Accessibility

From BC$ MobileTV Wiki
Revision as of 13:21, 19 April 2022 by Bcmoney (Talk | contribs) (Desktop Technology-specific A11Y)

Jump to: navigation, search

Accessibility (commonly abbreviated as A11Y, also refered to as universal support) is the support for disabled or otherwise impaired persons.


Specifications

WCAG

Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (commonly abbreviated WCAG) is part of a series of accessibility guidelines, including the Authoring Tool Accessibility Guidelines (ATAG) and the User Agent Accessibility Guidelines (UAAG)[1][2].


                                           WCAG 1.0   |   WCAG 2.0
importance of the content A AA AAA A AA AAA
(closed) captionsXXXX*XX
(closed) audio descriptionXXXX*XX
full text alternativeX*X
sign languageX
  1. A = Priority 1, Web developers must satisfy these requirements, otherwise it will be impossible for one or more groups to access the Web content. Conformance to this level is described as A.
  2. AA = Priority 2, Web developers should satisfy these requirements, otherwise some groups will find it difficult to access the Web content. Conformance to this level is described as AA or Double-A.
  3. AAA = Priority 3, Web developers may satisfy these requirements, in order to make it easier for some groups to access the Web content. Conformance to this level is described as AAA or Triple-A.

[3]

POUR principles

In addition to the specific multimedia accessibility techniques, WCAG defines defines four key principles of accessibility:

  1. Perceivable - Information can be presented in different ways; for example, in braille, different text sizes, text-to-speech, or symbols, etc.
  2. Operable - Functionality can be used in different modalities; for example, keyboard, mouse, sip-and-puff, speech input, touch, etc.
  3. Understandable - Information and functionality is understandable; for example consistent navigation, simple language, etc.
  4. Robust - Content can be interpreted reliably by a wide variety of browsers, media players, and assistive technologies.

There are currently two stable versions of WCAG that are both supported by W3C:

WCAG 2.0 was published in December 2008, and has become widely adopted as the standard for web accessibility by many businesses and governments around the world. It defines 12 Guidelines under the four POUR principles. Under each Guideline there are more specific Success Criteria divided into three Conformance Levels: A, AA, and AAA. WCAG 2.0 defines 61 Success Criteria.


WCAG 2.1 was published in June 2018, to better address accessibility for people with cognitive and learning disabilities, people with low vision, and people with disabilities using mobile devices. WCAG 2.1 is fully backward compatible with WCAG 2.0, so that if your content conforms to WCAG 2.1 it also conforms to WCAG 2.0. WCAG 2.1 defines 13 Guidelines and 78 Success Criteria.

[6] [7] [8] [9]

[10]


WAI

Web Accessibility Initiative (commonly abbreviated WCAG).

[11]

ARIA

ARIA Landmarks Example: https://w3c.github.io/aria-practices/examples/landmarks/index.html [13] [14] [15] [16] [17]


ATAG

UAAG

Kiosks

[19]

a11y

Wordpress as of v4.3.x offers Accessibility prompts via JavaScript to communicate with Screen Reader software (where available natively in the client's browser or via Plugin). Simply

wp.a11y.speak('YOUR TEXT TO BE SPOKEN HERE'); 
  • a11y
  • The Accessibility (a11y) Project: https://www.a11yproject.com/ (aside from tons of great blogs/tutorials/resources, a nice visual explaining the 11 characters between "A" and "Y" of the word AccessibilitY)

AAM

ACC Name


Section 508

United States government initiative towards Accessibility for IT.

[20] [21] [22] [23] [24] [25]

Diversity & Inclusion

Concerns "Accessible employment" and workplace inclusivity (equal participation & opportunities).

[26] [27] [28] [29] [30] [31] [32] [33] [34] [35] [36] [37]


Information Architecture

Content Strategy

Accessibility Auditors

There are three "tiers" or types of 3rd-party Accessibility providers:

  1. Tier 1 - scan & overlay (no "preventive" coverage against lawsuits) $2-5k USD
  2. Tier 2 - hybrid, scan & overlay with wait & see approach (partial coverage) $6-12k USD
  3. Tier 3 - full legal coverage (guaranteed compliance & insurance coverage options against lawsuits) $12-25k USD

[45]

Over 10000 cases/year go to court, almost 100% go to court, average of over $20000 USD awarded to plaintiffs.


Desktop Technology-specific A11Y

PDF accessibility

[46] [47]

PPT accessiblity

[48] [49] [50] [51]

Email accessibility

Here are a few tips to help you send accessible emails:

  • Provide a clear, brief, and informative subject line
  • Choose a font style that is easy to read in at least 12-14 point font
  • Use spaces to break up paragraphs
  • Use plain text and avoid using lots of special characters and symbols
  • Avoid flashing or flickering content (think: gifs in your email signature

[52]

Web Technology-specific A11Y

HTML accessibility

[54]


CSS accessibility

[55]


JS accessibility

[56]


Special A11Y concerns

Visual

[57]

Motion preferences

A number of people may suffer from permanent/chronic, temporary/resolvable or situational/environmental issues around motion, flicker and related content changes. These could be triggered through:

  • content animations
  • moving, growing or shrinking pictures/text
  • strobing effects
  • sudden color changes
  • screen transitions

Vestibular disorders and those who can become triggered into seizures are the major health concern here, but there are also simply those who do not like such "special effects" (or for whom it makes the content harder to read/understand or makes them dizzy, confused or otherwise uncomfortable); so we should respect their preferences and offer them an experience without such effects. The current way to communicate a preference not to be shown animations and related effects is the CSS3 ""

[58] [59] [60] [61] [62] [63] [64] [65] [66]


Contrast

Text & Images must have sufficient contrast between one another and their respective containers/backgrounds.

[67] [68]

Screen Reader

  • WebAIM -- Designing for Screen Reader compatibility: https://webaim.org/techniques/screenreader/ (similar considerations for all types of apps Desktop/Mobile/Web, but approaches slightly different depending on platform)

[69] [70] [71] [72] [73]

[74] [75] [76] [77] [78] [79] [80] [81] [82] [83]


Keyboard navigation

Keyboard Accessibility defines the ability to use a standard or custom (i.e. Braille, RSI positioned keys, etc) keyboard input device rather than any other HCI peripheral device (such as mouse, stylus, finger/touch, voice, etc) to interact with a given Website, WebApp, Desktop App or Mobile App.


When verifying "Keyboard Accessibility" you should check that:

  1. 'Tab to all - users can tab to all the active elements including links, form fields, buttons, and a media player control.
  2. Tab away - users can tab away from (out of) all elements that can be tabbed into.
  3. Tab order - the tab order follows the logical reading order according to the language on the page.
  4. Visual focus - the focus is clearly visible as users tab through the elements, and users can tell if navigating away to another application or tab upon returning, precisely which element has focus at any point in time.
  5. Functionality - users can do everything with the keyboard. That is you don't need to use a mouse to activate actions options, visible changes, and other functionality.
  6. Drop-downs - after users tab to a drop-down list using the arrow keys to move through the options without triggering another action.
  7. Image links - when images are links they have clear & visible focus and they can be activated using the keyboard.

The following table shows some common keyboard shortcuts and keymap conventions:

Interaction

Keystrokes

Navigate to most elements

  • Tab
  • Shift + Tab - navigate backward

Link

Enter

Button

Enter or Spacebar

Checkbox

Spacebar - check/uncheck a checkbox

Radio buttons

  • ↑/↓ or ←/→ - select an option
  • Tab - move to the next element

Select (dropdown) menu

  • ↑/↓ - navigate between menu options
  • Spacebar - expand

Autocomplete

  • Type to begin filtering
  • ↑/↓ - navigate to an option
  • Enter - select an option

Dialog

Esc - close

Slider

  • ↑/↓ or ←/→ - increase or decrease slider value
  • Home/End - beginning or end

Menu bar

  • ↑/↓ - Previous/next menu option
  • Enter - expand the menu (optional) and select an option.
  • ←/→ - expand/collapse submenu

Tab panel

  • Tab - once to navigate into the group of tabs and once to navigate out of the group of tabs
  • ↑/↓ or ←/→ - previous/next tab.

'Tree' menu

  • ↑/↓ - Navigate Previous/next menu option
  • ←/→ - expand/collapse submenu, move up/down one level

Scroll

  • ↑/↓ - scroll vertically
  • ←/→ - scroll horizontally
  • Spacebar/Shift + Spacebar - scroll by page

[84] [85]

[86] [87] [88]


Mobile technology-specific A11Y approaches

[89] [90] [91] [92] [93] [94] [95] [96]

Apple (iOS)

[97] [98] [99] [100] [101] [102]

Google (Android)

Touch Target

Minimum sizes for interactive areas are needed to prevent an inability to trigger required events or operate controls in the desired manner (aka. "Fat Fingering"). Most "Mobile design guidelines" encourage practices to prevent any issues here such as 32px padding on either side of any button or link, and use of labels tied to input fields within forms that cause the correct corresponding field to become in focus.

Accessibility Overlays

"Accessibility Overlays" are bolt-on solutions that attempt to "embed" accessibility features and options into an inaccessible or incompletely accessible website or mobile app with many or a specific few unfixed access barriers of certain types. While these can be slightly better than doing nothing, they are no substitute for building a fully accessible experience and often fall far short of primary accessibility and risk (lawsuit exposure, customer churn) reduction goals. Studies have shown that it is always better to "bake accessibility in" from the beginning.

The following issues aren't fully covered by Overlays (and can sometimes be worsened or made more confusing by having the extra layer):

  1. Unlabeled/mislabeled form fields
  2. Zoom disabled
  3. Minimum width
  4. Use of layout tables
  5. Ambiguous anchor text links
  6. Images of text
  7. Focus order
  8. Alt text[103][104]
  9. Consistent identification
  10. Keyboard only usage
  11. Error prevention
  12. Error suggestions
  13. Keyboard traps
  14. Incorrect heading structure
  15. Missing links
  16. No input change
  17. Parsing
  18. Misidentified language
  19. Closed captions
  20. Locked display orientation


[105] [106] [107] [108] [109] [110] [111] [112] [113] [114]


