targets: https://www.law.com/legaltechnews/2019/01/24/ada-lawsuits-are-on-the-rise-website-complaints-biggest-targets/
  274. How To Prevent a Web Accessibility Lawsuit: https://www.boia.org/blog/how-to-prevent-a-web-accessibility-lawsuit
  275. Why Websites Need an Accessibility Statement: https://www.boia.org/blog/why-websites-need-an-accessibility-statement
  276. ElementsCasino -- ACCESSIBILITY POLICY: http://www.elementscasinoflamboro.com/accessibility/
  277. Rideau Carleton Raceway Casino -- Accessibility Statement: https://www.rideaucarletoncasino.com/accessibility.htm
  278. LA Times -- Lawsuits targeting business websites over ADA violations are on the rise (Hotels, Restaurants, Entertainment destinations & Government websites targeted by lawsuits): https://www.latimes.com/business/la-fi-hotels-ada-compliance-20181111-story.html
  279. “Worldwide Web Accessibility - cases from the USA”: http://www.clickawaypound.com/bgarticle1.html
  280. New York State Division of Human Rights announces settlements of accessibility complaints against Redbox, Coinstar, ecoATM: https://www.wnypapers.com/news/article/current/2021/05/26/146782/new-york-state-division-of-human-rights-announces-settlements-of-accessibility-complaints-against-redbox-coinstar-ecoatm
  281. Lawsuit Provides Blind Individuals with Access to New York State’s Emergency Mass Notification System: https://www.legalreader.com/lawsuit-provides-blind-individuals-with-access-to-new-york-states-emergency-mass-notification-system/
  282. Judge Approves ADA Class Action Settlement Against Eyewear Company Over Website's Lack of Visibility: https://www.law.com/thelegalintelligencer/2021/10/07/judge-approves-ada-class-action-settlement-against-eyewear-company-over-websites-lack-of-visibility/
  283. CBD firms facing lawsuits over website accessibility: https://hempindustrydaily.com/cbd-firms-facing-lawsuits-over-website-accessibility/
  284. Appellate Court Finds Websites Not Covered Under ADA, Sets Up Circuit Split: https://bankingjournal.aba.com/2021/04/appellate-court-finds-websites-not-covered-under-ada-sets-up-circuit-split/
  285. 10 awesome companies you didn’t know were sued for ADA website compliance: https://augustafreepress.com/ten-awesome-companies-you-didnt-know-were-sued-for-ada-website-compliance/
  286. Title III Lawsuits - 10 Big Companies Sued Over Website Accessibility: https://www.essentialaccessibility.com/blog/title-iii-lawsuits-10-big-companies-sued-over-website-accessibility
  287. 4 Healthcare Companies Sued Over ADA Website Compliance (and Why it Matters!): https://healthcareweekly.com/ada-compliance-healthcare-websites/
  288. Roadmap to Web Accessibility in Higher Education: https://www.3playmedia.com/blog/white-paper-roadmap-web-accessibility-in-higher-education/
  289. Is Your WordPress Site an Accessibility Lawsuit Waiting to Happen?: https://mediatemple.net/blog/web-development-tech/is-your-wordpress-site-an-accessibility-lawsuit-waiting-to-happen/
  290. Federal Website Accessibility Lawsuits Increased in 2021 Despite Mid-Year Pandemic Lull: https://www.adatitleiii.com/2022/03/federal-website-accessibility-lawsuits-increased-in-2021-despite-mid-year-pandemic-lull/
  291. Website Access And Other ADA Title III Lawsuits Hit Record Numbers: https://www.jdsupra.com/legalnews/website-access-and-other-ada-title-iii-48088/
  292. ADA Title III Federal Lawsuit Filings Hit An All Time High: https://www.adatitleiii.com/2022/02/ada-title-iii-federal-lawsuit-filings-hit-an-all-time-high/
  293. ADA turns 30, evolves with The Digital Age: https://www.accessibility.works/blog/ada-turns-30-standards-for-ada-compliance/
  294. A Look at the Legal Landscape of Web Accessibility Compliance : https://monsido.com/blog/web-accessibility-compliance
  295. Can You Afford $25,000? Website Accessibility Lawsuits Cost Money: https://krisrivenburgh.medium.com/can-you-afford-25-000-website-accessibility-lawsuits-cost-money-21987cd913f3
  296. International Web Accessibility Laws - An Overview: https://www.boia.org/blog/international-web-accessibility-laws-an-overview
  297. Who Enforces Accessibility of Online and Digital Content?: https://www.boia.org/blog/who-enforces-accessibility-in-online-and-digital-content
  298. 5 things I learned about web accessibility by testing a screen reader: https://yellowpencil.com/articles/things-learned-about-accessibility-using-screen-reader/
  299. Woman helping teach child who has speech language disorder 10 Most Common Speech-Language Disorders & Impediments: https://www.speechpathologygraduateprograms.org/2018/01/10-most-common-speech-language-disorders/
  300. Experitest’s Web and Mobile Accessibility Testing Explained in Full: https://experitest.com/mobile-app-testing/experitests-web-and-mobile-accessibility-testing-explained-in-full/
  301. Why Automated Web Accessibility Testing Tools Aren’t Enough: https://www.essentialaccessibility.com/blog/automated-accessibility-testing-tools-how-much-do-scans-catch
  302. Performing an accessibility self-audit: https://www.dundee.ac.uk/guides/performing-accessibility-self-audit
  303. Working Together - People with Disabilities and Computer Technology: https://www.washington.edu/doit/working-together-people-disabilities-and-computer-technology
  304. 12 Facts And Figures About Having A Disability In Canada: https://www.cbc.ca/strombo/news/by-the-numbers-international-day-of-persons-with-disabilities
  305. Is The “Accessible Icon” Wheelchair Logo Due For A Redesign?: https://www.cbc.ca/strombo/news/is-the-accessible-icon-wheelchair-logo-due-for-a-redesign.html
  306. How to Effectively Support Employees With Disabilities: https://www.healthworkscollective.com/how-to-effectively-support-employees-with-disabilities/ | Example of alternative mouse for A11Y needs
  307. How can screen readers be used in Accessibility Testing?: https://www.tpgi.com/screen-readers-accessibility-testing/
  308. Top 20 Accessibility Testing Tools for Web Applications: https://www.softwaretestinghelp.com/accessibility-testing-tools/
  309. UsabelNet offers "A11Y User Testing" with members of the Disability Community: https://info.usablenet.com/digital-accessibility-support-services/user-testing
  310. 10 Accessible Web Design Examples to Model Your Site After: https://blog.usablenet.com/accessible-web-design-examples-to-model-your-site-after
  311. The Ultimate Guide to Achieving Website ADA Compliance: https://www.digitalauthority.me/resources/ada-compliance-website/
  312. Manual Accessibility Testing - Keyboard and Screen Reader Navigation: https://www.telerik.com/blogs/manual-accessibility-testing-keyboard-and-screen-reader-navigation
