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Accessibility (commonly abbreviated as A11Y, also refered to as universal support) is the support for disabled or otherwise impaired persons.



Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (commonly abbreviated WCAG) is part of a series of accessibility guidelines, including the Authoring Tool Accessibility Guidelines (ATAG) and the User Agent Accessibility Guidelines (UAAG)[1][2].

                                           WCAG 1.0   |   WCAG 2.0
importance of the content A AA AAA A AA AAA
(closed) captionsXXXX*XX
(closed) audio descriptionXXXX*XX
full text alternativeX*X
sign languageX
  1. A = Priority 1, Web developers must satisfy these requirements, otherwise it will be impossible for one or more groups to access the Web content. Conformance to this level is described as A.
  2. AA = Priority 2, Web developers should satisfy these requirements, otherwise some groups will find it difficult to access the Web content. Conformance to this level is described as AA or Double-A.
  3. AAA = Priority 3, Web developers may satisfy these requirements, in order to make it easier for some groups to access the Web content. Conformance to this level is described as AAA or Triple-A.

[3] [4]

POUR principles

In addition to the specific multimedia accessibility techniques, WCAG defines defines four key principles of accessibility:

  1. Perceivable - Information can be presented in different ways; for example, in braille, different text sizes, text-to-speech, or symbols, etc.
  2. Operable - Functionality can be used in different modalities; for example, keyboard, mouse, sip-and-puff, speech input, touch, etc.
  3. Understandable - Information and functionality is understandable; for example consistent navigation, simple language, etc.
  4. Robust - Content can be interpreted reliably by a wide variety of browsers, media players, and assistive technologies.

There are currently two stable versions of WCAG that are both supported by W3C:

WCAG 2.0 was published in December 2008, and has become widely adopted as the standard for web accessibility by many businesses and governments around the world. It defines 12 Guidelines under the four POUR principles. Under each Guideline there are more specific Success Criteria divided into three Conformance Levels: A, AA, and AAA. WCAG 2.0 defines 61 Success Criteria.

WCAG 2.1 was published in June 2018, to better address accessibility for people with cognitive and learning disabilities, people with low vision, and people with disabilities using mobile devices. WCAG 2.1 is fully backward compatible with WCAG 2.0, so that if your content conforms to WCAG 2.1 it also conforms to WCAG 2.0. WCAG 2.1 defines 13 Guidelines and 78 Success Criteria.

[7] [8] [9] [10]



Web Accessibility Initiative (commonly abbreviated WCAG).



ARIA Landmarks Example: [14] [15] [16] [17] [18]




[20] [21]


Wordpress as of v4.3.x offers Accessibility prompts via JavaScript to communicate with Screen Reader software (where available natively in the client's browser or via Plugin). Simply

wp.a11y.speak('YOUR TEXT TO BE SPOKEN HERE'); 
  • a11y
  • The Accessibility (a11y) Project: (aside from tons of great blogs/tutorials/resources, a nice visual explaining the 11 characters between "A" and "Y" of the word AccessibilitY)


ACC Name

Section 508

United States government initiative towards Accessibility for IT.

[22] [23] [24] [25] [26] [27]

Diversity & Inclusion

Concerns "Accessible employment" and workplace inclusivity (equal participation & opportunities).

[28] [29] [30] [31] [32] [33] [34] [35] [36] [37] [38] [39]

Information Architecture

Content Strategy

Accessibility Auditors

There are three "tiers" or types of 3rd-party Accessibility providers:

  1. Tier 1 - scan & overlay (no "preventive" coverage against lawsuits) $2-5k USD
  2. Tier 2 - hybrid, scan & overlay with wait & see approach (partial coverage) $6-12k USD
  3. Tier 3 - full legal coverage (guaranteed compliance & insurance coverage options against lawsuits) $12-25k USD


Over 10000 cases/year go to court, almost 100% go to court, average of over $20000 USD awarded to plaintiffs.

Desktop Technology-specific A11Y

PDF accessibility

[48] [49]

PPT accessiblity

[50] [51] [52] [53]

Email accessibility

Here are a few tips to help you send accessible emails:

  • Provide a clear, brief, and informative subject line
  • Choose a font style that is easy to read in at least 12-14 point font
  • Use spaces to break up paragraphs
  • Use plain text and avoid using lots of special characters and symbols
  • Avoid flashing or flickering content (think: gifs in your email signature


Web Technology-specific A11Y

HTML accessibility


CSS accessibility


JS accessibility


Special A11Y concerns



Motion preferences

A number of people may suffer from permanent/chronic, temporary/resolvable or situational/environmental issues around motion, flicker and related content changes. These could be triggered through:

  • content animations
  • moving, growing or shrinking pictures/text
  • strobing effects
  • sudden color changes
  • screen transitions

Vestibular disorders and those who can become triggered into seizures are the major health concern here, but there are also simply those who do not like such "special effects" (or for whom it makes the content harder to read/understand or makes them dizzy, confused or otherwise uncomfortable); so we should respect their preferences and offer them an experience without such effects. The current way to communicate a preference not to be shown animations and related effects is the CSS3 ""

[60] [61] [62] [63] [64] [65] [66] [67] [68]


Text & Images must have sufficient contrast between one another and their respective containers/backgrounds.