A11Y Lawsuits

  1. Winn-Dixie grocery: https://www.forbes.com/sites/legalnewsline/2017/06/13/first-of-its-kind-trial-goes-plaintiffs-way-winn-dixie-must-update-website-for-the-blind/?sh=a3b943f1b38a
  2. McDonald's self-serve kiosks: https://www.wsj.com/articles/mcdonalds-starts-making-self-service-easier-for-blind-diners-11631900280
  3. Harvard & MIT Universities: https://www.insidehighered.com/news/2019/04/08/mit-and-harvard-fail-get-out-video-captioning-court-case
  4. UC Berkley on textbooks: https://www.3playmedia.com/blog/dra-v-uc-berkeley-a-win-win-with-structured-negotiation/
  5. CVS Pharmacy: https://icharts.net/ada-compliance/
  6. Amazon: https://www.classaction.org/media/bishop-v-amazon-com-inc.pdf[115]
  7. Netflix: https://digitalcommons.law.scu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?referer=https://www.google.com/&httpsredir=1&article=1092&context=historical[116][117][118][119][120][121][122]Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag;

refs with no name must have content

  1. Fox News: https://topclassactions.com/lawsuit-settlements/lawsuit-news/836448-fox-news-website-not-accessible-blind-class-action-says/
  2. Nike: https://www.accessiblemetrics.com/blog/4-key-takeaways-from-2018-web-accessibility-lawsuits/
  3. Burger King: https://www.classaction.org/media/mendizabal-v-burger-king-corporation.pdf[123][124]
  4. Five Guys': https://topclassactions.com/lawsuit-settlements/lawsuit-news/485124-five-guys-class-action-says-website-not-accessible-blind-users/
  5. Domino's: https://www.courthousenews.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/01/Dominos-Ruling.pdf[125][126][127][128][129][130][131][132][133][134][135][136][137][138]
  6. Winn-Dixie: https://www.courthousenews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/06/Winn-Dixie-ADA-verdict-.pdf[139][140][141][142][143]
  7. Blue Apron: https://www.levelaccess.com/new-hampshire-court-denies-blue-aprons-motion-dismiss-digital-accessibility-suit/
  8. Conair/CuisinArt: https://www.leagle.com/decision/infdco20201217g35[144]
  9. Amtrak: https://www.ada.gov/amtrak_sa.html[145][146]
  10. HCA hospitals: https://www.fredlaw.com/news__media/2017/01/18/1427/healthcare_sector_is_newest_target_for_website_accessibility_lawsuits/
  11. Hulu: https://www.3playmedia.com/blog/hulu-agrees-to-caption-100-percent-of-english-and-spanish-videos/[147]
  12. eBay: https://www.3playmedia.com/blog/earll-v-ebay-is-a-website-a-place-of-public-accommodation/
  13. Bank of America: https://www.lflegal.com/2015/06/bofa-travel-agreement/
  14. FedEx: https://www.3playmedia.com/blog/fedex-ground-sued-by-eeoc-nad-for-ada-violation/
  15. Hobby Lobby: https://lovata.com/blog/ada-website-compliance-lawsuits-recent-and-high-profile.html
  16. Bank of America (first major bank sued, all the way back in 2000): https://thefinancialbrand.com/27448/could-your-banking-website-be-the-target-of-a-lawsuit/
  17. Hard Rock Casino & Gulf Coast restaurant chains: https://www.sunherald.com/news/local/counties/harrison-county/article141331553.html
  18. NY city MTA: https://www.6sqft.com/judge-rules-that-an-accessibility-lawsuit-against-the-mta-in-queens-can-move-forward/
  19. Robinhood (stock trading platform): https://www.fredlaw.com/wp-content/uploads/2021/02/Website-Accessibility-Complaint-Sanchez-v-Robinhood-SDNY-2-3-2021.pdf[148]
  20. American Airlines: https://www.paddleyourownkanoo.com/2021/07/24/man-sues-american-airlines-because-its-website-discriminates-against-blind-people/ ($40 million)
  21. ViacomCBS: https://www.fiercevideo.com/video/fcc-slaps-viacomcbs-3-5m-fine-over-pluto-tv-closed-captions ($3.5 million)[149][150][151]
  22. Fox News: https://topclassactions.com/lawsuit-settlements/lawsuit-news/fox-news-website-not-accessible-blind-class-action-says/
  23. WWE: https://heelbynature.com/wrestling-news/wwe-news/wwe-settles-lawsuit-for-violation-of-americans-with-disabilities-act/ (settled out of court)[152][153]
  24. Dell: https://regmedia.co.uk/2021/03/04/giannaros_vs_dell_complaint.pdf[154]
  25. Apple: https://appleinsider.com/articles/18/08/20/apple-sued-over-claims-website-is-inaccessible-to-visually-impaired-users[155][156][157][158]
  26. Uber: https://www.docketalarm.com/cases/District_Of_Columbia_District_Court/1--17-cv-01272/EQUAL_RIGHTS_CENTER_v._UBER_TECHNOLOGIES_INC._et_al/55/[159][160][161][162][163]
  27. NBA: https://buckleyfirm.com/uploads/1082/doc/Complaint_for_Permanent_Injunction,_Jahoda_v_NBA.pdf
  28. eHarmony: https://www.pacermonitor.com/public/case/8982926/West_v_eHarmony,_Inc
  29. Rolex: https://www.pacermonitor.com/public/case/23729995/Thorne_v_Rolex_Watch_USA,_Inc
  30. Beyonce's music promotion website: https://www.impactbnd.com/blog/is-your-website-ada-compliant-what-beyonces-website-accessibility-lawsuit-taught-us[164][165]

[166] [167] [168] [169] [170] [171] [172] [173] [174] [175] [176] [177] [178] [179] [180] [181] [182] [183] [184] [185] [186] [187] [188] [189] [190] [191] [192] [193] [194] [195] [196] [197] [198] [199] [200] [201] [202] [203] [204] [205] [206] [207] [208] [209] [210] [211] [212] [213]


Accessibility Testing

See also: Accessibility Testing

[216] [217] [218] [219] [220] [221] [222] [223] [224] [225] [226]

Assistive Technologies

[227] [228] [229] [230] [231] [232] [233] [234]

[235] [236] [237] [238] [239]


Tools

[245] [246] [247] [248] [249] [250] [251] [252] [253] [254] [255] [256] [257]

Screen Readers

Browse and focus modes: https://www.accessibility-developer-guide.com/knowledge/screen-readers/desktop/browse-focus-modes/

[263]

Voice Control


Resources

[265] [266] [267] [268] [269] [270]

[278]


[304] [305] [306] [307] [308]

[312] [313] [314] [315]

[317] [318] [319]


[320] [321] [322]

[343] [344] [345] [346] [347]


Tutorials

[348]

[349][350]

  • Integrating Accessibility Throughout Design with User-Centered Design (UCD): uiaccess.com/accessucd/background.html#ucd[351]

[352] [353] [354]

[355]

[356] [357] [358] [359] [360] [361] [362] [363] [364] [365]

Don't disable outline, master it instead!: https://websightly.net/en/tutorial/dont-disable-outline-master-it-instead/

[374]

[376] [377] [378] [379] [380] [381] [382] [383] [384] [385] [386] [387] [388] [389] [390] [391] [392] [393]

[394] [395] [396]

[401] [402] [403] [404] [405] [406] [407] [408] [409] [410]


External Links

[416] [417] [418] [419] [420]

[421] [422] [423] [424] [425] [426] [427] [428]

[430] [431] [432]

[433] [434] [435] [436]

[437] [438] [439] [440] [441] [442] [443] [444] [445] [446] [447] [448] [449] [450] [451] [452] [453] [454] [455] [456] [457]

[462] [463] [464]