  313. How to set up user testing as part of your "accessibility program" (WEBINAR): https://info.usablenet.com/on-demand-webinar-how-to-set-up-user-testing-as-part-of-accessibility-program
  314. Assistive Technology intro (WEBINAR): https://monsido.com/services/webinars?wchannelid=qoc8k846tm&wmediaid=n66od6tthz | SLIDES
  315. What is Assistive Technology? : https://star-center.org/what-is-assistive-technology/
  316. Assistive Technology for Visually Impaired -- Making a Difference: https://verbit.ai/assistive-technology-for-visually-impaired/
  317. Assistive Technology for Visually Impaired Individuals - What to Choose and How: https://esighteyewear.com/assistive-technology-visually-impaired/
  318. Refreshable Braille Displays: https://www.afb.org/node/16207/refreshable-braille-displays
  319. Braille Alphabet & Numbers: https://www.wonderbaby.org/sites/wonderbaby2.perkinsdev1.org/files/braille-letters-numbers.pdf
  320. DIY ‘smart’ white cane works like a self-driving car: https://www.futurity.org/blindness-white-cane-smart-technology-robotics-2643062/
  321. Multimodal sensing and intuitive steering assistance improve navigation and mobility for people with impaired vision: https://www.science.org/doi/10.1126/scirobotics.abg6594
  322. Engineers 3D-Print Personalized, Wireless Wearables That Never Need a Charge: https://news.arizona.edu/story/engineers-3d-print-personalized-wireless-wearables-never-need-charge
  323. UN guide to Assistive technology: https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/assistive-technology
  324. Rethinking Assistive Technology: https://www.edutopia.org/article/rethinking-assistive-technology
  325. Assistive Technology and Low Vision Open House: http://blog.watap.org/2013/08/assistive-technology-and-low-vision.html
  326. Understanding Assistive Technology - How Do People with Mobility Disabilities Use Technology?: https://www.levelaccess.com/understanding-assistive-technology-how-do-people-with-mobility-disabilities-use-technology/
  327. Making assistive technology better through user-centricity: https://trexorobotics.com/user-centric-assistive-technology/
  328. Back-to-School Transition with Augmentative Communication and Assistive Technology: https://franciscanchildrens.org/blog/back-to-school-augmentative-comm-assistive-tech/
  329. Devices that Empower: Celebrating Assistive Technology: https://chicagolighthouse.org/blog/celebrating-assistive-technology/
  330. Assistive Technology Can Benefit All Students: https://www.edutopia.org/blog/assistive-technology-can-benefit-all-students-jenny-grabiec
  331. 7 STEPS THAT WILL HELP YOU DECIDE ON THE BEST DIGITAL ASSISTIVE TECHNOLOGY FOR YOUR CLIENTS: https://pterrer.com/2013/07/01/7-steps-that-will-help-you-decide-on-the-best-digital-technology-for-your-clients/
  332. Craig Hospital - The Don & Melba Rugg Assistive Technology Lab: https://craighospital.org/services/assistive-technology
  333. Assistive Technology Professional (ATP) : https://www.thoughtco.com/assistive-technology-professional-198921
  334. 5 Assistive Technology Stores for your Techie with Special Needs : https://www.friendshipcircle.org/blog/2013/12/12/5-assistive-technology-stores-for-your-techie-with-special-needs/
  335. What is the relationship between Assistive Technology and Universal Design? : https://sulaimanhpu.blogspot.com/2016/08/what-is-relationship-between-assistive.html
  336. US Library of Congress (LoC) – Devices & Aids: https://www.loc.gov/nls/resources/blindness-and-vision-impairment/devices-aids/
  337. US LoC – Braille Displays and Notetakers: https://www.loc.gov/nls/resources/blindness-and-vision-impairment/devices-aids/braille-displays-notetakers/
  338. Assistive Technology for Visually Impaired: https://lighthouseeducationcenter.org/program/assistive-technology/
  339. What is Digital Braille? https://www.electronicink.com/what-is-electronic-braillie/ (see video at bottom of article)
  340. What Is Electronic Braillie?: https://www.electronicink.com/what-is-electronic-braillie/
  341. Bonocle - Braille pocket tool: https://www.bonocle.co/en/
  342. Orbit Reader 20: https://www.orbitresearch.com/product/orbit-reader-20/
  343. Innovision - BrailleMe: http://innovisiontech.co/brailleme/
  344. Mobile assistive technologies for the visually impaired: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24054999/
  345. 10 Free Screen Readers For Blind Or Visually Impaired Users: https://medium.com/usabilitygeek/10-free-screen-readers-for-blind-or-visually-impaired-users-45a45c757617
  346. 6 best screen readers for the blind or visually impaired people: https://tecoreviews.com/reviews/6-best-screen-readers-for-the-blind-or-visually-impaired-people/
  347. Assistive Technology for Visually Impaired and Blind People: https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/bfm%3A978-1-84628-867-8/1.pdf
  348. Sensor-Based Assistive Devices for Visually-Impaired People: Current Status, Challenges, and Future Directions: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5375851/
  349. Old Cynthia URL: http://www.contentquality.com/mynewtester/cynthia.exe?rptmode=1&url1=https://www.alc.ca | Cynthia - Section 508 checker
  350. Android Accessibility scanner guide: https://support.google.com/accessibility/android/faq/6376582
  351. How to use PA11Y: https://bitsofco.de/pa11y/
  352. Microsoft -- Supplier Accessibility toolkit: https://www.microsoft.com/en-us/accessibility/supplier-toolkit-resources
  353. Colorblind Web Page Filter: http://www.color-blindness.com/2006/04/10/colorblind-web-page-filter/
  354. HTML CodeSniffer - A11Y bookmarklet: http://squizlabs.github.io/HTML_CodeSniffer/
  355. Automated Accessibility Testing Tool (AATT): https://github.com/paypal/AATT (free service from PayPal that wraps HTML CodeSniffer & Axe with hooks to SeLion, Nemo, Nightwatch)
  356. PA11Y: https://pa11y.org/
  357. TPGi -- Website Accessibility Scan: https://www.tpgi.com/free-website-accessibility-scan/
  358. JavaScript Bookmarklets for Accessibility Testing: https://pauljadam.com/bookmarklets/
  359. CKEditor -- Accessibility Checker: https://ckeditor.com/ckeditor-4/accessibility-checker/
  360. PowerMapper - SortSite: https://www.powermapper.com/products/sortsite/
  361. Tenon - Accessibility as a Service: https://tenon.io
  362. CommonLook: https://commonlook.com/accessibility-software/pdf/ (best "PDF document" A11Y scanning)
  363. 5 Website Accessibility Checkers You Need Today: https://www.mediacurrent.com/blog/5-website-accessibility-checkers/