[69] [70]

Screen Reader

  • WebAIM -- Designing for Screen Reader compatibility: (similar considerations for all types of apps Desktop/Mobile/Web, but approaches slightly different depending on platform)

[71] [72] [73] [74] [75]

[76] [77] [78] [79] [80] [81] [82] [83] [84] [85]

Keyboard navigation

Keyboard Accessibility defines the ability to use a standard or custom (i.e. Braille, RSI positioned keys, etc) keyboard input device rather than any other HCI peripheral device (such as mouse, stylus, finger/touch, voice, etc) to interact with a given Website, WebApp, Desktop App or Mobile App.

When verifying "Keyboard Accessibility" you should check that:

  1. 'Tab to all - users can tab to all the active elements including links, form fields, buttons, and a media player control.
  2. Tab away - users can tab away from (out of) all elements that can be tabbed into.
  3. Tab order - the tab order follows the logical reading order according to the language on the page.
  4. Visual focus - the focus is clearly visible as users tab through the elements, and users can tell if navigating away to another application or tab upon returning, precisely which element has focus at any point in time.
  5. Functionality - users can do everything with the keyboard. That is you don't need to use a mouse to activate actions options, visible changes, and other functionality.
  6. Drop-downs - after users tab to a drop-down list using the arrow keys to move through the options without triggering another action.
  7. Image links - when images are links they have clear & visible focus and they can be activated using the keyboard.

The following table shows some common keyboard shortcuts and keymap conventions:



Navigate to most elements

  • Tab
  • Shift + Tab - navigate backward




Enter or Spacebar


Spacebar - check/uncheck a checkbox

Radio buttons

  • ↑/↓ or ←/→ - select an option
  • Tab - move to the next element

Select (dropdown) menu

  • ↑/↓ - navigate between menu options
  • Spacebar - expand


  • Type to begin filtering
  • ↑/↓ - navigate to an option
  • Enter - select an option


Esc - close


  • ↑/↓ or ←/→ - increase or decrease slider value
  • Home/End - beginning or end

Menu bar

  • ↑/↓ - Previous/next menu option
  • Enter - expand the menu (optional) and select an option.
  • ←/→ - expand/collapse submenu

Tab panel

  • Tab - once to navigate into the group of tabs and once to navigate out of the group of tabs
  • ↑/↓ or ←/→ - previous/next tab.

'Tree' menu

  • ↑/↓ - Navigate Previous/next menu option
  • ←/→ - expand/collapse submenu, move up/down one level


  • ↑/↓ - scroll vertically
  • ←/→ - scroll horizontally
  • Spacebar/Shift + Spacebar - scroll by page

[86] [87]

[88] [89] [90]

Mobile technology-specific A11Y approaches

[91] [92] [93] [94] [95] [96] [97] [98]

Apple (iOS)

[99] [100] [101] [102] [103] [104]

Google (Android)

Touch Target

Minimum sizes for interactive areas are needed to prevent an inability to trigger required events or operate controls in the desired manner (aka. "Fat Fingering"). Most "Mobile design guidelines" encourage practices to prevent any issues here such as 32px padding on either side of any button or link, and use of labels tied to input fields within forms that cause the correct corresponding field to become in focus.

Accessibility Overlays

"Accessibility Overlays" are bolt-on solutions that attempt to "embed" accessibility features and options into an inaccessible or incompletely accessible website or mobile app with many or a specific few unfixed access barriers of certain types. While these can be slightly better than doing nothing, they are no substitute for building a fully accessible experience and often fall far short of primary accessibility and risk (lawsuit exposure, customer churn) reduction goals. Studies have shown that it is always better to "bake accessibility in" from the beginning.