References

  1. W3C working group on WCAG: http://www.w3.org/WAI/intro/wcag.php
  2. Accessibility Principles of WAI: https://www.w3.org/WAI/fundamentals/accessibility-principles/
  3. W3C -- WCAG 2.0 - Understanding Conformance: https://www.w3.org/TR/UNDERSTANDING-WCAG20/conformance.html
  4. wikipedia: Web Content Accessibility Guidelines
  5. What’s new in WCAG 2.1?: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=f5qv7AnTUHk
  6. First Public Draft of WCAG 2.2 Published: https://www.boia.org/blog/first-public-draft-of-wcag-2-2-published
  7. WCAG 2.2 Overview and Feedback: https://webaim.org/blog/wcag-2-2-overview-and-feedback/
  8. Latest Public Draft of WCAG 2.2 Features Nine New Success Criteria, Other Updates: https://www.boia.org/blog/latest-public-draft-of-wcag-2.2-features-nine-new-success-criteria-other-updates
  9. WCAG 2.2 Release Impacts 2021 Web Accessibility: https://www.essentialaccessibility.com/blog/new-wcag-22-release-impacts-2021-web-accessibility
  10. Understanding the Differences Between WCAG 2.2 and WCAG 3.0: https://www.boia.org/blog/understanding-the-differences-between-wcag-2.2-and-wcag-3.0
  11. Essential Component parts of (achieving) Web Accessibility: https://www.w3.org/WAI/fundamentals/components/
  12. W3C -- full listing of WAI-ARIA standards: https://www.w3.org/WAI/standards-guidelines/aria/
  13. wikipedia: Web Accessibility Initiative
  14. Mozilla Dev Docs -- ARIA: https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/Accessibility/ARIA
  15. Google Developers -- Introduction to ARIA: https://developers.google.com/web/fundamentals/accessibility/semantics-aria/
  16. MozDev -- Using ARIA - Roles, States & Properties: https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/Accessibility/ARIA/ARIA_Techniques
  17. WebAIM - Alternative Text guideines: https://webaim.org/techniques/alttext/
  18. Authoring Tool Accessibility Guidelines (ATAG) 2.0: http://www.w3.org/TR/ATAG20/
  19. McDonald’s Starts Making Self-Service Easier for Blind Diners: https://www.wsj.com/articles/mcdonalds-starts-making-self-service-easier-for-blind-diners-11631900280
  20. wikipedia: Section 508 Amendment to the Rehabilitation Act of 1973
  21. Information & Communication Technology (ICT) - Revised 508 Standards & 255 Guidelines: https://www.access-board.gov/ict/
  22. Guide to the ADA Accessibility Standards -- Chapter 3 - Clear Floor or Ground Space and Turning Space: https://www.access-board.gov/ada/guides/chapter-3-clear-floor-or-ground-space-and-turning-space/ | PDF
  23. ADA checklist -- SURVEY FORM 24 - MEDICAL CARE FACILITIES (includes wheelchair physical spacing requirements for turning/maneuverability): https://web.archive.org/web/20090508103508/https://www.access-board.gov/adaag/checklist/Medical.html
  24. US Census Infograph on the Commonality of Specific Disabilities: http://www.disabilityresource.org/3-us-census-infograph-on-the-commonality-of-specific-disabilities
  25. Recent U.S. Disability Statistics from the Census Bureau: https://www.disabled-world.com/disability/statistics/census-stats.php
  26. Employer Assistance and Resource Network (EARN) on "Disability Inclusion" -- Encouraging applicants with disabilities - job descriptions & announcements, employer assistance, and resource network on "Disability Inclusion": https://production-askearn-org.s3.amazonaws.com/EARN_Explainer_Job_Descriptions_Checklist_ab47437635.pdf
  27. What are "land acknowledgements" to (First Nations) and why do they matter?: https://locallove.ca/issues/what-are-land-acknowledgements-and-why-do-they-matter/
  28. Implicit Age Cues in Resumes - Subtle Effects on Hiring Discrimination: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5554369/
  29. When an “Educated” Black Man Becomes Lighter in the Mind’s Eye - Evidence for a Skin Tone Memory Bias: https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/2158244013516770#ref-32
  30. Do We Need Safe or Brave Spaces?: https://alternativebreaks.org/safe-or-brave-spaces/
  31. From Safe Spaces to Brave Spaces: https://tlss.uottawa.ca/site/perspective-autochtone/1d-_From-Safe-Spaces-to-Brave-Spaces.pdf
  32. Biden Signs Executive Order (EO) to Advance Diversity, Equity in Federal Workforce (DEIA): https://www.meritalk.com/articles/biden-signs-eo-to-advance-diversity-equity-in-federal-workforce/
  33. Americans and ‘Cancel Culture’ - Where Some See Calls for Accountability, Others See Censorship, Punishment: https://www.pewresearch.org/internet/2021/05/19/americans-and-cancel-culture-where-some-see-calls-for-accountability-others-see-censorship-punishment/
  34. 10 Best Name Pronunciation Tools: https://beebom.com/name-pronunciation-tools/ (because a name is worth pronouncing properly)
  35. New Brunswick appoints independent commissioner on systemic racism: https://www.msn.com/en-ca/news/canada/new-brunswick-appoints-independent-commissioner-on-systemic-racism/ar-AAOMEGx
  36. Swansea model with Down's syndrome, Beth Matthews, signs with agency: https://www.bbc.com/news/uk-wales-60140181
  37. Scholarship for Black students launched at King’s School of Journalism by Global News: https://globalnews.ca/news/8582893/global-news-j-school-scholarship-halifax/
  38. Content Strategists: What Do They Do?: http://contentini.com/content-strategists-what-do-they-do/
  39. Context As A Content Strategy: Creating More Meaningful Web Experiences Through Contextual Filtering: https://www.slideshare.net/danieleizans/context-as-a-content-strategy-creating-more-meaningful-web-experiences-through-contextual-filtering
  40. Complete Beginner’s Guide to Content Strategy: https://www.uxbooth.com/articles/complete-beginners-guide-to-content-strategy/
  41. The Discipline of Content Strategy: https://alistapart.com/article/thedisciplineofcontentstrategy/
  42. A Checklist for Content Work: https://alistapart.com/article/a-checklist-for-content-work/
  43. To Hell With Bad Browsers: https://alistapart.com/article/tohell/
  44. Content Strategy - The Philosophy of Data: http://boxesandarrows.com/content-strategy-the-philosophy-of-data/
  45. US Dept Justice WCAG PeaPod case: https://www.justice.gov/opa/pr/justice-department-enters-settlement-agreement-peapod-ensure-peapod-grocery-delivery-website
  46. Siteimprove FAQ -- What do you check for in PDFs?: https://files.nwesd.org/website/Accessbility/PDFChecker Info Sheet.pdf
  47. 5 key steps to a successful "Document Accessibility Program": https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/20140903163244-6856374-5-key-steps-to-a-successful-document-accessibility-program/
  48. Make your PowerPoint presentations accessible to people with disabilities: https://support.microsoft.com/en-us/office/make-your-powerpoint-presentations-accessible-to-people-with-disabilities-6f7772b2-2f33-4bd2-8ca7-dae3b2b3ef25
  49. How to Make an Accessible PowerPoint Presentation: https://business.tutsplus.com/tutorials/accessible-powerpoint-presentations--cms-30018
  50. How to Create 508 Compliant Microsoft PowerPoint Presentations: https://www.dau.edu/sites/governance-and-training/SitePages/How to Create 508 Compliant PowerPoint Presentations.aspx
  51. Creating Accessible Presentations in Microsoft PowerPoint: https://www.washington.edu/accessibility/documents/creating-accessible-presentations-in-microsoft-powerpoint/
  52. Why Accessibility in Email Marketing matters: https://www.responsemedia.com/why-accessibility-in-email-marketing-matters/
  53. Writing CSS with A11Y in mind: https://medium.com/@matuzo/writing-css-with-accessibility-in-mind-8514a0007939
  54. Writing HTML with A11Y in mind: https://medium.com/alistapart/writing-html-with-accessibility-in-mind-a62026493412
  55. Writing CSS with A11Y in mind: https://medium.com/@matuzo/writing-css-with-accessibility-in-mind-8514a0007939
  56. Writing JS with A11Y in mind: https://medium.com/@matuzo/writing-javascript-with-accessibility-in-mind-a1f6a5f467b9
  57. Improving The Color Accessibility For Color-Blind Users: https://www.smashingmagazine.com/2016/06/improving-color-accessibility-for-color-blind-users/
  58. A11Y 101 -- Reduced motion: https://a11y-101.com/development/reduced-motion
  59. MozDev -- A11Y - @media "prefers-reduced-motion": https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/CSS/@media/prefers-reduced-motion
  60. Revisiting "prefers-reduced-motion", the reduced motion media query: https://css-tricks.com/revisiting-prefers-reduced-motion-the-reduced-motion-media-query/
  61. prefers-reduced-motion -- Sometimes less movement is more: https://web.dev/prefers-reduced-motion/
  62. Short note on prefers-reduced-motion and puzzled (Windows) users: https://www.tpgi.com/short-note-on-prefers-reduced-motion-and-puzzled-windows-users/
  63. How to Insert an Animated GIF into a Word Document (and make it more Accessible with "alt" text description): https://www.howtogeek.com/718985/how-to-insert-an-animated-gif-into-a-word-document/
  64. Short note on prefers-reduced-motion and puzzled (Windows) users: https://www.tpgi.com/short-note-on-prefers-reduced-motion-and-puzzled-windows-users/
  65. New in Chrome 74 (2019-05-03) Prefers-reduced-motion media query: https://blog.logrocket.com/new-in-chrome-74-prefers-reduced-motion-media-query-50cd89d3e769/
  66. How to prevent "prefers-reduced-motion" OS setting from impacting animations on the browser (such as FF/Chrome): https://superuser.com/questions/1532014/how-to-prevent-prefers-reduced-motion-setting-from-ever-working-on-chrome
  67. CSS Working Group resolved to begin working on a spec to standardize "High Contrast" based on MS Edge's implementation story: https://twitter.com/gregwhitworth/status/1100515214355648513
  68. 86 Percent of Websites Fail this Accessibility Basic (color contrast): https://www.boia.org/blog/86-percent-of-websites-fail-this-accessibility-basic
  69. The difference between keyboard and screen reader navigation: https://tink.uk/the-difference-between-keyboard-and-screen-reader-navigation/
  70. Reading Efficiently with a Screen Reader -- JAWS - Headings: https://www.perkinselearning.org/technology/blog/reading-efficiently-screen-reader-headings
  71. Testing with Screen Readers: http://webaim.org/articles/screenreader_testing/
  72. HTML For Screen Readers - Labelling Elements: https://bitsofco.de/html-for-screen-readers-labelling-elements/
  73. Screen reader support for HTML5 sections: https://tink.uk/screen-reader-support-for-html5-sections/
  74. BBC News - Accessibility & Testing with JAWS Screen Reader (guideline): https://bbc.github.io/accessibility-news-and-you/accessibility-and-testing-with-jaws.html
  75. WebAIM - ScreenReader survey: https://webaim.org/projects/screenreadersurvey8/#used (includes OS/ScreenReader/Browser combos)
  76. Global Screen Reader Market Size Status and Forecast 2019-2025: https://www.orbismarketreports.com/global-screen-reader-market-size-status-and-forecast-2019-2025
  77. Configuring Your Machine For Testing With A Screen Reader: http://yuiblog.com/blog/2008/12/30/configuring-screen-readers/
  78. SmashingTV shows How a Screen Reader user surfs the web (WEBINAR): https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OUDV1gqs9GA | Excerpt - Léonie Watson on why semantic HTML document landmarks assist her using a screenreader
  79. Optimizing Pages for Screen Reader Accessibility: http://www.webbie.org.uk/Veli-Pekka/web_access.html
  80. Setting up a screen reader test environment: http://www.iheni.com/screen-reader-testing/
  81. Deque - Why Don’t Screen Readers Always Read What’s on the Screen? Part 1: Punctuation and Typographic Symbols: https://www.deque.com/blog/dont-screen-readers-read-whats-screen-part-1-punctuation-typographic-symbols/
  82. Should I use an aria-label or screen-reader only text?: https://accessible360.com/accessible360-blog/use-aria-label-screen-reader-text/