  364. Top 25 Awesome Accessibility Testing Tools for Websites: https://dynomapper.com/blog/27-accessibility-testing/246-top-25-awesome-accessibility-testing-tools-for-websites
  365. What are the best and free tools to perform Web accessibility testing?: https://www.quora.com/What-are-the-best-and-free-tools-to-perform-Web-accessibility-testing
  366. Website Accessibility Software Market is Booming Worldwide By Top Emerging Key Players -- Google, Siteimprove, DYNO Mapper, Deque, BoIA, Crownpeak, Level Access, DubBot, Monsido, Silktide: https://weeklywall.com/website-accessibility-software-market-is-booming-worldwide-by-top-emerging-key-playersgoogle-siteimprove-dyno-mapper-deque-boia-crownpeak-level-access-dubbot-monsido-silktide/
  367. wikipedia: JAWS (screen_reader)
  368. NVDA -- Keyboard Commands - Quick Reference Guide: https://dequeuniversity.com/assets/pdf/screenreaders/nvda.pdf
  369. Quick Reference Guide -- NVDA for Windows Keyboard Commands: https://dequeuniversity.com/assets/pdf/screenreaders/nvda-guide.pdf
  370. Quick Reference Guide -- NVDA Keyboard Commands: https://dequeuniversity.com/assets/pdf/screenreaders/screen-reader-nvda.pdf
  371. VoiceOver - Vision: http://www.apple.com/accessibility/macosx/vision.html
  372. 10 Free Screen Readers For Blind Or Visually Impaired Users: https://usabilitygeek.com/10-free-screen-reader-blind-visually-impaired-users/
  373. DARE Index 2020 - Top Performing Countries: https://g3ict.org/publication/dare-index-2020-top-performing-countries
  374. Global Accessibility Awareness Day (GAAD): https://globalaccessibilityawarenessday.org/ (3rd Thu. in May)
  375. CHALLENGE -- Accessibility know-how needs to go mainstream with developers - NOW: https://mysqltalk.wordpress.com/2011/11/27/challenge-accessibility-know-how-needs-to-go-mainstream-with-developers-now/
  376. Deque -- GAAD 2021 - Basic Accessibility Fundamentals bootcamp: https://accessibility.deque.com/thanks-for-signing-up-gaad-bootcamp
  377. Deque -- GAAD 2021 Workshop - Translating Design Wireframes into Accessible HTML/CSS: https://accessibility.deque.com/thanks-for-signing-up-wireframes-workshop
  378. UC San Diego -- GAAD 2021- Global Accessibility Awareness Fair 2021: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jjFngHfx__A (walkthrough of Screen Reader usage and blockers starts 39:05)
  379. T12t meetup - accessibility mindset at your workplace - GAAD 2021: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2pQA50oGrJU | GAAD 2021 discussions
  380. World Health Organization(WHO) -- International Day of Persons with Disabilities 2020 - A Day for All: https://www.who.int/campaigns/international-day-of-persons-with-disabilities/2020
  381. United Nations (UN) - International Day of Persons with Disabilities: https://www.un.org/en/observances/day-of-persons-with-disabilities
  382. How GAAD Started: https://globalaccessibilityawarenessday.org/about/
  383. Disability Rights after Amsterdam - the way forward: https://disability-studies.leeds.ac.uk/wp-content/uploads/sites/40/library/richard-whittle-Disability-Rights-after-Amsterdam.pdf
  384. UN -- Ageing & disability: https://www.un.org/development/desa/disabilities/disability-and-ageing.html
  385. World Health Organization (WHO) - "world report on disability" (2011): https://www.who.int/disabilities/world_report/2011/report.pdf
  386. 15% worldwide have physical or mental disability: https://www.cbsnews.com/news/15-worldwide-have-physical-or-mental-disability/
  387. Dawkins is wrong – grossly wrong – about Down’s syndrome: https://www.tortoisemedia.com/2021/06/01/dawkins-is-wrong-grossly-wrong-about-downs-syndrome/
  388. What is the European Union’s Web Accessibility Directive?: https://www.boia.org/blog/what-is-the-european-unions-web-accessibility-directive-1
  389. Guidance on Web Accessibility and the ADA: https://beta.ada.gov/web-guidance/
  390. Make 2020 the year your company stops waiting for an Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) letter/lawsuit to take action on A11Y: https://www.boia.org/blog/waiting-for-ada-demand-letter-to-take-accessibility-seriously
  391. ADA Best Practices Tool Kit for State/Local Governments -- Chapter 6 - Curb Ramps & Pedestrian Crossings (Title II of ADA): https://www.ada.gov/pcatoolkit/chap6toolkit.htm
  392. Auditing Your Website for Accessibility Compliance and Understanding How ADA Applies: https://cynthiang.ca/2018/08/16/presentation-auditing-your-website-for-accessibility-compliance-and-understanding-how-ada-applies/
  393. Congress Did Not Pass ADA Amendment Clarifying Web Accessibility Standards: https://www.boia.org/blog/congress-did-not-pass-ada-amendment-clarifying-web-accessibility-standards
  394. White House Embraces WCAG with Accessibility Updates: https://www.boia.org/blog/white-house-embraces-wcag-with-accessibility-updates (Dark mode, Font size options, more Spanish support, Inclusivity features)
  395. Centers for Disease Control and prevention (CDC) -- Disability Impacts All of Us (INFOGRAPHIC): https://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/disabilityandhealth/infographic-disability-impacts-all.html
  396. Act on the Elimination of Disability Discrimination in Japan: https://inclusion-international.org/act-on-the-elimination-of-disability-discrimination-in-japan/
  397. New law bans bias against people with disabilities, but shortcomings exist, say experts: https://www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2016/05/02/reference/new-law-bans-bias-against-people-with-disabilities-but-shortcomings-exist-say-experts/#.Xb8Dz5JKg0o
  398. Disabled train passengers left disconnected in age of digital smart card use: https://japantoday.com/category/national/feature-disabled-passengers-left-disconnected-in-age-of-digital-smart-card-use
  399. Japan's older population hits record high: https://www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2021/09/20/national/japans-older-population-hits-record-high/
  400. An Overview of Canada’s Accessibility Laws - A Look at the Old and the New: https://www.essentialaccessibility.com/blog/canadian-accessibility-laws/
  401. Summary of the Accessible Canada Act: https://www.canada.ca/en/employment-social-development/programs/accessible-people-disabilities/act-summary.html#section3-9
  402. Accessible Canada Act (INFOGRAPHICS) - Making an accessible Canada for persons with disabilities: https://www.canada.ca/en/employment-social-development/programs/accessible-canada.html