The following issues aren't fully covered by Overlays (and can sometimes be worsened or made more confusing by having the extra layer):

  1. Unlabeled/mislabeled form fields
  2. Zoom disabled
  3. Minimum width
  4. Use of layout tables
  5. Ambiguous anchor text links
  6. Images of text
  7. Focus order
  8. Alt text[105][106]
  9. Consistent identification
  10. Keyboard only usage
  11. Error prevention
  12. Error suggestions
  13. Keyboard traps
  14. Incorrect heading structure
  15. Missing links
  16. No input change
  17. Parsing
  18. Misidentified language
  19. Closed captions
  20. Locked display orientation

[107] [108] [109] [110] [111] [112] [113] [114] [115] [116]

A11Y Lawsuits

  1. Winn-Dixie grocery:
  2. McDonald's self-serve kiosks:
  3. Harvard & MIT Universities:
  4. UC Berkley on textbooks:
  5. CVS Pharmacy:
  6. Amazon:[117]
  7. Netflix:[118][119][120][121][122][123][124]
  8. Fox News:
  9. Nike:
  10. Burger King:[125][126]
  11. Five Guys':
  12. Domino's:[127][128][129][130][131][132][133][134][135][136][137][138][139][140]
  13. Winn-Dixie:[141][142][143][144][145]
  14. Blue Apron:
  15. Conair/CuisinArt:[146]
  16. Amtrak:[147][148]
  17. HCA hospitals:
  18. Hulu:[149]
  19. eBay:
  20. Bank of America:
  21. FedEx:
  22. Hobby Lobby:
  23. Bank of America (first major bank sued, all the way back in 2000):
  24. Hard Rock Casino & Gulf Coast restaurant chains:
  25. NY city MTA:
  26. Robinhood (stock trading platform):[150]
  27. American Airlines: ($40 million)
  28. ViacomCBS: ($3.5 million)[151][152][153]
  29. Fox News:
  30. WWE: (settled out of court)[154][155]
  31. Dell:[156]
  32. Apple:[157][158][159][160]
  33. Uber:[161][162][163][164][165]
  34. NBA:,_Jahoda_v_NBA.pdf
  35. eHarmony:,_Inc
  36. Rolex:,_Inc
  37. Beyonce's music promotion website:[166][167]

[168] [169] [170] [171] [172] [173] [174] [175] [176] [177] [178] [179] [180] [181] [182] [183] [184] [185] [186] [187] [188] [189] [190] [191] [192] [193] [194] [195] [196] [197] [198] [199] [200] [201] [202] [203] [204] [205] [206] [207] [208] [209] [210] [211] [212] [213] [214] [215] [216]

Accessibility Testing

See also: Accessibility Testing

[219] [220] [221] [222] [223] [224] [225] [226] [227] [228] [229]

Assistive Technologies

[230] [231] [232] [233] [234] [235] [236] [237]

[238] [239] [240] [241] [242]


[248] [249] [250] [251] [252] [253] [254] [255] [256] [257] [258] [259] [260]

Screen Readers

Browse and focus modes:


Voice Control


[268] [269] [270] [271] [272] [273]


[307] [308] [309] [310] [311]

[315] [316] [317] [318]

[320] [321] [322]

[323] [324] [325]

[347] [348] [349] [350] [351]




  • Integrating Accessibility Throughout Design with User-Centered Design (UCD):[356]

[357] [358] [359]


[361] [362] [363] [364] [365] [366] [367] [368] [369] [370]

Don't disable outline, master it instead!:



[381] [382] [383] [384] [385] [386] [387] [388] [389] [390] [391] [392] [393] [394] [395] [396] [397] [398] [399] [400] [401] [402] [403] [404] [405] [406] [407] [408] [409] [410] [411] [412] [413]

[414] [415] [416] [417]

[422] [423] [424] [425] [426] [427] [428] [429] [430] [431]

External Links

[437] [438] [439] [440] [441]

[442] [443] [444] [445] [446] [447] [448] [449]

[451] [452] [453]

[454] [455] [456] [457]

[458] [459] [460] [461] [462] [463] [464] [465] [466] [467] [468] [469] [470] [471] [472] [473] [474] [475] [476] [477] [478]

[483] [484] [485]