  83. 5 Myths About Screen Readers That Can Hurt Accessibility: https://www.boia.org/blog/5-myths-about-screen-readers-that-can-hurt-accessibility
  84. Keyboard-based navigation compatibility (even on mobile): https://a11y-guidelines.orange.com/en/web/develop/keyboard-navigation/
  85. WCAG 2.1 -- Understanding Success Criterion 2.4.3 - Focus Order: https://www.w3.org/WAI/WCAG21/Understanding/focus-order.html#examples
  86. Keyboard-Only Navigation for Improved Accessibility: https://www.nngroup.com/articles/keyboard-accessibility/
  87. US government -- Social Security Administration (SSA) - Use the Keyboard to Navigate Screens: https://www.ssa.gov/accessibility/keyboard_nav.html
  88. Give Yourself an Accessibility Test - Don't Use a Mouse: https://www.boia.org/blog/give-yourself-an-accessibility-test-dont-use-a-mouse
  89. How to Test Touch Target Size (buttons, links, …) to Meet UX & Accessibility Standards in 4 Steps: https://medium.com/sketch-app-sources/how-to-test-touch-target-size-buttons-links-to-meet-ux-accessibility-standards-in-4-steps-f1efead7590
  90. Hand tremors and the giant-button-problem: https://axesslab.com/hand-tremors/
  91. Focus Trapping for Accessibility (A11Y) - NOTE: this is a dangerous double-edged sword so use carefully: https://medium.com/@im_rahul/focus-trapping-looping-b3ee658e5177
  92. Focus Trapping - Trap focus inside an element: https://dev.to/r3l_k3r/focus-trappinglooping-for-keyboard-navigation-l6m
  93. Perfecto -- Automated Mobile Accessibility Tseting: https://www.perfecto.io/blog/automated-accessibility-testing
  94. Experitest -- How to incorporate Accessibility into Mobile App Testing: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=d3HpCKNv8Ew
  95. Building apps for everyone; why inclusivity & accessibility truly matter: https://appsgamesinsights.libsyn.com/building-apps-for-everyone-why-inclusivity-and-accessibility-truly-matter-episode-6
  96. Flutter -- a11y & i18n: https://docs.flutter.dev/development/accessibility-and-localization/accessibility
  97. HP Notebook PCs - Using the Touchpad, Pointer, and Keyboard in Mobile Internet Experience: https://support.hp.com/us-en/document/c01633349
  98. Getting Started with Touchscreen UIs in Java Platform, Micro Edition (JME, on legacy Mobile devices or tiny screens): https://www.oracle.com/technical-resources/articles/javame/touchscreen-ui.html
  99. How to detect touch screen device using CSS?: https://www.geeksforgeeks.org/how-to-detect-touch-screen-device-using-css/
  100. Extendable Pointer Presenter Whiteboard PPT Point Stick Touch Screen Pen: https://www.walmart.com/ip/Extendable-Pointer-Presenter-Whiteboard-PPT-Point-Stick-Touch-Screen-Pen/710925497
  101. Staples Slim Stylus Pen - Black: https://www.staples.ca/products/2618968-en-staples-slim-stylus-pen-black
  102. Telescopic Teachers Pointer (Extendable/Retractable Presenter Classroom Whiteboard Pointer): https://www.amazon.ca/Telescopic-Extendable-Retractable-Presenter-Whiteboard/dp/B07K5W2DTZ/
  103. WebAIM - Alternative Text: https://webaim.org/techniques/alttext/
  104. How Do I Know If an Image Needs "Alt Text"?: https://www.boia.org/blog/how-do-i-know-if-an-image-needs-alt-text
  105. Overlay Fact Sheet: https://overlayfactsheet.com
  106. Why Accessibility Overlay Solutions Fail to Protect or Serve: https://www.accessibility.works/blog/avoid-accessibility-overlay-tools-toolbar-plugins/
  107. The Many Pitfalls of Accessibility Overlays: https://www.essentialaccessibility.com/blog/the-many-pitfalls-of-accessibility-overlays
  108. Honor the ADA - Avoid Web Accessibility Quick-Fix Overlays: https://www.lflegal.com/2020/08/quick-fix/
  109. Are ADA Overlays a Liability? Here’s What Accessibility Experts Had to Say: https://216digital.com/ada-website-overlays/
  110. The Problem with Not Making Websites Accessible by Default: https://www.boia.org/blog/the-problem-with-not-making-websites-accessible-by-default
  111. Why Accessibility Overlays On Your Website Can Make Things Worse: https://www.boia.org/blog/why-accessibility-overlays-on-your-website-can-make-things-worse
  112. US Supreme Court verdict -- Sole reliance on accessiBe will not be sufficient in ensuring full and equal access to a website (Exhibit A For 21-cv-00017, 2020-11-01): https://www.scribd.com/document/490740167/Exhibit-A-for-21-cv-00017
  113. People With Disabilities Say This AcessiBe "AI A11Y Tool" Is Making the Web Worse for Them: https://www.vice.com/en/article/m7az74/people-with-disabilities-say-this-ai-tool-is-making-the-web-worse-for-them
  114. This Company Tapped AccessiBe and its "Overlay + AI" solution for Its Website — and Landed in Court for its troubles: https://www.wired.com/story/company-tapped-ai-website-landed-court/
  115. Amazon Class Action Lawsuit Says Website Not Accessible to the Blind: https://topclassactions.com/lawsuit-settlements/lawsuit-news/amazon-class-action-lawsuit-says-website-not-accessible-blind/
  116. NAD v. Netflix ADA Lawsuit Requires Captioning for Streaming Video: https://www.3playmedia.com/blog/nad-v-netflix-ada-lawsuit-requires-closed-captioning-on-streaming-video/
  117. NAD Calls Out Netflix on “Deaf Tax”: https://www.nad.org/2010/12/17/nad-calls-out-netflix-on-deaf-tax/
  118. Disability History, Part 4: NAD v. Netflix -- A lawsuit that shook the internet: https://listenuptodisabilities.com/2021/04/25/disability-history-part-4-nad-v-netflix/
  119. NAD Files Disability Civil Rights Lawsuit Against Netflix: https://www.disabled-world.com/communication/broadcasts/netflix.php
  120. NAD Files Disability Civil Rights Lawsuit against Netflix: https://www.nad.org/2011/06/16/nad-files-disability-civil-rights-lawsuit-against-netflix/
  121. NAD v. Netflix: https://dredf.org/legal-advocacy/nad-v-netflix/
  122. Court finds Domino’s Pizza Violated the ADA by Having an Inaccessible Website and Orders WCAG Compliance: https://www.adatitleiii.com/2021/06/court-finds-dominos-pizza-violated-the-ada-by-having-an-inaccessible-website-and-orders-wcag-compliance/
  123. Burger King Class Action Says Fast Food Chain’s Website Violates ADA : https://topclassactions.com/lawsuit-settlements/lawsuit-news/burger-king-class-action-says-fast-food-chains-website-violates-ada/
  124. : https://topclassactions.com/lawsuit-settlements/lawsuit-news/831860-burger-king-class-action-says-fast-food-chains-website-violates-ada/
  125. Domino's A11Y case: http://cdn.ca9.uscourts.gov/datastore/opinions/2019/01/15/17-55504.pdf
  126. Court Says Domino’s Pizza Website Must Be Accessible to the Blind" https://www.courthousenews.com/court-says-dominos-pizza-website-must-be-accessible-to-the-blind/
  127. Accessibility, the future, and why Domino’s matters: https://arstechnica.com/tech-policy/2019/10/accessibility-the-future-and-why-dominos-matters/
  128. Domino's Website Violated Americans With Disabilities Act, Judge Finds: https://www.mediapost.com/publications/article/364699/dominos-website-violated-americans-with-disabilit.html
  129. Domino’s accessibility lawsuit update: https://sheribyrnehaber.medium.com/dominos-accessibility-lawsuit-update-a66e7e592eab
  130. Lexis-Nexus legal news -- Domino’s, Blind Patron Settle ADA, Website Accessibility Suit: https://www.lexislegalnews.com/mealeys-cyber-tech-e-commerce/articles/69324?nl_pk=741a37e7-1565-473f-baaa-0984144b9f07
  131. California Federal Court Holds Domino’s Website Violates the ADA, Limits Penalties Under Unruh Act to $4,000 : https://www.bclplaw.com/en-US/insights/california-federal-court-holds-dominos-website-violates-the-ada-limits-penalties-under-unruh-act-to-dollar4000.html
  132. Federal Website Access Lawsuit Numbers Increase 7 Percent in 2019, With Possible Bump from Supreme Court Denial of Cert in Domino’s: https://www.adatitleiii.com/2019/11/federal-website-access-lawsuit-numbers-increase-7-percent-in-2019-with-possible-bump-from-supreme-court-denial-of-cert-in-dominos/
  133. The Impact of the Robles V. Domino’s Pizza Lawsuit on Hearing-Impaired Community: https://cielo24.com/2019/11/domino-v-robles-lawsuit-accessibility/
  134. How your small business website can get you sued : https://www.inquirer.com/business/small-business-website-sued-suits-ada-20200211.html
  135. What does the Domino’s ADA case mean for small-medium-businesses: https://accessibe.com/blog/trends/what-does-the-dominos-ada-case-mean-for-small-medium-businesses
  136. Blind man sued Domino's over its website. Here's what the Supreme Court had to say: https://mashable.com/article/supreme-court-reject-dominos-inaccessible-website
  137. Supreme Court hands victory to blind man who sued Domino’s over site accessibility: https://www.cnbc.com/2019/10/07/dominos-supreme-court.html
  138. Another Big Win in the Domino’s Pizza Accessibility Saga: https://www.lflegal.com/2021/06/dominos-june-2021/
  139. Gil .vs. Winn-Dixie -- D.C. Docket No. 1:16-cv-23020-RNS: https://media.ca11.uscourts.gov/opinions/pub/files/201713467.pdf
  140. D.C. Docket No. 1:16-cv-23020-RNS: https://www.employmentlawspotlight.com/wp-content/uploads/sites/18/2021/04/ADA.pdf
  141. Judge Holds Winn-Dixie Supermarket’s Website Violates the ADA: https://www.courthousenews.com/judge-holds-winn-dixie-supermarkets-website-violates-ada/
  142. Court rules grocery store’s inaccessible website isn’t an ADA violation: https://arstechnica.com/tech-policy/2021/04/appeals-court-rules-stores-dont-need-to-make-their-websites-accessible/
  143. Eleventh Circuit Holds Websites Are Not Places of Public Accommodation and Rejects Commonly Relied-Upon Nexus Standard: https://www.jdsupra.com/legalnews/eleventh-circuit-holds-websites-are-not-1083843/
  144. Conair Website For CuisinArt Is Sued For Excluding Visual Impaired: http://www.innercitypress.com/sdny36steincuisineartwebicp120920.html
  145. $2.25 Million Fund Available in Justice Department Settlement with Amtrak: https://www.justice.gov/opa/pr/225-million-fund-available-justice-department-settlement-amtrak
  146. Amtrak Settles ADA Claims For Stations in Connecticut and Rhode Island: https://ctexaminer.com/2021/01/29/amtrak-settles-ada-claims-for-stations-in-connecticut-and-rhode-island/
  147. The NAD and Hulu Reach Agreement: https://www.nad.org/2016/09/06/the-nad-and-hulu-reach-agreement/
  148. Robinhood Sued in Class Action, Alleging Website Inaccessibility and Discrimination Against Blind Users: https://www.fredlaw.com/news__media/robinhood-sued-in-class-action-alleging-website-inaccessibility-and-discrimination-against-blind-users/
  149. FCC Settles Accessibility Rules Violation With Pluto, ViacomCBS: https://news.bloomberglaw.com/tech-and-telecom-law/fcc-settles-accessibility-rules-violation-with-pluto-viacomcbs
  150. Pluto & ViacomCBS Will Pay $3.5M for Violation of Accessibility Rules: https://www.fcc.gov/document/pluto-viacomcbs-will-pay-35m-violation-accessibility-rules
  151. ViacomCBS and Pluto TV Fined $3.5 Million by FCC for Violating Closed-Caption Rules: https://variety.com/2021/digital/news/pluto-tv-fcc-closed-captioning-rules-1235077364/
  152. WWE Settles Legal Dispute on Accessibility for Blind & Visually Impaired for Online Shop: https://411mania.com/wrestling/wwe-settles-legal-dispute-online-website-blind-ada/
  153. WWE Settles Lawsuit Over Shop Website: https://www.wrestlinginc.com/news/2020/12/wwe-settles-lawsuit-over-shop-website-677800/
  154. Screen access technology has existed for decades': Visually impaired man sues Dell over 'inaccessible' website: https://www.theregister.com/2021/03/05/giannaros_v_dell/
  155. Apple Store accessibility lawsuit (Robert Shaw vs. Apple): https://blog.fawny.org/2020/02/20/shawvapple/
  156. Mendez v. Apple Inc.: https://www.pacermonitor.com/public/case/25398561/Mendez_v_Apple_Inc
  157. Apple sued over claims website is inaccessible to visually impaired users: https://appleinsider.com/articles/18/08/20/apple-sued-over-claims-website-is-inaccessible-to-visually-impaired-users