  403. Government of Canada announces appointments to the Canadian Accessibility Standards Development Organization: https://www.canada.ca/en/employment-social-development/news/2019/08/government-of-canada-announces-appointments-to-the-canadian-accessibility-standards-development-organization.html
  404. Accessibility in the (Canadian) public service: https://www.canada.ca/en/government/publicservice/wellness-inclusion-diversity-public-service/diversity-inclusion-public-service/accessibility-public-service.html
  405. TTC -- 2020 Accessibility Plan Status Update: http://ttc.ca/About_the_TTC/Commission_reports_and_information/Commission_meetings/2020/July_14/Reports/6_2020_Accessibility_Plan_Status_Update.pdf
  406. People with disabilities around B.C. to benefit from new accessibility programs: https://news.gov.bc.ca/releases/2017SDPR0062-001760
  407. High-Speed Access for All: Canada's Connectivity Strategy: https://www.ic.gc.ca/eic/site/139.nsf/eng/h_00002.html
  408. Rollout of RHFAC continues cross-Canada: https://www.reminetwork.com/articles/rollout-rhfac-continues-cross-canada/
  409. Best provinces for accessibility in Canada: https://www.zolo.ca/blog/best-provinces-accessibility
  410. Blind New Brunswickers hopeful legislature bill offering free transit fares gets passed: https://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/new-brunswick/blind-new-brunswick-free-transit-bill-1.6382535
  411. Statistics Canada (StatsCan) - Accessibility info/figures: https://www.statcan.gc.ca/en/topics-start/accessibility
  412. Disability-related employment benefits: https://www.canada.ca/en/revenue-agency/services/tax/businesses/topics/payroll/benefits-allowances/disability-related-employment-benefits.html
  413. A Complete Overview of Canada’s Accessibility Laws: https://siteimprove.com/en-ca/blog/a-complete-overview-of-canada-s-accessibility-laws/
  414. Minister Bains announces Canada’s Digital Charter: https://www.canada.ca/en/innovation-science-economic-development/news/2019/05/minister-bains-announces-canadas-digital-charter.html (Charter’s 10 principles will build a foundation of trust for Canadians in the digital sphere)
  415. wikipedia: CNIB Foundation
  416. Accessibility for Ontarians with Disabilities Act (AODA) compliance -- A Primer on Canadian Web Accessibility Standards: https://www.3playmedia.com/2016/06/03/aoda-compliance-a-primer-on-canadian-accessibility-standards/
  417. eSSENTIAL Accessibility -- AODA Frequently Asked Questions: https://www.essentialaccessibility.com/blog/faqs-about-aoda
  418. New Accessibility Requirements Fast Approaching Under AODA: https://www.mondaq.com/canada/discrimination-disability-sexual-harassment/986958/new-accessibility-requirements-fast-approaching-under-aoda
  419. Government accessibility standards and WCAG 2 by country:https://www.powermapper.com/blog/government-accessibility-standards/
  420. About the HTML Epidemic, WebAIM “Million” Report, and Teach Access: http://www.webaxe.org/html-epidemic-webaim-millions-report-teach-access/
  421. WCAG 2.1 -- UX Checklist - items broken down into POUR headings: https://github.com/JenniKobylskiUX/WCAG-Accessibility-UX-Checklist
  422. WCAG 2.1 - Exploring the New Success Criteria: https://www.accessibility.dev/this-is-the-second-of-a-three-part-series-about-wcag/
  423. Introducing WCAG 2.1 AA guidelines to Spree Commerce 4.2 UX: https://spreecommerce.org/introducing-wcag-guidelines-to-spree-commerce/
  424. User1st creates web accessibility testing solution (Press Release): https://www.kmworld.com/Articles/News/News/User1st-creates-web-accessibility-testing-solution-141946.aspx
  425. Government testing identifies accessibility issues on 99% of public sector websites: https://www.publictechnology.net/articles/news/government-testing-identifies-accessibility-issues-99-public-sector-websites
  426. ADA Standards for Accessible Design: https://www.ada.gov/2010ADAstandards_index.htm
  427. IBM Launches Open Source Equal Access Toolkit: https://www.forbes.com/sites/stevenaquino/2020/05/19/ibm-launches-open-source-equal-access-toolkit/?sh=7fb050d1f776
  428. IBM launches Equal Access Toolkit to help developers build accessible websites and applications: https://developer.ibm.com/blogs/ibm-launches-equal-access-toolkit-developers-accessible-apps-and-websites/
  429. IBM introduces Agent Building and Learning Environment (ABLE): https://researcher.watson.ibm.com/researcher/view_group.php?id=979
  430. Designing for accessibility - Dos and don'ts (UK - Home Office Digital): https://imgur.com/gallery/f2vj5
  431. Stark suite -- tools to Supercharge A11Y design with Figma: https://www.figma.com/community/plugin/732603254453395948/Stark
  432. wikipedia: International Symbol of Access (ISA)
  433. What You Can Do to Remove Barriers on the Web: https://de.ryerson.ca/games/accessibility/_/accessibility_guidelines.pdf
  434. Game Accessibility Feature Tags are now Available on Microsoft Store for Xbox: https://news-xbox-com.cdn.ampproject.org/c/s/news.xbox.com/en-us/2021/11/16/game-accessibility-feature-tags-now-available/amp/
  435. Technical Language, Advice Understandability, and Perceptions of Expertise and Trustworthiness - The Case of the Financial Planner (WHITEPAPER): https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/031289620202700102
  436. Egghead courses -- Develop Accessible Web Apps with React: https://egghead.io/courses/develop-accessible-web-apps-with-react
  437. WAI -- Before, After, Demo (BAD) website: https://www.w3.org/WAI/demos/bad/a>fter/home.html (great reference for how a website without A11Y was able to fix most of their issues)
  438. A Beginner's Guide to Web Accessibility: https://webdesign.tutsplus.com/courses/a-beginners-guide-to-web-accessibility/lessons/pa11y-and-pa11y-dashboard
  439. Legacy version of Google's Web Accessibility course: https://web.archive.org/web/20160327154224/https://webaccessibility.withgoogle.com/course
  440. Google's Accessibility guide for Android/Chrome developers: https://www.google.com/accessibility/for-developers/ | Accessible Styles | Semantic HTML | A11Y overview
  441. A11ycasts with Google Sr. Accessibility Engineer Rob Dodson: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLNYkxOF6rcICWx0C9LVWWVqvHlYJyqw7g
  442. Perkins -- eLearning, School for the Blind - App Accessibility Checklist: https://www.perkinselearning.org/technology/blog/app-accessibility-checklist
  443. A Quick Primer On The WCAG 2.0 Accessibility Standard: https://www.thrivewebdesigns.com/wcag20-accessibility-standard/
  444. WCAG 2.0 — Accessibility Principles And Guidelines: vanseodesign.com/web-design/wcag-principles-guidelines/