  1. W3C working group on WCAG:
  2. Accessibility Principles of WAI:
  3. The WCAG-EM Web Accessibility Evaluation Process: (5 Steps: #1-Scope, #2-Test, #3-Sample, #4-Audit, #5-Report)
  4. W3C -- WCAG 2.0 - Understanding Conformance:
  5. wikipedia: Web Content Accessibility Guidelines
  6. What’s new in WCAG 2.1?:
  7. First Public Draft of WCAG 2.2 Published:
  8. WCAG 2.2 Overview and Feedback:
  9. Latest Public Draft of WCAG 2.2 Features Nine New Success Criteria, Other Updates:
  10. WCAG 2.2 Release Impacts 2021 Web Accessibility:
  11. Understanding the Differences Between WCAG 2.2 and WCAG 3.0:
  12. Essential Component parts of (achieving) Web Accessibility:
  13. W3C -- full listing of WAI-ARIA standards:
  14. wikipedia: Web Accessibility Initiative
  15. Mozilla Dev Docs -- ARIA:
  16. Google Developers -- Introduction to ARIA:
  17. MozDev -- Using ARIA - Roles, States & Properties:
  18. WebAIM - Alternative Text guideines:
  19. Authoring Tool Accessibility Guidelines (ATAG) 2.0:
  20. Does WCAG Apply to Kiosks?:
  21. McDonald’s Starts Making Self-Service Easier for Blind Diners:
  22. wikipedia: Section 508 Amendment to the Rehabilitation Act of 1973
  23. Information & Communication Technology (ICT) - Revised 508 Standards & 255 Guidelines:
  24. Guide to the ADA Accessibility Standards -- Chapter 3 - Clear Floor or Ground Space and Turning Space: | PDF
  25. ADA checklist -- SURVEY FORM 24 - MEDICAL CARE FACILITIES (includes wheelchair physical spacing requirements for turning/maneuverability):
  26. US Census Infograph on the Commonality of Specific Disabilities:
  27. Recent U.S. Disability Statistics from the Census Bureau:
  28. Employer Assistance and Resource Network (EARN) on "Disability Inclusion" -- Encouraging applicants with disabilities - job descriptions & announcements, employer assistance, and resource network on "Disability Inclusion":
  29. What are "land acknowledgements" to (First Nations) and why do they matter?:
  30. Implicit Age Cues in Resumes - Subtle Effects on Hiring Discrimination:
  31. When an “Educated” Black Man Becomes Lighter in the Mind’s Eye - Evidence for a Skin Tone Memory Bias:
  32. Do We Need Safe or Brave Spaces?:
  33. From Safe Spaces to Brave Spaces:
  34. Biden Signs Executive Order (EO) to Advance Diversity, Equity in Federal Workforce (DEIA):
  35. Americans and ‘Cancel Culture’ - Where Some See Calls for Accountability, Others See Censorship, Punishment:
  36. 10 Best Name Pronunciation Tools: (because a name is worth pronouncing properly)
  37. New Brunswick appoints independent commissioner on systemic racism:
  38. Swansea model with Down's syndrome, Beth Matthews, signs with agency:
  39. Scholarship for Black students launched at King’s School of Journalism by Global News:
  40. Content Strategists: What Do They Do?:
  41. Context As A Content Strategy: Creating More Meaningful Web Experiences Through Contextual Filtering:
  42. Complete Beginner’s Guide to Content Strategy:
  43. The Discipline of Content Strategy:
  44. A Checklist for Content Work:
  45. To Hell With Bad Browsers:
  46. Content Strategy - The Philosophy of Data:
  47. US Dept Justice WCAG PeaPod case:
  48. Siteimprove FAQ -- What do you check for in PDFs?: Info Sheet.pdf
  49. 5 key steps to a successful "Document Accessibility Program":
  50. Make your PowerPoint presentations accessible to people with disabilities:
  51. How to Make an Accessible PowerPoint Presentation:
  52. How to Create 508 Compliant Microsoft PowerPoint Presentations: to Create 508 Compliant PowerPoint Presentations.aspx
  53. Creating Accessible Presentations in Microsoft PowerPoint:
  54. Why Accessibility in Email Marketing matters:
  55. Writing CSS with A11Y in mind:
  56. Writing HTML with A11Y in mind:
  57. Writing CSS with A11Y in mind:
  58. Writing JS with A11Y in mind:
  59. Improving The Color Accessibility For Color-Blind Users:
  60. A11Y 101 -- Reduced motion:
  61. MozDev -- A11Y - @media "prefers-reduced-motion":
  62. Revisiting "prefers-reduced-motion", the reduced motion media query:
  63. prefers-reduced-motion -- Sometimes less movement is more:
  64. Short note on prefers-reduced-motion and puzzled (Windows) users:
  65. How to Insert an Animated GIF into a Word Document (and make it more Accessible with "alt" text description):
  66. Short note on prefers-reduced-motion and puzzled (Windows) users:
  67. New in Chrome 74 (2019-05-03) Prefers-reduced-motion media query:
  68. How to prevent "prefers-reduced-motion" OS setting from impacting animations on the browser (such as FF/Chrome):