  158. The Apple Park Visitor's Center is a demonstration of an accessible building when cost is no object. 1/?: https://threadreaderapp.com/thread/967652885604450305.html
  159. Court Denies Uber’s Motion to Dismiss ADA Discrimination Complaint: https://lawstreetmedia.com/news/tech/court-denies-ubers-motion-to-dismiss-ada-discrimination-complaint/
  160. Justice Department Sues Uber for Overcharging People with Disabilities: https://www.justice.gov/opa/pr/justice-department-sues-uber-overcharging-people-disabilities
  161. An Uber fee unfairly impacts riders with disabilities, a DOJ lawsuit says: https://www.npr.org/2021/11/10/1054407560/justice-department-uber-wait-time-riders-disabilities
  162. Justice Department Sues Uber Over Charging Wait-Time Fees for Disabled People: https://www.wsj.com/articles/justice-department-sues-uber-over-charging-wait-times-fees-for-physically-disabled-people-11636570208
  163. Uber manager sobs on stand during trial over wheelchair accessibility: https://www.courthousenews.com/uber-manager-sobs-on-stand-during-trial-over-wheelchair-accessibility/
  164. What You Should Know About the Beyoncé Website Accessibility Lawsuit: https://www.diacedesigns.com/beyonce-website-accessibility-lawsuit/
  165. Beyonce's Website the Focus of an Accessibility Lawsuit: https://www.boia.org/blog/beyonces-website-the-focus-of-an-accessibility-lawsuit
  166. 2021 Website Accessibility Lawsuit Recap (REPORT): https://f.hubspotusercontent30.net/hubfs/6576634/2021 Accessibility Lawsuit Complete Report.pdf
  167. September 2021 recap - A11Y Lawsuits landscape: https://www.accessibility.com/digital-lawsuits/recap/september-2021
  168. 2020 Full Year Report Digital Accessibility Lawsuits: https://info.usablenet.com/2020-report-on-digital-accessibility-lawsuits
  169. Digital Accessibility Year in Review -- 2019: https://www.boia.org/blog/digital-accessibility-year-in-review-2019
  170. 2018 ADA Web Accessibility Lawsuit Recap Report: https://blog.usablenet.com/2018-ada-web-accessibility-lawsuit-recap-report
  171. Recent Web Accessibility Lawsuits: http://www.webaxe.org/recent-web-accessibility-lawsuits/
  172. Are you next? Trends in Digital Accessibility Lawsuits: https://www.accessibility.com/event/2022/trends-in-digital-accessibility-lawsuits
  173. Overview of the Financial Penalties of AODA Non-Compliance (in Canada): https://www.boia.org/blog/overview-of-the-financial-penalties-of-aoda-non-compliance
  174. US House Bill H.R.8478 Could Finally Offer Businesses Clarity on Web Accessibility: https://builtin.com/operations/web-accessibility-ADA-compliance
  175. Now Is the Time to Make Your Entire Sales Funnel Accessible: https://www.boia.org/blog/now-is-the-time-to-make-your-entire-sales-funnel-accessible
  176. Brands Are Losing Billions by Not Being Digitally Accessible: https://www.boia.org/blog/brands-are-losing-billions-by-not-being-digitally-accessible
  177. Looking Ahead to Potential Developments in Online Accessibility Law: https://www.natlawreview.com/article/looking-ahead-to-potential-developments-online-accessibility-law
  178. Practice website accessibility (or get ready to practice law) -- A new wave of AwDA litigation: https://www.cda.org/Home/News-and-Events/Newsroom/Article-Details/practice-website-accessibility-a-new-wave-of-awda-litigation
  179. A11Y Attorneys' opinion statement -- DOJ's years-long delay on regulations hurting companies facing disabilities lawsuits over their websites: https://legalnewsline.com/stories/510698224-attorneys-doj-s-years-long-delay-on-regulations-hurting-companies-facing-disabilities-lawsuits-over-their-websites
  180. Fact Sheet -- Class Actions Are Critical to Remedy Disability Discrimination: http://centerjd.org/content/fact-sheet-class-actions-are-critical-remedy-disability-discrimination
  181. Lawsuits Over Digital Accessibility for People With Disabilities Are Rising: https://www.wsj.com/articles/lawsuits-over-digital-accessibility-for-people-with-disabilities-are-rising-11626369056
  182. Equality Act Could Undermine Business Defendants In Web Access Suits: https://www.cato.org/blog/equality-act-would-spell-defeat-businesses-publishers-web-accessibility-debate
  183. New York District Court Issues Important Opinion on the Inapplicability of Title III of the ADA to Consumer-Facing Websites: https://www.blankrome.com/publications/new-york-district-court-issues-important-opinion-inapplicability-title-iii-ada
  184. NY State Court -- Title III legal position statement: https://www.blankrome.com/sites/default/files/2021-11/computerinternetlawyer_-_novdec2021_-_blankromellp.pdf (meant to take some "bite" out of frivolous Digital Accessibility lawsuits)
  185. ADP Settlement Offers Framework for Future Digital-Accessibility Agreements: https://www.wsj.com/articles/adp-settlement-offers-framework-for-future-digital-accessibility-agreements-11642699462
  186. Digital Accessibility Takes Center Stage in ADA Lawsuit: https://www.law.com/nationallawjournal/2022/01/14/11th-circuits-ada-reversal-curbed-florida-litigation-in-2021-but-digital-accessibility-suits-are-here-to-stay-398-82063/?slreturn=20220101154317
  187. The Importance of Having a Letter of "Reasonable Accessibility" to show intent: https://www.boia.org/blog/the-importance-of-having-a-letter-of-reasonable-accessibility
  188. Accessibility in the News, Legal Edition - Updates on ADA Title III News and More: https://www.microassist.com/digital-accessibility/accessibility-news-legal/
  189. Federal Courts Disagree Over Accessibility Online: https://www.theregreview.org/2021/06/16/mcdonough-federal-courts-disagree-accessibility-online/
  190. Web Accessibility Lawsuits dramatically rose in 2021... here’s why: https://www.boia.org/blog/web-accessibility-lawsuits-dramatically-rose-in-2021.-heres-why
  191. Florida Courts Rule ADA Covers Websites With Nexus To Physical Store: https://www.adatitleiii.com/2017/04/florida-courts-rule-ada-covers-websites-with-nexus-to-physical-store/
  192. Builders, Architects, Owners of 5 NC Housing Complexes Settle Discrimination Cases; Agree to Make $1.3 million in Accessibility Modifications: https://www.fairhousingnc.org/2020/builders-architects-owners-of-5-nc-housing-complexes-settle-discrimination-cases-agree-to-make-1-3-million-in-accessibility-modifications/
  193. Strategies for Defending ADA Accessibility “Tester” Lawsuits: http://www.jaburgwilk.com/news-publications/strategies-for-defending-ada-accessibility-lawsuits
  194. The State of Website Accessibility, Serial-plaintiffs, & the lack of new ADA Legislation: https://www.oomphinc.com/notes/2019/06/the-state-of-website-accessibility-2019/
  195. The Real Reason Local Governments are Facing More ADA Non-Compliance Fines: https://www.civicplus.com/blog/ce/local-governments-facing-ada-accessibility-fines
  196. Five Things Every Lawyer Needs to Know About Digital Accessibility: https://www.lawtechnologytoday.org/2018/06/digital-accessibility/
  197. Why Are More Digital Accessibility Suits Being Filed as Class Actions (And What Does It Mean?): https://www.lexology.com/library/detail.aspx?g=dbfb2323-2b58-400e-b39c-d7ef6107bff6
  198. ADA Lawsuits Are on the Rise, Website Complaints Biggest Targets: https://www.law.com/legaltechnews/2019/01/24/ada-lawsuits-are-on-the-rise-website-complaints-biggest-targets/
  199. How To Prevent a Web Accessibility Lawsuit: https://www.boia.org/blog/how-to-prevent-a-web-accessibility-lawsuit
  200. ElementsCasino -- ACCESSIBILITY POLICY: http://www.elementscasinoflamboro.com/accessibility/
  201. Rideau Carleton Raceway Casino -- Accessibility Statement: https://www.rideaucarletoncasino.com/accessibility.htm
  202. LA Times -- Lawsuits targeting business websites over ADA violations are on the rise (Hotels, Restaurants, Entertainment destinations & Government websites targeted by lawsuits): https://www.latimes.com/business/la-fi-hotels-ada-compliance-20181111-story.html
  203. “Worldwide Web Accessibility - cases from the USA”: http://www.clickawaypound.com/bgarticle1.html
  204. New York State Division of Human Rights announces settlements of accessibility complaints against Redbox, Coinstar, ecoATM: https://www.wnypapers.com/news/article/current/2021/05/26/146782/new-york-state-division-of-human-rights-announces-settlements-of-accessibility-complaints-against-redbox-coinstar-ecoatm
  205. Lawsuit Provides Blind Individuals with Access to New York State’s Emergency Mass Notification System: https://www.legalreader.com/lawsuit-provides-blind-individuals-with-access-to-new-york-states-emergency-mass-notification-system/
  206. Judge Approves ADA Class Action Settlement Against Eyewear Company Over Website's Lack of Visibility: https://www.law.com/thelegalintelligencer/2021/10/07/judge-approves-ada-class-action-settlement-against-eyewear-company-over-websites-lack-of-visibility/
  207. CBD firms facing lawsuits over website accessibility: https://hempindustrydaily.com/cbd-firms-facing-lawsuits-over-website-accessibility/
  208. Appellate Court Finds Websites Not Covered Under ADA, Sets Up Circuit Split: https://bankingjournal.aba.com/2021/04/appellate-court-finds-websites-not-covered-under-ada-sets-up-circuit-split/
  209. 10 awesome companies you didn’t know were sued for ADA website compliance: https://augustafreepress.com/ten-awesome-companies-you-didnt-know-were-sued-for-ada-website-compliance/
  210. Title III Lawsuits - 10 Big Companies Sued Over Website Accessibility: https://www.essentialaccessibility.com/blog/title-iii-lawsuits-10-big-companies-sued-over-website-accessibility
  211. 4 Healthcare Companies Sued Over ADA Website Compliance (and Why it Matters!): https://healthcareweekly.com/ada-compliance-healthcare-websites/
  212. Roadmap to Web Accessibility in Higher Education: https://www.3playmedia.com/blog/white-paper-roadmap-web-accessibility-in-higher-education/
  213. Is Your WordPress Site an Accessibility Lawsuit Waiting to Happen?: https://mediatemple.net/blog/web-development-tech/is-your-wordpress-site-an-accessibility-lawsuit-waiting-to-happen/
  214. 5 things I learned about web accessibility by testing a screen reader: https://yellowpencil.com/articles/things-learned-about-accessibility-using-screen-reader/
  215. Experitest’s Web and Mobile Accessibility Testing Explained in Full: https://experitest.com/mobile-app-testing/experitests-web-and-mobile-accessibility-testing-explained-in-full/
  216. Why Automated Web Accessibility Testing Tools Aren’t Enough: https://www.essentialaccessibility.com/blog/automated-accessibility-testing-tools-how-much-do-scans-catch
  217. Performing an accessibility self-audit: https://www.dundee.ac.uk/guides/performing-accessibility-self-audit
  218. Working Together - People with Disabilities and Computer Technology: https://www.washington.edu/doit/working-together-people-disabilities-and-computer-technology
  219. 12 Facts And Figures About Having A Disability In Canada: https://www.cbc.ca/strombo/news/by-the-numbers-international-day-of-persons-with-disabilities
  220. Is The “Accessible Icon” Wheelchair Logo Due For A Redesign?: https://www.cbc.ca/strombo/news/is-the-accessible-icon-wheelchair-logo-due-for-a-redesign.html
  221. How to Effectively Support Employees With Disabilities: https://www.healthworkscollective.com/how-to-effectively-support-employees-with-disabilities/ | Example of alternative mouse for A11Y needs
  222. How can screen readers be used in Accessibility Testing?: https://www.tpgi.com/screen-readers-accessibility-testing/
  223. Top 20 Accessibility Testing Tools for Web Applications: https://www.softwaretestinghelp.com/accessibility-testing-tools/
  224. UsabelNet offers "A11Y User Testing" with members of the Disability Community: https://info.usablenet.com/digital-accessibility-support-services/user-testing