  445. Common Types Of Learning Disabilities: http://learningdisabilitiesnekanso.blogspot.com/2015/10/common-types-of-learning-disabilities.html
  446. The impact of motion animation on cognitive disability: https://www.tpgi.com/the-impact-of-motion-animation-on-cognitive-disability/
  447. Inclusive user testing - and empathy - are core to inclusive design: https://sdtimes.com/softwaredev/inclusive-user-testing-and-empathy-are-core-to-inclusive-design/?activecampaign_id=123002
  448. Increasing our Focus on Inclusive Technology: https://blogs.microsoft.com/accessibility/increasing-our-focus-on-inclusive-technology/
  449. Microsoft launches new lab for building inclusive tech, unveils new adaptive accessoriesL https://sdtimes.com/msft/microsoft-launches-new-lab-for-building-inclusive-tech-unveils-new-adaptive-accessories/
  450. Xbox Accessibility Guidelines Provide Best Practices So More Gamers Can Play: https://www.boia.org/blog/xbox-accessibility-guidelines-provide-best-practices-so-more-gamers-can-play
  451. Xbox One and Windows 10 Add In-Game Transcription: https://www.boia.org/blog/xbox-one-and-windows-10-add-in-game-transcription
  452. Microsoft starts new program to help (game developers) make more accessible games: https://www.theverge.com/2021/2/16/22286216/microsoft-xbox-games-tested-accessibility-guidelines
  453. XBox's new "Adaptive Controller": https://www.xbox.com/en-US/accessories/controllers/xbox-adaptive-controller
  454. Microsoft’s new Xbox controller is designed entirely for players with disabilities: https://www.polygon.com/2018/5/17/17363528/xbox-adaptive-controller-disability-accessible
  455. Microsoft is testing Xbox party chat accessibility features: https://www.engadget.com/xbox-party-chat-previews-text-to-speech-and-speech-transcription-102644434.html
  456. Low Vision .vs. Legally Blind: https://www.2020detroit.com/low-vision-vs-legal-blindness/
  457. IALVS -- What’s the Difference Between Low Vision and Blindness?: https://ialvs.com/whats-the-difference-between-low-vision-and-being-legally-blind/
  458. Low Vision -- Definition, Causes and Disability: https://wecapable.com/low-vision-disability/
  459. Low Vision and Legal Blindness Terms and Descriptions: https://www.afb.org/blindness-and-low-vision/eye-conditions/low-vision-and-legal-blindness-terms-and-descriptions
  460. Revision of visual impairment definitions in the International Statistical Classification of Diseases: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1435919/
  461. What is Macular Degeneration?: https://www.macular.org/what-macular-degeneration
  462. What is Macular Degeneration (alternate/additional info)?: https://www.macular.org/what-macular-degeneration-alt
  463. Android -- Test your app's accessibility: https://developer.android.com/guide/topics/ui/accessibility/testing
  464. Android -- Using Espresso for automated Accessibility Checking: https://developer.android.com/training/testing/espresso/accessibility-checking#java
  465. Microsoft Inclusive Toolkit wins 2017's "Best Empowering category" in the annual "World Changing Ideas" competition: https://awards.ixda.org/entry/2017/microsoft-inclusive-toolkit-2/
  466. Microsoft - our approach to Accessibility: https://www.microsoft.com/en-us/accessibility/approach
  467. Microsoft Is 'Doubling Down' on Accessibility to Help Close Disability Divide: https://www.boia.org/blog/microsoft-is-doubling-down-on-accessibility-to-help-close-disability-divide
  468. Apple A11Y features landing page: https://www.apple.com/accessibility/
  469. Apple introduces SignTime... ASL for iOS, more accessibility features for people with disabilities: https://www.usatoday.com/story/tech/2021/05/19/apple-new-software-signtime-feature-iphone-ipad-watch-hearing-impaired/5162279001/
  470. Accessibility in SwiftUI: https://developer.apple.com/videos/play/wwdc2019/238/
  471. The Business Case for an Accessible Website: https://www.boia.org/blog/the-business-case-for-an-accessible-website
  472. American Institutes for Reasearch (AIR) -- Hidden Market - The Purchasing Power of Working-Age Adults With Disabilities: https://www.air.org/system/files/downloads/report/Hidden-Market-Spending-Power-of-People-with-Disabilities-April-2018.pdf
  473. Canadian Survey on Disability Reports: https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/en/catalogue/89-654-X
  474. The 2006 Participation and Activity Limitation Survey: Disability in Canada: https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/en/catalogue/89-628-X
  475. eCH -- 0059 - Accessibility Standard for European Union (German): https://www.ech.ch/de/dokument/45a5ea94-5955-4206-a647-0f795b5f72b2
  476. "How Accessible Are We?" -- Digital India report (2020): https://my.visme.co/view/vdjjm3dp-how-accessible-are-we
  477. SiteImprove -- CX strategy - Drive ROI with Accessibility (E-BOOK): https://hello.siteimprove.com/en-us/content/ebook/empathyroi
  478. The ROI of Accessibility: http://www.accessibilitypartners.com/the-roi-of-accessibility/
  479. Optimizing Your eCommerce Site? Accessibility is a Must-Have!: https://www.essentialaccessibility.com/uncategorized/trends-and-impact-of-digital-accessibility-on-ecommerce-in-2021
  480. 6 companies that boosted business with accessibility: https://bighack.org/business-case-accessibility-6-companies-who-boosted-business-with-accessibility/
  481. Valuable Truth Report (2022): https://www.thevaluable500.com/wp-content/uploads/2022/05/The-Valuable-Truth-2022.pdf
  482. Avoid "Keyboard Traps" To Make Your Site More Accessible: https://www.boia.org/blog/avoid-keyboard-traps-to-make-your-site-more-accessible
  483. Accessibility compliance deadline looms in Ontario: https://betakit.com/as-accessibility-compliance-deadline-looms-cnib-ottawa-firm-partner-to-offer-website-audits-to-businesses/
  484. Ontario Making Public Spaces More Accessible: https://news.ontario.ca/en/release/1001367/ontario-making-public-spaces-more-accessible
  485. MIT -- The role of accessibility in a universal web (WHITEPAPER): http://dspace.mit.edu/handle/1721.1/88013
  486. Accessible jQuery-ui Components Demonstration: http://hanshillen.github.io/jqtest/#goto_dialog
  487. Accessible Icon Buttons: https://www.sarasoueidan.com/blog/accessible-icon-buttons/
  488. HTMHell special - close buttons: https://www.htmhell.dev/20-close-buttons/
  489. Implementing A Pure CSS Collapsible (that can still have keyboard support via a tiny bit of JS): https://www.digitalocean.com/community/tutorials/css-collapsible