  69. CSS Working Group resolved to begin working on a spec to standardize "High Contrast" based on MS Edge's implementation story:
  70. 86 Percent of Websites Fail this Accessibility Basic (color contrast):
  71. The difference between keyboard and screen reader navigation:
  72. Reading Efficiently with a Screen Reader -- JAWS - Headings:
  73. Testing with Screen Readers:
  74. HTML For Screen Readers - Labelling Elements:
  75. Screen reader support for HTML5 sections:
  76. BBC News - Accessibility & Testing with JAWS Screen Reader (guideline):
  77. WebAIM - ScreenReader survey: (includes OS/ScreenReader/Browser combos)
  78. Global Screen Reader Market Size Status and Forecast 2019-2025:
  79. Configuring Your Machine For Testing With A Screen Reader:
  80. SmashingTV shows How a Screen Reader user surfs the web (WEBINAR): | Excerpt - Léonie Watson on why semantic HTML document landmarks assist her using a screenreader
  81. Optimizing Pages for Screen Reader Accessibility:
  82. Setting up a screen reader test environment:
  83. Deque - Why Don’t Screen Readers Always Read What’s on the Screen? Part 1: Punctuation and Typographic Symbols:
  84. Should I use an aria-label or screen-reader only text?:
  85. 5 Myths About Screen Readers That Can Hurt Accessibility:
  86. Keyboard-based navigation compatibility (even on mobile):
  87. WCAG 2.1 -- Understanding Success Criterion 2.4.3 - Focus Order:
  88. Keyboard-Only Navigation for Improved Accessibility:
  89. US government -- Social Security Administration (SSA) - Use the Keyboard to Navigate Screens:
  90. Give Yourself an Accessibility Test - Don't Use a Mouse:
  91. How to Test Touch Target Size (buttons, links, …) to Meet UX & Accessibility Standards in 4 Steps:
  92. Hand tremors and the giant-button-problem:
  93. Focus Trapping for Accessibility (A11Y) - NOTE: this is a dangerous double-edged sword so use carefully:
  94. Focus Trapping - Trap focus inside an element:
  95. Perfecto -- Automated Mobile Accessibility Tseting:
  96. Experitest -- How to incorporate Accessibility into Mobile App Testing:
  97. Building apps for everyone; why inclusivity & accessibility truly matter:
  98. Flutter -- a11y & i18n:
  99. HP Notebook PCs - Using the Touchpad, Pointer, and Keyboard in Mobile Internet Experience:
  100. Getting Started with Touchscreen UIs in Java Platform, Micro Edition (JME, on legacy Mobile devices or tiny screens):
  101. How to detect touch screen device using CSS?:
  102. Extendable Pointer Presenter Whiteboard PPT Point Stick Touch Screen Pen:
  103. Staples Slim Stylus Pen - Black:
  104. Telescopic Teachers Pointer (Extendable/Retractable Presenter Classroom Whiteboard Pointer):
  105. WebAIM - Alternative Text:
  106. How Do I Know If an Image Needs "Alt Text"?:
  107. Overlay Fact Sheet:
  108. Why Accessibility Overlay Solutions Fail to Protect or Serve:
  109. The Many Pitfalls of Accessibility Overlays:
  110. Honor the ADA - Avoid Web Accessibility Quick-Fix Overlays:
  111. Are ADA Overlays a Liability? Here’s What Accessibility Experts Had to Say:
  112. The Problem with Not Making Websites Accessible by Default:
  113. Why Accessibility Overlays On Your Website Can Make Things Worse:
  114. US Supreme Court verdict -- Sole reliance on accessiBe will not be sufficient in ensuring full and equal access to a website (Exhibit A For 21-cv-00017, 2020-11-01):
  115. People With Disabilities Say This AcessiBe "AI A11Y Tool" Is Making the Web Worse for Them:
  116. This Company Tapped AccessiBe and its "Overlay + AI" solution for Its Website — and Landed in Court for its troubles:
  117. Amazon Class Action Lawsuit Says Website Not Accessible to the Blind:
  118. NAD v. Netflix ADA Lawsuit Requires Captioning for Streaming Video:
  119. NAD Calls Out Netflix on “Deaf Tax”:
  120. Disability History, Part 4: NAD v. Netflix -- A lawsuit that shook the internet:
  121. NAD Files Disability Civil Rights Lawsuit Against Netflix:
  122. NAD Files Disability Civil Rights Lawsuit against Netflix:
  123. NAD v. Netflix:
  124. Court finds Domino’s Pizza Violated the ADA by Having an Inaccessible Website and Orders WCAG Compliance:
  125. Burger King Class Action Says Fast Food Chain’s Website Violates ADA :
  126. :
  127. Domino's A11Y case:
  128. Court Says Domino’s Pizza Website Must Be Accessible to the Blind"
  129. Accessibility, the future, and why Domino’s matters:
  130. Domino's Website Violated Americans With Disabilities Act, Judge Finds:
  131. Domino’s accessibility lawsuit update:
  132. Lexis-Nexus legal news -- Domino’s, Blind Patron Settle ADA, Website Accessibility Suit:
  133. California Federal Court Holds Domino’s Website Violates the ADA, Limits Penalties Under Unruh Act to $4,000 :
  134. Federal Website Access Lawsuit Numbers Increase 7 Percent in 2019, With Possible Bump from Supreme Court Denial of Cert in Domino’s:
  135. The Impact of the Robles V. Domino’s Pizza Lawsuit on Hearing-Impaired Community:
  136. How your small business website can get you sued :
  137. What does the Domino’s ADA case mean for small-medium-businesses:
  138. Blind man sued Domino's over its website. Here's what the Supreme Court had to say:
  139. Supreme Court hands victory to blind man who sued Domino’s over site accessibility:
  140. Another Big Win in the Domino’s Pizza Accessibility Saga:
  141. Gil .vs. Winn-Dixie -- D.C. Docket No. 1:16-cv-23020-RNS:
  142. D.C. Docket No. 1:16-cv-23020-RNS:
  143. Judge Holds Winn-Dixie Supermarket’s Website Violates the ADA:
  144. Court rules grocery store’s inaccessible website isn’t an ADA violation:
  145. Eleventh Circuit Holds Websites Are Not Places of Public Accommodation and Rejects Commonly Relied-Upon Nexus Standard:
  146. Conair Website For CuisinArt Is Sued For Excluding Visual Impaired:
  147. $2.25 Million Fund Available in Justice Department Settlement with Amtrak:
  148. Amtrak Settles ADA Claims For Stations in Connecticut and Rhode Island:
  149. The NAD and Hulu Reach Agreement:
  150. Robinhood Sued in Class Action, Alleging Website Inaccessibility and Discrimination Against Blind Users:
  151. FCC Settles Accessibility Rules Violation With Pluto, ViacomCBS:
  152. Pluto & ViacomCBS Will Pay $3.5M for Violation of Accessibility Rules:
  153. ViacomCBS and Pluto TV Fined $3.5 Million by FCC for Violating Closed-Caption Rules:
  154. WWE Settles Legal Dispute on Accessibility for Blind & Visually Impaired for Online Shop:
  155. WWE Settles Lawsuit Over Shop Website:
  156. Screen access technology has existed for decades': Visually impaired man sues Dell over 'inaccessible' website:
  157. Apple Store accessibility lawsuit (Robert Shaw vs. Apple):
  158. Mendez v. Apple Inc.:
  159. Apple sued over claims website is inaccessible to visually impaired users:
  160. The Apple Park Visitor's Center is a demonstration of an accessible building when cost is no object. 1/?:
  161. Court Denies Uber’s Motion to Dismiss ADA Discrimination Complaint:
  162. Justice Department Sues Uber for Overcharging People with Disabilities:
  163. An Uber fee unfairly impacts riders with disabilities, a DOJ lawsuit says:
  164. Justice Department Sues Uber Over Charging Wait-Time Fees for Disabled People:
  165. Uber manager sobs on stand during trial over wheelchair accessibility:
  166. What You Should Know About the Beyoncé Website Accessibility Lawsuit:
  167. Beyonce's Website the Focus of an Accessibility Lawsuit:
  168. 2021 Website Accessibility Lawsuit Recap (REPORT): Accessibility Lawsuit Complete Report.pdf
  169. September 2021 recap - A11Y Lawsuits landscape:
  170. 2020 Full Year Report Digital Accessibility Lawsuits:
  171. Digital Accessibility Year in Review -- 2019:
  172. 2018 ADA Web Accessibility Lawsuit Recap Report:
  173. Recent Web Accessibility Lawsuits:
  174. Are you next? Trends in Digital Accessibility Lawsuits:
  175. Overview of the Financial Penalties of AODA Non-Compliance (in Canada):
  176. US House Bill H.R.8478 Could Finally Offer Businesses Clarity on Web Accessibility:
  177. Now Is the Time to Make Your Entire Sales Funnel Accessible:
  178. Brands Are Losing Billions by Not Being Digitally Accessible:
  179. Looking Ahead to Potential Developments in Online Accessibility Law:
  180. Practice website accessibility (or get ready to practice law) -- A new wave of AwDA litigation:
  181. A11Y Attorneys' opinion statement -- DOJ's years-long delay on regulations hurting companies facing disabilities lawsuits over their websites:
  182. Fact Sheet -- Class Actions Are Critical to Remedy Disability Discrimination:
  183. Lawsuits Over Digital Accessibility for People With Disabilities Are Rising:
  184. Equality Act Could Undermine Business Defendants In Web Access Suits:
  185. New York District Court Issues Important Opinion on the Inapplicability of Title III of the ADA to Consumer-Facing Websites:
  186. NY State Court -- Title III legal position statement: (meant to take some "bite" out of frivolous Digital Accessibility lawsuits)