  225. 10 Accessible Web Design Examples to Model Your Site After: https://blog.usablenet.com/accessible-web-design-examples-to-model-your-site-after
  226. The Ultimate Guide to Achieving Website ADA Compliance: https://www.digitalauthority.me/resources/ada-compliance-website/
  227. Assistive Technology intro (WEBINAR): https://monsido.com/services/webinars?utm_source=pardot&utm_medium=email&utm_content=recording&utm_campaign=MAR9-Webinar&wchannelid=qoc8k846tm&wmediaid=n66od6tthz | SLIDES
  228. Assistive Technology for Visually Impaired -- Making a Difference: https://verbit.ai/assistive-technology-for-visually-impaired/
  229. Assistive Technology for Visually Impaired Individuals - What to Choose and How: https://esighteyewear.com/assistive-technology-visually-impaired/
  230. Refreshable Braille Displays: https://www.afb.org/node/16207/refreshable-braille-displays
  231. Braille Alphabet & Numbers: https://www.wonderbaby.org/sites/wonderbaby2.perkinsdev1.org/files/braille-letters-numbers.pdf
  232. DIY ‘smart’ white cane works like a self-driving car: https://www.futurity.org/blindness-white-cane-smart-technology-robotics-2643062/
  233. Multimodal sensing and intuitive steering assistance improve navigation and mobility for people with impaired vision: https://www.science.org/doi/10.1126/scirobotics.abg6594
  234. Engineers 3D-Print Personalized, Wireless Wearables That Never Need a Charge: https://news.arizona.edu/story/engineers-3d-print-personalized-wireless-wearables-never-need-charge
  235. Mobile assistive technologies for the visually impaired: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24054999/
  236. 10 Free Screen Readers For Blind Or Visually Impaired Users: https://medium.com/usabilitygeek/10-free-screen-readers-for-blind-or-visually-impaired-users-45a45c757617
  237. 6 best screen readers for the blind or visually impaired people: https://tecoreviews.com/reviews/6-best-screen-readers-for-the-blind-or-visually-impaired-people/
  238. Assistive Technology for Visually Impaired and Blind People: https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/bfm%3A978-1-84628-867-8/1.pdf
  239. Sensor-Based Assistive Devices for Visually-Impaired People: Current Status, Challenges, and Future Directions: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5375851/
  240. Old Cynthia URL: http://www.contentquality.com/mynewtester/cynthia.exe?rptmode=1&url1=https://www.alc.ca | Cynthia - Section 508 checker
  241. Android Accessibility scanner guide: https://support.google.com/accessibility/android/faq/6376582
  242. How to use PA11Y: https://bitsofco.de/pa11y/
  243. Microsoft -- Supplier Accessibility toolkit: https://www.microsoft.com/en-us/accessibility/supplier-toolkit-resources
  244. Colorblind Web Page Filter: http://www.color-blindness.com/2006/04/10/colorblind-web-page-filter/
  245. HTML CodeSniffer - A11Y bookmarklet: http://squizlabs.github.io/HTML_CodeSniffer/
  246. Automated Accessibility Testing Tool (AATT): https://github.com/paypal/AATT (free service from PayPal that wraps HTML CodeSniffer & Axe with hooks to SeLion, Nemo, Nightwatch)
  247. PA11Y: https://pa11y.org/
  248. TPGi -- Website Accessibility Scan: https://www.tpgi.com/free-website-accessibility-scan/
  249. JavaScript Bookmarklets for Accessibility Testing: https://pauljadam.com/bookmarklets/
  250. CKEditor -- Accessibility Checker: https://ckeditor.com/ckeditor-4/accessibility-checker/
  251. PowerMapper - SortSite: https://www.powermapper.com/products/sortsite/
  252. Tenon - Accessibility as a Service: https://tenon.io
  253. CommonLook: https://commonlook.com/accessibility-software/pdf/ (best "PDF document" A11Y scanning)
  254. 5 Website Accessibility Checkers You Need Today: https://www.mediacurrent.com/blog/5-website-accessibility-checkers/
  255. Top 25 Awesome Accessibility Testing Tools for Websites: https://dynomapper.com/blog/27-accessibility-testing/246-top-25-awesome-accessibility-testing-tools-for-websites
  256. What are the best and free tools to perform Web accessibility testing?: https://www.quora.com/What-are-the-best-and-free-tools-to-perform-Web-accessibility-testing
  257. Website Accessibility Software Market is Booming Worldwide By Top Emerging Key Players -- Google, Siteimprove, DYNO Mapper, Deque, BoIA, Crownpeak, Level Access, DubBot, Monsido, Silktide: https://weeklywall.com/website-accessibility-software-market-is-booming-worldwide-by-top-emerging-key-playersgoogle-siteimprove-dyno-mapper-deque-boia-crownpeak-level-access-dubbot-monsido-silktide/
  258. wikipedia: JAWS (screen_reader)
  259. NVDA -- Keyboard Commands - Quick Reference Guide: https://dequeuniversity.com/assets/pdf/screenreaders/nvda.pdf
  260. Quick Reference Guide -- NVDA for Windows Keyboard Commands: https://dequeuniversity.com/assets/pdf/screenreaders/nvda-guide.pdf
  261. Quick Reference Guide -- NVDA Keyboard Commands: https://dequeuniversity.com/assets/pdf/screenreaders/screen-reader-nvda.pdf
  262. VoiceOver - Vision: http://www.apple.com/accessibility/macosx/vision.html
  263. 10 Free Screen Readers For Blind Or Visually Impaired Users: https://usabilitygeek.com/10-free-screen-reader-blind-visually-impaired-users/
  264. DARE Index 2020 - Top Performing Countries: https://g3ict.org/publication/dare-index-2020-top-performing-countries
  265. Global Accessibility Awareness Day (GAAD): https://globalaccessibilityawarenessday.org/ (3rd Thu. in May)
  266. CHALLENGE -- Accessibility know-how needs to go mainstream with developers - NOW: https://mysqltalk.wordpress.com/2011/11/27/challenge-accessibility-know-how-needs-to-go-mainstream-with-developers-now/
  267. Deque -- GAAD 2021 - Basic Accessibility Fundamentals bootcamp: https://accessibility.deque.com/thanks-for-signing-up-gaad-bootcamp
  268. Deque -- GAAD 2021 Workshop - Translating Design Wireframes into Accessible HTML/CSS: https://accessibility.deque.com/thanks-for-signing-up-wireframes-workshop
  269. UC San Diego -- GAAD 2021- Global Accessibility Awareness Fair 2021: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jjFngHfx__A (walkthrough of Screen Reader usage and blockers starts 39:05)
  270. T12t meetup - accessibility mindset at your workplace - GAAD 2021: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2pQA50oGrJU | GAAD 2021 discussions
  271. World Health Organization(WHO) -- International Day of Persons with Disabilities 2020 - A Day for All: https://www.who.int/campaigns/international-day-of-persons-with-disabilities/2020
  272. United Nations (UN) - International Day of Persons with Disabilities: https://www.un.org/en/observances/day-of-persons-with-disabilities
  273. How GAAD Started: https://globalaccessibilityawarenessday.org/about/
  274. Disability Rights after Amsterdam - the way forward: https://disability-studies.leeds.ac.uk/wp-content/uploads/sites/40/library/richard-whittle-Disability-Rights-after-Amsterdam.pdf
  275. World Health Organization (WHO) - "world report on disability" (2011): https://www.who.int/disabilities/world_report/2011/report.pdf
  276. 15% worldwide have physical or mental disability: https://www.cbsnews.com/news/15-worldwide-have-physical-or-mental-disability/
  277. Dawkins is wrong – grossly wrong – about Down’s syndrome: https://www.tortoisemedia.com/2021/06/01/dawkins-is-wrong-grossly-wrong-about-downs-syndrome/
  278. What is the European Union’s Web Accessibility Directive?: https://www.boia.org/blog/what-is-the-european-unions-web-accessibility-directive-1
  279. Guidance on Web Accessibility and the ADA: https://beta.ada.gov/web-guidance/
  280. Make 2020 the year your company stops waiting for an Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) letter/lawsuit to take action on A11Y: https://www.boia.org/blog/waiting-for-ada-demand-letter-to-take-accessibility-seriously
  281. ADA Best Practices Tool Kit for State/Local Governments -- Chapter 6 - Curb Ramps & Pedestrian Crossings (Title II of ADA): https://www.ada.gov/pcatoolkit/chap6toolkit.htm
  282. Auditing Your Website for Accessibility Compliance and Understanding How ADA Applies: https://cynthiang.ca/2018/08/16/presentation-auditing-your-website-for-accessibility-compliance-and-understanding-how-ada-applies/
  283. Congress Did Not Pass ADA Amendment Clarifying Web Accessibility Standards: https://www.boia.org/blog/congress-did-not-pass-ada-amendment-clarifying-web-accessibility-standards
  284. White House Embraces WCAG with Accessibility Updates: https://www.boia.org/blog/white-house-embraces-wcag-with-accessibility-updates (Dark mode, Font size options, more Spanish support, Inclusivity features)
  285. Centers for Disease Control and prevention (CDC) -- Disability Impacts All of Us (INFOGRAPHIC): https://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/disabilityandhealth/infographic-disability-impacts-all.html
  286. Act on the Elimination of Disability Discrimination in Japan: https://inclusion-international.org/act-on-the-elimination-of-disability-discrimination-in-japan/
  287. New law bans bias against people with disabilities, but shortcomings exist, say experts: https://www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2016/05/02/reference/new-law-bans-bias-against-people-with-disabilities-but-shortcomings-exist-say-experts/#.Xb8Dz5JKg0o
  288. Disabled train passengers left disconnected in age of digital smart card use: https://japantoday.com/category/national/feature-disabled-passengers-left-disconnected-in-age-of-digital-smart-card-use
  289. Japan's older population hits record high: https://www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2021/09/20/national/japans-older-population-hits-record-high/
  290. An Overview of Canada’s Accessibility Laws - A Look at the Old and the New: https://www.essentialaccessibility.com/blog/canadian-accessibility-laws/
  291. Summary of the Accessible Canada Act: https://www.canada.ca/en/employment-social-development/programs/accessible-people-disabilities/act-summary.html#section3-9
  292. Accessible Canada Act (INFOGRAPHICS) - Making an accessible Canada for persons with disabilities: https://www.canada.ca/en/employment-social-development/programs/accessible-canada.html
  293. Government of Canada announces appointments to the Canadian Accessibility Standards Development Organization: https://www.canada.ca/en/employment-social-development/news/2019/08/government-of-canada-announces-appointments-to-the-canadian-accessibility-standards-development-organization.html
  294. Accessibility in the (Canadian) public service: https://www.canada.ca/en/government/publicservice/wellness-inclusion-diversity-public-service/diversity-inclusion-public-service/accessibility-public-service.html
  295. TTC -- 2020 Accessibility Plan Status Update: http://ttc.ca/About_the_TTC/Commission_reports_and_information/Commission_meetings/2020/July_14/Reports/6_2020_Accessibility_Plan_Status_Update.pdf
  296. People with disabilities around B.C. to benefit from new accessibility programs: https://news.gov.bc.ca/releases/2017SDPR0062-001760
  297. High-Speed Access for All: Canada's Connectivity Strategy: https://www.ic.gc.ca/eic/site/139.nsf/eng/h_00002.html
  298. Rollout of RHFAC continues cross-Canada: https://www.reminetwork.com/articles/rollout-rhfac-continues-cross-canada/
  299. Best provinces for accessibility in Canada: https://www.zolo.ca/blog/best-provinces-accessibility
  300. Blind New Brunswickers hopeful legislature bill offering free transit fares gets passed: https://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/new-brunswick/blind-new-brunswick-free-transit-bill-1.6382535
  301. A Complete Overview of Canada’s Accessibility Laws: https://siteimprove.com/en-ca/blog/a-complete-overview-of-canada-s-accessibility-laws/