  490. Carnegie Museums -- Web Accessibility Guidelines - Accordions: http://web-accessibility.carnegiemuseums.org/code/accordions/
  491. Aditus -- Accessible Accordion: https://www.aditus.io/patterns/accordion/
  492. MozDev -- WAI-ARIA roles - Using the aria-live property:: https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/Accessibility/ARIA/ARIA_Live_Regions
  493. Getting screen reader to read new content added (post-pageload) with JavaScript: https://stackoverflow.com/questions/3670570/getting-screen-reader-to-read-new-content-added-with-javascript
  494. ARIA -- "Live" Region Playground: http://schne324.github.io/live-region-playground/ (testing aria-live="" attribute variations: off, polite, assertive... .vs. default/non-present)
  495. WAI-ARIA -- roles: https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/Accessibility/ARIA/Roles
  496. MozDev -- WAI-ARIA roles - Using the timer role: https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/Accessibility/ARIA/Roles/ARIA_timer_role
  497. MozDev -- WAI-ARIA roles - Using the Navigation role: https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/Accessibility/ARIA/Roles/Navigation_Role
  498. MozDev -- WAI-ARIA roles - Using the region role: https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/Accessibility/ARIA/Roles/Region_role
  499. MozDev -- WAI-ARIA roles - Using the complimentary role: https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/Accessibility/ARIA/Roles/Complementary_role
  500. DigitalA11Y -- overview of aria-atomic property: https://www.digitala11y.com/aria-atomic-properties/
  501. Study on aria-atomic & aria-relevant on aria-live regions: https://pauljadam.com/demos/aria-atomic-relevant.html
  502. Why Are iFrame Titles Important for Accessibility?: https://www.boia.org/blog/why-are-iframe-titles-important-for-accessibility
  503. Color Blindness & Web Design: https://www.usability.gov/get-involved/blog/2010/02/color-blindness.html
  504. Color Contrast for Better Readability: https://www.viget.com/articles/color-contrast/
  505. Ensure High Contrast for Text Over Images: https://www.nngroup.com/articles/text-over-images/
  506. NIH -- Types of Color Blindness: https://www.nei.nih.gov/learn-about-eye-health/eye-conditions-and-diseases/color-blindness/types-color-blindness
  507. wikipedia: Ishihara test
  508. Getting Typography Right in Digital Design: https://medium.springboard.com/the-guide-to-getting-typography-right-in-digital-design-bb61214ff3ad
  509. Web Design is 95% Typography: https://ia.net/topics/the-web-is-all-about-typography-period
  510. Best Fonts To Use for Website Accessibility: https://www.boia.org/blog/best-fonts-to-use-for-website-accessibility
  511. Tricks for ARIA on the iPad/iOS: http://blog.codinginparadise.org/2010/12/tricks-for-aria-on-ipadios.html
  512. Building a Universally Accessible Blog: https://whatsortsofpeople.wordpress.com/2008/07/28/building-a-universally-accessible-blog/
  513. MozDev -- ARIA - live regions: https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/Accessibility/ARIA/ARIA_Live_Regions
  514. MozDev -- ARIA - alertdialog role: https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/Accessibility/ARIA/Roles/alertdialog_role
  515. MozDev -- ARIA - dialog role: https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/Accessibility/ARIA/Roles/dialog_role
  516. ARIA Dialog role example (Modal): http://accessibility.athena-ict.com/aria/examples/dialog.shtml
  517. W3C -- Making a Dialog Modal: https://www.w3.org/TR/2010/WD-wai-aria-practices-20100916/#modal_dialog
  518. Modal dialogs: https://accessuse.eu/en/modal-dialogs.html
  519. Dialog (Modal): http://www.html5accessibility.com/dhtmlStyleGuide.html#dialogmodal
  520. Creating An Accessible Modal Dialog: https://bitsofco.de/accessible-modal-dialog/ | DEMO | SRC
  521. CodePen Home Some Accessible Modal Techniques: https://codepen.io/noahblon/pen/yJpXZa
  522. jQuery simple and accessible modal window, using ARIA: https://a11y.nicolas-hoffmann.net/modal/
  523. Building better accessibility primitives: https://robdodson.me/posts/building-better-accessibility-primitives/
  524. Making Elements Focusable with Tabindex: https://snook.ca/archives/accessibility_and_usability/elements_focusable_with_tabindex
  525. Is there a way to do an accessible modal?: https://stackoverflow.com/questions/10016433/is-there-a-way-to-do-an-accessible-modal
  526. Keep tabbing within modal pane only: https://stackoverflow.com/questions/14572084/keep-tabbing-within-modal-pane-only
  527. Best Practices for Modal Windows: https://uxmovement.com/forms/best-practices-for-modal-windows/
  528. Popups -- 10 Problematic Trends and Alternatives: https://www.nngroup.com/articles/popups/
  529. Semantically-Accurate HTML5 Element for a Modal Dialog: https://stackoverflow.com/questions/3072597/semantically-accurate-html5-element-for-a-modal-dialog
  530. Best Practices for Modals / Overlays / Dialog Windows: https://uxplanet.org/best-practices-for-modals-overlays-dialog-windows-c00c66cddd8c
  531. The a11y Monthly - Making modals accessible: https://developer.yoast.com/blog/the-a11y-monthly-making-modals-accessible/
  532. Inclusive components -- making modals accessible: https://dev.to/alenanik/inclusive-components-making-modals-accessible-1hn9
  533. Web Accessibility Guidelines v1.0: http://web-accessibility.carnegiemuseums.org/code/dialogs/
  534. How to trap focus inside modal to make it ADA compliant: https://uxdesign.cc/how-to-trap-focus-inside-modal-to-make-it-ada-compliant-6a50f9a70700
  535. Considerations for Styling a Modal: https://css-tricks.com/considerations-styling-modal/
  536. Demonstration of a keyboard- and screen-reader accessible modal dialog: http://ncamftp.wgbh.org/sp/tests/dialog/modalDialog.html
  537. Benefits and drawbacks of modal windows: https://ux.stackexchange.com/questions/39778/benefits-and-drawbacks-of-modal-windows
  538. How To Make Modal Windows Better For Everyone: https://www.smashingmagazine.com/2014/09/making-modal-windows-better-for-everyone/
  539. Is there a way to do an accessible modal?: https://stackoverflow.com/questions/10016433/is-there-a-way-to-do-an-accessible-modal
  540. Creating An Accessible Modal Dialog: http://bitsofco.de/accessible-modal-dialog/
  541. Accessible modal window using ARIA and Vanilla JS: https://van11y.net/downloads/modal/demo/index.html
  542. jQuery simple and accessible modal window, using ARIA: https://a11y.nicolas-hoffmann.net/modal/
  543. jQuery trap input plugin: https://github.com/julienw/jquery-trap-input
  544. React Modals: https://react-bootstrap.github.io/components/modal/
  545. React-Bootstrap Modal Accessibility Warnings from React-A11y: https://stackoverflow.com/questions/38596675/react-bootstrap-modal-accessibility-warnings-from-react-a11y
  546. Notes On Client-Rendered Accessibility: https://www.smashingmagazine.com/2015/05/client-rendered-accessibility/
  547. ReactJS docs - Accessibility: https://reactjs.org/docs/accessibility.html
  548. Deque - React Accessiblity best practices (WEBINAR): https://accessibility.deque.com/react-accessibility-webinar
  549. Getting Started with Web Accessibility in React: https://medium.com/@emilymears/getting-started-with-web-accessibility-in-react-9e591fdb0d52
  550. WCAG 2.2 -- Understanding Success Criterion 2.4.7 - Focus Visible: https://www.w3.org/WAI/WCAG22/Understanding/focus-visible.html
  551. Accessibility -- Never Remove the Outlines: https://medium.com/better-programming/a11y-never-remove-the-outlines-ee4efc7a9968
  552. Outline NONE in CSS -- a { outline: none; } - DON'T DO IT!: http://www.outlinenone.com/
  553. The plague of outline:0: https://webaim.org/blog/plague-of-outline-0/
  554. Digital Scotland -- Design System - Focus states: https://designsystem.gov.scot/styles/states/ (good basic example screenshot)
  555. Style hover, focus, and active states differently: https://zellwk.com/blog/style-hover-focus-active-states/
  556. Active, Hover, and Focus States for Designers: https://uxplanet.org/active-hover-and-focus-states-for-designers-d789531fe767
  557. The Friendly Inbox - Making Emails Accessible For Subscribers With Disabilities: https://www.mediapost.com/publications/article/367871/the-friendly-inbox-making-emails-accessible-for-s.html
  558. WCAG 2.0 -- Link Purpose (In Context): https://www.w3.org/TR/UNDERSTANDING-WCAG20/navigation-mechanisms-refs.html
  559. Links must be distinguished from surrounding text in a way that does not rely on color: https://dequeuniversity.com/rules/axe/4.3/link-in-text-block
  560. Accessibility -- Web Links Should Be Links, and Web Buttons Should Be Buttons: https://medium.com/better-programming/accessibility-web-links-should-be-links-and-web-buttons-should-be-buttons-182ff042d087
  561. WebAIM -- Link A11Y best practices: https://webaim.org/techniques/hypertext/#link_to_link
  562. WebAIM -- Links and Hypertext: https://webaim.org/techniques/hypertext/link_text
  563. Text Links - Best Practices for Screen Readers: https://www.deque.com/blog/text-links-practices-screen-readers/
  564. Don't Rely on the Title Attribute for Accessibility: https://www.mediacurrent.com/blog/dont-rely-title-attribute-accessibility-seo/
  565. Create accessible social media content: https://accessibility.iu.edu/creating-content/social-media/index.html | VIDEO
  566. Improving the Accessibility of Social Media in Government: https://digital.gov/resources/improving-the-accessibility-of-social-media-in-government/
  567. YouTube Expands Speech Recognition and Translation AI Features: https://voicebot.ai/2021/10/11/youtube-expands-speech-recognition-and-translation-ai-features/
  568. Facebook's Accessibility help page: https://www.facebook.com/help/273947702950567?cms_id=141636465971794
  569. Twitter’s web redesign isn’t as accessible as it should be, experts say: https://techcrunch.com/2021/08/13/twitters-web-redesign-isnt-as-accessible-as-it-should-be-experts-say/
  570. Seiichi Miyake: 5 Brilliantly Simple Uses for His "Tenji Blocks": https://www.inverse.com/article/54134-seiichi-miyake-google-doodle-tactile-paving
  571. The Unexpected Benefits of Web Accessibility: Why It’s More Than Just “The Right Thing To Do”: https://www.essentialaccessibility.com/blog/the-unexpected-benefits-of-web-accessibility-why-its-more-than-just-the-right-thing-to-do
  572. History of Assistive Technology: https://www.sutori.com/story/history-of-assistive-technology--RJ35ffpub31fn4qokozTFtNg
  573. Assistive Technology timeline: https://earshot103.wixsite.com/assistive-technology/history
  574. To Hell with WCAG 2: http://www.alistapart.com/articles/tohellwithwcag2
  575. Creating Accessible Menus and Mega Menus: https://www.levelaccess.com/challenges-mega-menus-standard-menus-make-accessible/
  576. Accessible Mega Menu: https://adobe-accessibility.github.io/Accessible-Mega-Menu/#accessible-megamenu-1638280592218-1
  577. Creating an animated Menu indicator with CSS Selectors: https://css-tricks.com/creating-an-animated-menu-indicator-with-css-selectors/ (bottom)
  578. Line Menu "currently active" indicator styles: https://tympanus.net/Development/LineMenuStyles/ (many examples if you don't mind scrolling through them all hah)
  579. Bootstrap - subtle but sufficient indicator on dynamic "Mega Menu": https://preview.colorlib.com/theme/bootstrap/website-menu-03/index.html
  580. Moz dev docs -- FireFox - Accessibility Inspector: https://firefox-source-docs.mozilla.org/devtools-user/accessibility_inspector/index.html
  581. A Deep Dive on Skipping to Content: https://css-tricks.com/a-deep-dive-on-skipping-to-content/
  582. How to Create a “Skip to Content” Link : https://css-tricks.com/how-to-create-a-skip-to-content-link/
  583. Skip to Main Content – Accessibility for AEM Web-applications (AEM 6.5.9 & AEMaaCs): https://aemsimplifiedbynikhil.wordpress.com/2021/07/16/skip-to-main-content-accessibility-for-aem-web-applications-aem-6-5-9-aemaacs/
  584. How to skip some content from screen reader: https://stackoverflow.com/questions/22932134/how-to-skip-some-content-from-screen-reader
  585. WebAIM - Skip Navigation Links: https://webaim.org/techniques/skipnav/
  586. What Is Skip Navigation Link and Why Is It Useful? : https://pineco.de/what-is-skip-navigation-link-and-why-is-it-useful/
  587. Carnegie Museum -- Skip Link: web-accessibility.carnegiemuseums.org/code/skip-link/
  588. I found a hidden youtube button (SKIP NAVIGATION). To see it, open youtube and hit tab twice: https://www.reddit.com/r/interestingasfuck/comments/hwii59/i_found_a_hidden_youtube_button_skip_navigation/fyzt4st/
  589. WCAG 2.0 AA is the new Accessibility standard for any "Federal Agency" websites: https://www.adatitleiii.com/2017/01/wcag-2-0-aa-is-the-new-accessibility-standard-for-federal-agency-websites/
  590. Translating Design Wireframes Into Accessible HTML/CSS: https://www.smashingmagazine.com/2020/07/design-wireframes-accessible-html-css/
  591. Disability 3Barriers in Customer Service: https://www.aoda.ca/disability-barriers-in-customer-service/
  592. Accessibility - Definition, Meaning, Examples and Types of Barriers: https://wecapable.com/accessibility-definition-meaning-examples-barriers/