  302. Minister Bains announces Canada’s Digital Charter: https://www.canada.ca/en/innovation-science-economic-development/news/2019/05/minister-bains-announces-canadas-digital-charter.html (Charter’s 10 principles will build a foundation of trust for Canadians in the digital sphere)
  303. wikipedia: CNIB Foundation
  304. Accessibility for Ontarians with Disabilities Act (AODA) compliance -- A Primer on Canadian Web Accessibility Standards: https://www.3playmedia.com/2016/06/03/aoda-compliance-a-primer-on-canadian-accessibility-standards/
  305. eSSENTIAL Accessibility -- AODA Frequently Asked Questions: https://www.essentialaccessibility.com/blog/faqs-about-aoda
  306. New Accessibility Requirements Fast Approaching Under AODA: https://www.mondaq.com/canada/discrimination-disability-sexual-harassment/986958/new-accessibility-requirements-fast-approaching-under-aoda
  307. Government accessibility standards and WCAG 2 by country:https://www.powermapper.com/blog/government-accessibility-standards/
  308. About the HTML Epidemic, WebAIM “Million” Report, and Teach Access: http://www.webaxe.org/html-epidemic-webaim-millions-report-teach-access/
  309. WCAG 2.1 -- UX Checklist - items broken down into POUR headings: https://github.com/JenniKobylskiUX/WCAG-Accessibility-UX-Checklist
  310. User1st creates web accessibility testing solution (Press Release): https://www.kmworld.com/Articles/News/News/User1st-creates-web-accessibility-testing-solution-141946.aspx
  311. ADA Standards for Accessible Design : https://www.ada.gov/2010ADAstandards_index.htm
  312. IBM Launches Open Source Equal Access Toolkit: https://www.forbes.com/sites/stevenaquino/2020/05/19/ibm-launches-open-source-equal-access-toolkit/?sh=7fb050d1f776
  313. IBM launches Equal Access Toolkit to help developers build accessible websites and applications: https://developer.ibm.com/blogs/ibm-launches-equal-access-toolkit-developers-accessible-apps-and-websites/
  314. IBM introduces Agent Building and Learning Environment (ABLE): https://researcher.watson.ibm.com/researcher/view_group.php?id=979
  315. Designing for accessibility - Dos and don'ts (UK - Home Office Digital): https://imgur.com/gallery/f2vj5
  316. wikipedia: International Symbol of Access (ISA)
  317. What You Can Do to Remove Barriers on the Web: https://de.ryerson.ca/games/accessibility/_/accessibility_guidelines.pdf
  318. Game Accessibility Feature Tags are now Available on Microsoft Store for Xbox: https://news-xbox-com.cdn.ampproject.org/c/s/news.xbox.com/en-us/2021/11/16/game-accessibility-feature-tags-now-available/amp/
  319. Technical Language, Advice Understandability, and Perceptions of Expertise and Trustworthiness - The Case of the Financial Planner (WHITEPAPER): https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/031289620202700102
  320. Egghead courses -- Develop Accessible Web Apps with React: https://egghead.io/courses/develop-accessible-web-apps-with-react
  321. WAI -- Before, After, Demo (BAD) website: https://www.w3.org/WAI/demos/bad/a>fter/home.html (great reference for how a website without A11Y was able to fix most of their issues)
  322. A Beginner's Guide to Web Accessibility: https://webdesign.tutsplus.com/courses/a-beginners-guide-to-web-accessibility/lessons/pa11y-and-pa11y-dashboard
  323. Legacy version of Google's Web Accessibility course: https://web.archive.org/web/20160327154224/https://webaccessibility.withgoogle.com/course
  324. Google's Accessibility guide for Android/Chrome developers: https://www.google.com/accessibility/for-developers/ | Accessible Styles | Semantic HTML | A11Y overview
  325. A11ycasts with Google Sr. Accessibility Engineer Rob Dodson: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLNYkxOF6rcICWx0C9LVWWVqvHlYJyqw7g
  326. Perkins -- eLearning, School for the Blind - App Accessibility Checklist: https://www.perkinselearning.org/technology/blog/app-accessibility-checklist
  327. Common Types Of Learning Disabilities: http://learningdisabilitiesnekanso.blogspot.com/2015/10/common-types-of-learning-disabilities.html
  328. Xbox Accessibility Guidelines Provide Best Practices So More Gamers Can Play: https://www.boia.org/blog/xbox-accessibility-guidelines-provide-best-practices-so-more-gamers-can-play
  329. Xbox One and Windows 10 Add In-Game Transcription: https://www.boia.org/blog/xbox-one-and-windows-10-add-in-game-transcription
  330. Microsoft starts new program to help (game developers) make more accessible games: https://www.theverge.com/2021/2/16/22286216/microsoft-xbox-games-tested-accessibility-guidelines
  331. XBox's new "Adaptive Controller": https://www.xbox.com/en-US/accessories/controllers/xbox-adaptive-controller
  332. Microsoft’s new Xbox controller is designed entirely for players with disabilities: https://www.polygon.com/2018/5/17/17363528/xbox-adaptive-controller-disability-accessible
  333. Microsoft is testing Xbox party chat accessibility features: https://www.engadget.com/xbox-party-chat-previews-text-to-speech-and-speech-transcription-102644434.html
  334. Android -- Test your app's accessibility: https://developer.android.com/guide/topics/ui/accessibility/testing
  335. Android -- Using Espresso for automated Accessibility Checking: https://developer.android.com/training/testing/espresso/accessibility-checking#java
  336. Microsoft Inclusive Toolkit wins 2017's "Best Empowering category" in the annual "World Changing Ideas" competition: https://awards.ixda.org/entry/2017/microsoft-inclusive-toolkit-2/
  337. Microsoft - our approach to Accessibility: https://www.microsoft.com/en-us/accessibility/approach
  338. Microsoft Is 'Doubling Down' on Accessibility to Help Close Disability Divide: https://www.boia.org/blog/microsoft-is-doubling-down-on-accessibility-to-help-close-disability-divide
  339. Apple A11Y features landing page: https://www.apple.com/accessibility/
  340. Apple introduces SignTime... ASL for iOS, more accessibility features for people with disabilities: https://www.usatoday.com/story/tech/2021/05/19/apple-new-software-signtime-feature-iphone-ipad-watch-hearing-impaired/5162279001/
  341. Accessibility in SwiftUI: https://developer.apple.com/videos/play/wwdc2019/238/
  342. The Business Case for an Accessible Website: https://www.boia.org/blog/the-business-case-for-an-accessible-website
  343. American Institutes for Reasearch (AIR) -- Hidden Market - The Purchasing Power of Working-Age Adults With Disabilities: https://www.air.org/system/files/downloads/report/Hidden-Market-Spending-Power-of-People-with-Disabilities-April-2018.pdf
  344. Canadian Survey on Disability Reports: https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/en/catalogue/89-654-X
  345. The 2006 Participation and Activity Limitation Survey: Disability in Canada: https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/en/catalogue/89-628-X
  346. eCH -- 0059 - Accessibility Standard for European Union (German): https://www.ech.ch/de/dokument/45a5ea94-5955-4206-a647-0f795b5f72b2
  347. "How Accessible Are We?" -- Digital India report (2020): https://my.visme.co/view/vdjjm3dp-how-accessible-are-we
  348. Manual Accessibility Testing - Keyboard and Screen Reader Navigation: https://www.telerik.com/blogs/manual-accessibility-testing-keyboard-and-screen-reader-navigation
  349. Accessibility compliance deadline looms in Ontario: https://betakit.com/as-accessibility-compliance-deadline-looms-cnib-ottawa-firm-partner-to-offer-website-audits-to-businesses/
  350. Ontario Making Public Spaces More Accessible: https://news.ontario.ca/en/release/1001367/ontario-making-public-spaces-more-accessible
  351. MIT -- The role of accessibility in a universal web (WHITEPAPER): http://dspace.mit.edu/handle/1721.1/88013
  352. Accessible jQuery-ui Components Demonstration: http://hanshillen.github.io/jqtest/#goto_dialog
  353. Accessible Icon Buttons: https://www.sarasoueidan.com/blog/accessible-icon-buttons/
  354. HTMHell special - close buttons: https://www.htmhell.dev/20-close-buttons/
  355. Implementing A Pure CSS Collapsible (that can still have keyboard support via a tiny bit of JS): https://www.digitalocean.com/community/tutorials/css-collapsible
  356. MozDev -- WAI-ARIA roles - Using the aria-live property:: https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/Accessibility/ARIA/ARIA_Live_Regions
  357. Getting screen reader to read new content added (post-pageload) with JavaScript: https://stackoverflow.com/questions/3670570/getting-screen-reader-to-read-new-content-added-with-javascript
  358. ARIA -- "Live" Region Playground: http://schne324.github.io/live-region-playground/ (testing aria-live="" attribute variations: off, polite, assertive... .vs. default/non-present)
  359. WAI-ARIA -- roles: https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/Accessibility/ARIA/Roles
  360. MozDev -- WAI-ARIA roles - Using the timer role: https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/Accessibility/ARIA/Roles/ARIA_timer_role
  361. MozDev -- WAI-ARIA roles - Using the Navigation role: https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/Accessibility/ARIA/Roles/Navigation_Role
  362. MozDev -- WAI-ARIA roles - Using the region role: https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/Accessibility/ARIA/Roles/Region_role
  363. MozDev -- WAI-ARIA roles - Using the complimentary role: https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/Accessibility/ARIA/Roles/Complementary_role
  364. DigitalA11Y -- overview of aria-atomic property: https://www.digitala11y.com/aria-atomic-properties/
  365. Study on aria-atomic & aria-relevant on aria-live regions: https://pauljadam.com/demos/aria-atomic-relevant.html
  366. Color Blindness & Web Design: https://www.usability.gov/get-involved/blog/2010/02/color-blindness.html
  367. Color Contrast for Better Readability: https://www.viget.com/articles/color-contrast/
  368. Ensure High Contrast for Text Over Images: https://www.nngroup.com/articles/text-over-images/
  369. NIH -- Types of Color Blindness: https://www.nei.nih.gov/learn-about-eye-health/eye-conditions-and-diseases/color-blindness/types-color-blindness
  370. wikipedia: Ishihara test
  371. Getting Typography Right in Digital Design: https://medium.springboard.com/the-guide-to-getting-typography-right-in-digital-design-bb61214ff3ad
  372. Web Design is 95% Typography: https://ia.net/topics/the-web-is-all-about-typography-period
  373. Best Fonts To Use for Website Accessibility: https://www.boia.org/blog/best-fonts-to-use-for-website-accessibility
  374. Tricks for ARIA on the iPad/iOS: http://blog.codinginparadise.org/2010/12/tricks-for-aria-on-ipadios.html
  375. Building a Universally Accessible Blog: https://whatsortsofpeople.wordpress.com/2008/07/28/building-a-universally-accessible-blog/
  376. Popups -- 10 Problematic Trends and Alternatives: https://www.nngroup.com/articles/popups/
  377. Semantically-Accurate HTML5 Element for a Modal Dialog: https://stackoverflow.com/questions/3072597/semantically-accurate-html5-element-for-a-modal-dialog
  378. Best Practices for Modals / Overlays / Dialog Windows: https://uxplanet.org/best-practices-for-modals-overlays-dialog-windows-c00c66cddd8c
  379. The a11y Monthly - Making modals accessible: https://developer.yoast.com/blog/the-a11y-monthly-making-modals-accessible/
  380. Inclusive components -- making modals accessible: https://dev.to/alenanik/inclusive-components-making-modals-accessible-1hn9
  381. Web Accessibility Guidelines v1.0: http://web-accessibility.carnegiemuseums.org/code/dialogs/
  382. How to trap focus inside modal to make it ADA compliant: https://uxdesign.cc/how-to-trap-focus-inside-modal-to-make-it-ada-compliant-6a50f9a70700
  383. Considerations for Styling a Modal: https://css-tricks.com/considerations-styling-modal/
  384. Demonstration of a keyboard- and screen-reader accessible modal dialog: http://ncamftp.wgbh.org/sp/tests/dialog/modalDialog.html