  593. Public Education Campaign on the Business Case for Accessibility: https://aoda.ca/public-education-campaign-on-the-business-case-for-accessibility/
  594. Top 5 Most Common Web Accessibility Mistakes: https://www.mcdpartners.com/news/top-5-common-web-accessibility-mistakes/
  595. Top Ten Most Common Web Accessibility issues: https://www.tpgi.com/ten-common-web-accessibility-issues/ (1.Image ALT text, 2.KeyboardNav visual focus indicator, 3.Use of proper labels, 4.Links without descriptive text, 5.Links/Buttons too small, 6.Tables without proper markup, 7.Headings hierarchy & Section nesting, 8.Color Contrast, 9.Embedding or Linking to inaccessible docs & media, 10.Identical descriptive text for content - multiple related or separate unrelated)
  596. 6 easy ways to make your projects more accessible: https://www.richmedia.com/richideas/articles/6-ways-to-make-your-projects-accessible
  597. Beyond the screenreader - Online accessibility for assistive devices: https://www.richmedia.com/richideas/articles/beyond_the_screenreader_online_accessibility_for_assistive_devices
  598. Unit in Developing Literacy Skills with Assistive Technology: https://dyslexiaaction.org.uk/developing-literacy-skills-with-assistive-technology/
  599. Do Dyslexia Fonts Improve Accessibility?: https://www.boia.org/blog/do-dyslexia-fonts-improve-accessibility
  600. AUSTRALIAN CURRICULUM – NUMERACY CAPABILITIES: https://mrscovichsclassroom.com/numeracy-capabilities/
  601. How a Glasgow, Scotland school celebrated "National Numeracy Day" (2020): https://blogs.glowscotland.org.uk/ea/hillsideprimaryamain2019/2020/05/10/weekly-challenge-numeracy/
  602. UX Planet -- Color, psychology and design: https://uxplanet.org/how-color-can-effect-emotion-ccab0431b1d
  603. An argument for incorporating color early on in UX design: https://uxhacker.co/an-argument-for-incorporating-color-early-on-in-ux-design/
  604. Color meanings and the art of using color symbolism (in UI/UX Design): https://99designs.ca/blog/tips/color-meanings/
  605. Ishihara’s Test for Colour Deficiency - 38 Plates Edition: https://www.color-blindness.com/ishiharas-test-for-colour-deficiency-38-plates-edition/
  606. Color Meanings – The Power and Symbolism of Colors: https://www.color-meanings.com
  607. Real People, Real Stories Episode #9 (2021) -- Charlotte Dales from Inclusively and Aubrey Northam from Mobelux: https://www.tpgi.com/real-people-real-stories-episode-9-2021-charlotte-dales-from-inclusively-and-aubrey-northam-from-mobelux/
  608. What is a screen reader, and why are they important?: https://www.tpgi.com/what-is-a-screen-reader-and-why-are-they-important/
  609. Canadians with disabilities face barriers to financial security, researchers find: https://phys.org/news/2020-08-canadians-disabilities-barriers-financial.html
  610. How America failed students with disabilities during the pandemic: https://www.washingtonpost.com/education/2021/05/20/students-disabilities-virtual-learning-failure/
  611. Australian study shows "those with disability are disproportionally affected by COVID" – New Report From CBM: https://www.96five.com/stories/life/news/2021/those-with-a-disability-disproportionally-affected-by-covid-new-report/
  612. COVID closures disproportionately affecting those with disabilities: https://health.ucdavis.edu/health-news/newsroom/covid-closures-disproportionately-affecting-those-with-disabilities-/2020/10
  613. The pandemic isn’t over — particularly for people with disabilities: https://www.health.harvard.edu/blog/the-pandemic-isnt-over-particularly-for-people-with-disabilities-202105252464
  614. COVID-19's Impact on People with Disabilities: https://www.massgeneral.org/news/coronavirus/Covid-19s-impact-on-people-with-disabilities
  615. Impacts of COVID-19 disproportionately affect poor and vulnerable - UN chief: https://news.un.org/en/story/2020/06/1067502
  616. COVID-19 has disproportionately impacted those living with developmental disabilities: https://www.cnn.com/2020/08/28/health/covid-19-intellectual-development-disabilities-impact-wellness/index.html
  617. COVID-19 Outbreak and Persons with Disabilities: https://www.un.org/development/desa/disabilities/covid-19.html
  618. Impact of COVID-19 on people with physical disabilities - A rapid review: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7603994/
  619. Policy Brief -- A "Disability-Inclusive" Response to COVID-19: https://www.un.org/sites/un2.un.org/files/sg_policy_brief_on_persons_with_disabilities_final.pdf
  620. Workers With Disabilities Disproportionately Impacted By Covid-19 Pandemic: https://www.forbes.com/sites/allisonnorlian/2020/06/22/workers-with-disabilities-disproportionately-impacted-by-covid-19-pandemic/
  621. Role of Governor in promoting disability employment in COVID-19 recovery strategies: https://www.nga.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/03/SEED_Memo.pdf
  622. Gloating about a surplus is callous, says New Brunswick Coalition of Persons with Disabilities: https://nbmediacoop.org/2022/09/03/gloating-about-a-surplus-is-callous-new-brunswick-coalition-of-persons-with-disabilities/
  623. How to Use Color Blind Friendly Palettes to Make Your Charts Accessible: https://venngage.com/blog/color-blind-friendly-palette/
  624. Microsoft Working on System That Could Benefit Color-blind Gamers: https://gamerant.com/microsoft-patent-system-benefit-color-blind-gamers/
  625. BBC - Accessibility for Products: https://www.bbc.co.uk/accessibility/forproducts/
  626. Personas with Disabilities: https://medium.com/swlh/personas-with-disabilities-9da8d12f1255
  627. Persona Spectrums - Building for Inclusion and Accessibility: https://www.uxbooth.com/articles/persona-spectrums-building-for-inclusion-and-accessibility/
  628. How to Add Alt Text to Images on Facebook: https://www.howtogeek.com/761718/how-to-add-alt-text-to-images-on-facebook/
  629. 5 ways to make websites more accessible for deaf people: https://www.hearinglikeme.com/5-ways-to-make-websites-more-accessible-for-deaf-people/
  630. How to make a website accessible for the deaf and hearing impaired: https://www.paradigmmarketinganddesign.com/how-to-make-a-website-accessible-for-the-deaf-and-hearing-impaired/
  631. Web accessibility for hearing impairments: https://uxdesign.cc/web-accessibility-for-hearing-impairment-3f49fc7b5a34

See Also

i18n | l10n | W3C | Web | SEO | HCI | UI/UX Design | Captions | Subtitles | Video Annotation | HTML/HTML5 | E-Learning | STT/TTS | Speech Recognition | Voice Recognition | Image Recognition | Biometrics | Sustainability