  385. Benefits and drawbacks of modal windows: https://ux.stackexchange.com/questions/39778/benefits-and-drawbacks-of-modal-windows
  386. How To Make Modal Windows Better For Everyone: https://www.smashingmagazine.com/2014/09/making-modal-windows-better-for-everyone/
  387. Is there a way to do an accessible modal?: https://stackoverflow.com/questions/10016433/is-there-a-way-to-do-an-accessible-modal
  388. Creating An Accessible Modal Dialog: http://bitsofco.de/accessible-modal-dialog/
  389. Accessible modal window using ARIA and Vanilla JS: https://van11y.net/downloads/modal/demo/index.html
  390. ARIA accessible modals/lightbox demo: http://irama.org/web/dhtml/lightbox/
  391. jQuery simple and accessible modal window, using ARIA: https://a11y.nicolas-hoffmann.net/modal/
  392. React Modals: https://react-bootstrap.github.io/components/modal/
  393. React-Bootstrap Modal Accessibility Warnings from React-A11y: https://stackoverflow.com/questions/38596675/react-bootstrap-modal-accessibility-warnings-from-react-a11y
  394. ReactJS docs - Accessibility: https://reactjs.org/docs/accessibility.html
  395. Deque - React Accessiblity best practices (WEBINAR): https://accessibility.deque.com/react-accessibility-webinar
  396. Getting Started with Web Accessibility in React: https://medium.com/@emilymears/getting-started-with-web-accessibility-in-react-9e591fdb0d52
  397. Accessibility -- Never Remove the Outlines: https://medium.com/better-programming/a11y-never-remove-the-outlines-ee4efc7a9968
  398. Outline NONE in CSS -- a { outline: none; } - DON'T DO IT!: http://www.outlinenone.com/
  399. The plague of outline:0: https://webaim.org/blog/plague-of-outline-0/
  400. The Friendly Inbox - Making Emails Accessible For Subscribers With Disabilities: https://www.mediapost.com/publications/article/367871/the-friendly-inbox-making-emails-accessible-for-s.html
  401. WCAG 2.0 -- Link Purpose (In Context): https://www.w3.org/TR/UNDERSTANDING-WCAG20/navigation-mechanisms-refs.html
  402. Accessibility -- Web Links Should Be Links, and Web Buttons Should Be Buttons: https://medium.com/better-programming/accessibility-web-links-should-be-links-and-web-buttons-should-be-buttons-182ff042d087
  403. WebAIM -- Link A11Y best practices: https://webaim.org/techniques/hypertext/#link_to_link
  404. WebAIM -- Links and Hypertext: https://webaim.org/techniques/hypertext/link_text
  405. Text Links - Best Practices for Screen Readers: https://www.deque.com/blog/text-links-practices-screen-readers/
  406. Don't Rely on the Title Attribute for Accessibility: https://www.mediacurrent.com/blog/dont-rely-title-attribute-accessibility-seo/
  407. Improving the Accessibility of Social Media in Government: https://digital.gov/resources/improving-the-accessibility-of-social-media-in-government/
  408. YouTube Expands Speech Recognition and Translation AI Features: https://voicebot.ai/2021/10/11/youtube-expands-speech-recognition-and-translation-ai-features/
  409. Facebook's Accessibility help page: https://www.facebook.com/help/273947702950567?cms_id=141636465971794
  410. Twitter’s web redesign isn’t as accessible as it should be, experts say: https://techcrunch.com/2021/08/13/twitters-web-redesign-isnt-as-accessible-as-it-should-be-experts-say/
  411. Seiichi Miyake: 5 Brilliantly Simple Uses for His "Tenji Blocks": https://www.inverse.com/article/54134-seiichi-miyake-google-doodle-tactile-paving
  412. The Unexpected Benefits of Web Accessibility: Why It’s More Than Just “The Right Thing To Do”: https://www.essentialaccessibility.com/blog/the-unexpected-benefits-of-web-accessibility-why-its-more-than-just-the-right-thing-to-do
  413. History of Assistive Technology: https://www.sutori.com/story/history-of-assistive-technology--RJ35ffpub31fn4qokozTFtNg
  414. Assistive Technology timeline: https://earshot103.wixsite.com/assistive-technology/history
  415. To Hell with WCAG 2: http://www.alistapart.com/articles/tohellwithwcag2
  416. Creating Accessible Menus and Mega Menus: https://www.levelaccess.com/challenges-mega-menus-standard-menus-make-accessible/
  417. Accessible Mega Menu: https://adobe-accessibility.github.io/Accessible-Mega-Menu/#accessible-megamenu-1638280592218-1
  418. Creating an animated Menu indicator with CSS Selectors: https://css-tricks.com/creating-an-animated-menu-indicator-with-css-selectors/ (bottom)
  419. Line Menu "currently active" indicator styles: https://tympanus.net/Development/LineMenuStyles/ (many examples if you don't mind scrolling through them all hah)
  420. Bootstrap - subtle but sufficient indicator on dynamic "Mega Menu": https://preview.colorlib.com/theme/bootstrap/website-menu-03/index.html
  421. A Deep Dive on Skipping to Content: https://css-tricks.com/a-deep-dive-on-skipping-to-content/
  422. How to Create a “Skip to Content” Link : https://css-tricks.com/how-to-create-a-skip-to-content-link/
  423. Skip to Main Content – Accessibility for AEM Web-applications (AEM 6.5.9 & AEMaaCs): https://aemsimplifiedbynikhil.wordpress.com/2021/07/16/skip-to-main-content-accessibility-for-aem-web-applications-aem-6-5-9-aemaacs/
  424. How to skip some content from screen reader: https://stackoverflow.com/questions/22932134/how-to-skip-some-content-from-screen-reader
  425. WebAIM - Skip Navigation Links: https://webaim.org/techniques/skipnav/
  426. What Is Skip Navigation Link and Why Is It Useful? : https://pineco.de/what-is-skip-navigation-link-and-why-is-it-useful/
  427. Carnegie Museum -- Skip Link: web-accessibility.carnegiemuseums.org/code/skip-link/
  428. I found a hidden youtube button (SKIP NAVIGATION). To see it, open youtube and hit tab twice: https://www.reddit.com/r/interestingasfuck/comments/hwii59/i_found_a_hidden_youtube_button_skip_navigation/fyzt4st/
  429. WCAG 2.0 AA is the new Accessibility standard for any "Federal Agency" websites: https://www.adatitleiii.com/2017/01/wcag-2-0-aa-is-the-new-accessibility-standard-for-federal-agency-websites/
  430. Translating Design Wireframes Into Accessible HTML/CSS: https://www.smashingmagazine.com/2020/07/design-wireframes-accessible-html-css/
  431. Disability Barriers in Customer Service: https://www.aoda.ca/disability-barriers-in-customer-service/
  432. Public Education Campaign on the Business Case for Accessibility: https://aoda.ca/public-education-campaign-on-the-business-case-for-accessibility/
  433. Top 5 Most Common Web Accessibility Mistakes: https://www.mcdpartners.com/news/top-5-common-web-accessibility-mistakes/
  434. Top Ten Most Common Web Accessibility issues: https://www.tpgi.com/ten-common-web-accessibility-issues/ (1.Image ALT text, 2.KeyboardNav visual focus indicator, 3.Use of proper labels, 4.Links without descriptive text, 5.Links/Buttons too small, 6.Tables without proper markup, 7.Headings hierarchy & Section nesting, 8.Color Contrast, 9.Embedding or Linking to inaccessible docs & media, 10.Identical descriptive text for content - multiple related or separate unrelated)
  435. 6 easy ways to make your projects more accessible: https://www.richmedia.com/richideas/articles/6-ways-to-make-your-projects-accessible
  436. Beyond the screenreader - Online accessibility for assistive devices: https://www.richmedia.com/richideas/articles/beyond_the_screenreader_online_accessibility_for_assistive_devices
  437. UX Planet -- Color, psychology and design: https://uxplanet.org/how-color-can-effect-emotion-ccab0431b1d
  438. An argument for incorporating color early on in UX design: https://uxhacker.co/an-argument-for-incorporating-color-early-on-in-ux-design/
  439. Color meanings and the art of using color symbolism (in UI/UX Design): https://99designs.ca/blog/tips/color-meanings/
  440. Ishihara’s Test for Colour Deficiency - 38 Plates Edition: https://www.color-blindness.com/ishiharas-test-for-colour-deficiency-38-plates-edition/
  441. Color Meanings – The Power and Symbolism of Colors: https://www.color-meanings.com
  442. Real People, Real Stories Episode #9 (2021) -- Charlotte Dales from Inclusively and Aubrey Northam from Mobelux: https://www.tpgi.com/real-people-real-stories-episode-9-2021-charlotte-dales-from-inclusively-and-aubrey-northam-from-mobelux/
  443. What is a screen reader, and why are they important?: https://www.tpgi.com/what-is-a-screen-reader-and-why-are-they-important/
  444. Canadians with disabilities face barriers to financial security, researchers find: https://phys.org/news/2020-08-canadians-disabilities-barriers-financial.html
  445. How America failed students with disabilities during the pandemic: https://www.washingtonpost.com/education/2021/05/20/students-disabilities-virtual-learning-failure/
  446. Australian study shows "those with disability are disproportionally affected by COVID" – New Report From CBM: https://www.96five.com/stories/life/news/2021/those-with-a-disability-disproportionally-affected-by-covid-new-report/
  447. COVID closures disproportionately affecting those with disabilities: https://health.ucdavis.edu/health-news/newsroom/covid-closures-disproportionately-affecting-those-with-disabilities-/2020/10
  448. The pandemic isn’t over — particularly for people with disabilities: https://www.health.harvard.edu/blog/the-pandemic-isnt-over-particularly-for-people-with-disabilities-202105252464
  449. COVID-19's Impact on People with Disabilities: https://www.massgeneral.org/news/coronavirus/Covid-19s-impact-on-people-with-disabilities
  450. Impacts of COVID-19 disproportionately affect poor and vulnerable - UN chief: https://news.un.org/en/story/2020/06/1067502
  451. COVID-19 has disproportionately impacted those living with developmental disabilities: https://www.cnn.com/2020/08/28/health/covid-19-intellectual-development-disabilities-impact-wellness/index.html
  452. COVID-19 Outbreak and Persons with Disabilities: https://www.un.org/development/desa/disabilities/covid-19.html
  453. Impact of COVID-19 on people with physical disabilities - A rapid review: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7603994/
  454. Policy Brief -- A "Disability-Inclusive" Response to COVID-19: https://www.un.org/sites/un2.un.org/files/sg_policy_brief_on_persons_with_disabilities_final.pdf
  455. Workers With Disabilities Disproportionately Impacted By Covid-19 Pandemic: https://www.forbes.com/sites/allisonnorlian/2020/06/22/workers-with-disabilities-disproportionately-impacted-by-covid-19-pandemic/
  456. Role of Governor in promoting disability employment in COVID-19 recovery strategies: https://www.nga.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/03/SEED_Memo.pdf
  457. How to Use Color Blind Friendly Palettes to Make Your Charts Accessible: https://venngage.com/blog/color-blind-friendly-palette/
  458. BBC - Accessibility for Products: https://www.bbc.co.uk/accessibility/forproducts/
  459. Personas with Disabilities: https://medium.com/swlh/personas-with-disabilities-9da8d12f1255
  460. Persona Spectrums - Building for Inclusion and Accessibility: https://www.uxbooth.com/articles/persona-spectrums-building-for-inclusion-and-accessibility/
  461. How to Add Alt Text to Images on Facebook: https://www.howtogeek.com/761718/how-to-add-alt-text-to-images-on-facebook/
  462. 5 ways to make websites more accessible for deaf people: https://www.hearinglikeme.com/5-ways-to-make-websites-more-accessible-for-deaf-people/
  463. How to make a website accessible for the deaf and hearing impaired: https://www.paradigmmarketinganddesign.com/how-to-make-a-website-accessible-for-the-deaf-and-hearing-impaired/
  464. Web accessibility for hearing impairments: https://uxdesign.cc/web-accessibility-for-hearing-impairment-3f49fc7b5a34

See Also

i18n | l10n | W3C | Web | SEO | HCI | UI/UX Design | Captions | Subtitles | Video Annotation | HTML/HTML5 | E-Learning | STT/TTS | Speech Recognition | Voice Recognition | Image Recognition | Biometrics | Sustainability