  187. ADP Settlement Offers Framework for Future Digital-Accessibility Agreements:
  188. Digital Accessibility Takes Center Stage in ADA Lawsuit:
  189. The Importance of Having a Letter of "Reasonable Accessibility" to show intent:
  190. Accessibility in the News, Legal Edition - Updates on ADA Title III News and More:
  191. Federal Courts Disagree Over Accessibility Online:
  192. Web Accessibility Lawsuits dramatically rose in 2021... here’s why:
  193. Florida Courts Rule ADA Covers Websites With Nexus To Physical Store:
  194. Builders, Architects, Owners of 5 NC Housing Complexes Settle Discrimination Cases; Agree to Make $1.3 million in Accessibility Modifications:
  195. Strategies for Defending ADA Accessibility “Tester” Lawsuits:
  196. The State of Website Accessibility, Serial-plaintiffs, & the lack of new ADA Legislation:
  197. The Real Reason Local Governments are Facing More ADA Non-Compliance Fines:
  198. Five Things Every Lawyer Needs to Know About Digital Accessibility:
  199. Why Are More Digital Accessibility Suits Being Filed as Class Actions (And What Does It Mean?):
  200. ADA Lawsuits Are on the Rise, Website Complaints Biggest Targets:
  201. How To Prevent a Web Accessibility Lawsuit:
  202. Why Websites Need an Accessibility Statement:
  203. ElementsCasino -- ACCESSIBILITY POLICY:
  204. Rideau Carleton Raceway Casino -- Accessibility Statement:
  205. LA Times -- Lawsuits targeting business websites over ADA violations are on the rise (Hotels, Restaurants, Entertainment destinations & Government websites targeted by lawsuits):
  206. “Worldwide Web Accessibility - cases from the USA”:
  207. New York State Division of Human Rights announces settlements of accessibility complaints against Redbox, Coinstar, ecoATM:
  208. Lawsuit Provides Blind Individuals with Access to New York State’s Emergency Mass Notification System:
  209. Judge Approves ADA Class Action Settlement Against Eyewear Company Over Website's Lack of Visibility:
  210. CBD firms facing lawsuits over website accessibility:
  211. Appellate Court Finds Websites Not Covered Under ADA, Sets Up Circuit Split:
  212. 10 awesome companies you didn’t know were sued for ADA website compliance:
  213. Title III Lawsuits - 10 Big Companies Sued Over Website Accessibility:
  214. 4 Healthcare Companies Sued Over ADA Website Compliance (and Why it Matters!):
  215. Roadmap to Web Accessibility in Higher Education:
  216. Is Your WordPress Site an Accessibility Lawsuit Waiting to Happen?:
  217. 5 things I learned about web accessibility by testing a screen reader:
  218. Experitest’s Web and Mobile Accessibility Testing Explained in Full:
  219. Why Automated Web Accessibility Testing Tools Aren’t Enough:
  220. Performing an accessibility self-audit:
  221. Working Together - People with Disabilities and Computer Technology:
  222. 12 Facts And Figures About Having A Disability In Canada:
  223. Is The “Accessible Icon” Wheelchair Logo Due For A Redesign?:
  224. How to Effectively Support Employees With Disabilities: | Example of alternative mouse for A11Y needs
  225. How can screen readers be used in Accessibility Testing?:
  226. Top 20 Accessibility Testing Tools for Web Applications:
  227. UsabelNet offers "A11Y User Testing" with members of the Disability Community:
  228. 10 Accessible Web Design Examples to Model Your Site After:
  229. The Ultimate Guide to Achieving Website ADA Compliance:
  230. Assistive Technology intro (WEBINAR): | SLIDES
  231. Assistive Technology for Visually Impaired -- Making a Difference:
  232. Assistive Technology for Visually Impaired Individuals - What to Choose and How:
  233. Refreshable Braille Displays:
  234. Braille Alphabet & Numbers:
  235. DIY ‘smart’ white cane works like a self-driving car:
  236. Multimodal sensing and intuitive steering assistance improve navigation and mobility for people with impaired vision:
  237. Engineers 3D-Print Personalized, Wireless Wearables That Never Need a Charge:
  238. Mobile assistive technologies for the visually impaired:
  239. 10 Free Screen Readers For Blind Or Visually Impaired Users:
  240. 6 best screen readers for the blind or visually impaired people:
  241. Assistive Technology for Visually Impaired and Blind People:
  242. Sensor-Based Assistive Devices for Visually-Impaired People: Current Status, Challenges, and Future Directions:
  243. Old Cynthia URL: | Cynthia - Section 508 checker
  244. Android Accessibility scanner guide:
  245. How to use PA11Y:
  246. Microsoft -- Supplier Accessibility toolkit:
  247. Colorblind Web Page Filter:
  248. HTML CodeSniffer - A11Y bookmarklet:
  249. Automated Accessibility Testing Tool (AATT): (free service from PayPal that wraps HTML CodeSniffer & Axe with hooks to SeLion, Nemo, Nightwatch)
  250. PA11Y:
  251. TPGi -- Website Accessibility Scan:
  252. JavaScript Bookmarklets for Accessibility Testing:
  253. CKEditor -- Accessibility Checker:
  254. PowerMapper - SortSite:
  255. Tenon - Accessibility as a Service:
  256. CommonLook: (best "PDF document" A11Y scanning)
  257. 5 Website Accessibility Checkers You Need Today:
  258. Top 25 Awesome Accessibility Testing Tools for Websites:
  259. What are the best and free tools to perform Web accessibility testing?:
  260. Website Accessibility Software Market is Booming Worldwide By Top Emerging Key Players -- Google, Siteimprove, DYNO Mapper, Deque, BoIA, Crownpeak, Level Access, DubBot, Monsido, Silktide:
  261. wikipedia: JAWS (screen_reader)
  262. NVDA -- Keyboard Commands - Quick Reference Guide:
  263. Quick Reference Guide -- NVDA for Windows Keyboard Commands:
  264. Quick Reference Guide -- NVDA Keyboard Commands:
  265. VoiceOver - Vision:
  266. 10 Free Screen Readers For Blind Or Visually Impaired Users:
  267. DARE Index 2020 - Top Performing Countries:
  268. Global Accessibility Awareness Day (GAAD): (3rd Thu. in May)
  269. CHALLENGE -- Accessibility know-how needs to go mainstream with developers - NOW:
  270. Deque -- GAAD 2021 - Basic Accessibility Fundamentals bootcamp:
  271. Deque -- GAAD 2021 Workshop - Translating Design Wireframes into Accessible HTML/CSS:
  272. UC San Diego -- GAAD 2021- Global Accessibility Awareness Fair 2021: (walkthrough of Screen Reader usage and blockers starts 39:05)
  273. T12t meetup - accessibility mindset at your workplace - GAAD 2021: | GAAD 2021 discussions
  274. World Health Organization(WHO) -- International Day of Persons with Disabilities 2020 - A Day for All:
  275. United Nations (UN) - International Day of Persons with Disabilities:
  276. How GAAD Started:
  277. Disability Rights after Amsterdam - the way forward:
  278. World Health Organization (WHO) - "world report on disability" (2011):
  279. 15% worldwide have physical or mental disability:
  280. Dawkins is wrong – grossly wrong – about Down’s syndrome:
  281. What is the European Union’s Web Accessibility Directive?:
  282. Guidance on Web Accessibility and the ADA:
  283. Make 2020 the year your company stops waiting for an Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) letter/lawsuit to take action on A11Y:
  284. ADA Best Practices Tool Kit for State/Local Governments -- Chapter 6 - Curb Ramps & Pedestrian Crossings (Title II of ADA):
  285. Auditing Your Website for Accessibility Compliance and Understanding How ADA Applies:
  286. Congress Did Not Pass ADA Amendment Clarifying Web Accessibility Standards:
  287. White House Embraces WCAG with Accessibility Updates: (Dark mode, Font size options, more Spanish support, Inclusivity features)
  288. Centers for Disease Control and prevention (CDC) -- Disability Impacts All of Us (INFOGRAPHIC):
  289. Act on the Elimination of Disability Discrimination in Japan:
  290. New law bans bias against people with disabilities, but shortcomings exist, say experts:
  291. Disabled train passengers left disconnected in age of digital smart card use:
  292. Japan's older population hits record high:
  293. An Overview of Canada’s Accessibility Laws - A Look at the Old and the New:
  294. Summary of the Accessible Canada Act:
  295. Accessible Canada Act (INFOGRAPHICS) - Making an accessible Canada for persons with disabilities:
  296. Government of Canada announces appointments to the Canadian Accessibility Standards Development Organization:
  297. Accessibility in the (Canadian) public service:
  298. TTC -- 2020 Accessibility Plan Status Update:
  299. People with disabilities around B.C. to benefit from new accessibility programs:
  300. High-Speed Access for All: Canada's Connectivity Strategy:
  301. Rollout of RHFAC continues cross-Canada:
  302. Best provinces for accessibility in Canada:
  303. Blind New Brunswickers hopeful legislature bill offering free transit fares gets passed:
  304. A Complete Overview of Canada’s Accessibility Laws:
  305. Minister Bains announces Canada’s Digital Charter: (Charter’s 10 principles will build a foundation of trust for Canadians in the digital sphere)
  306. wikipedia: CNIB Foundation
  307. Accessibility for Ontarians with Disabilities Act (AODA) compliance -- A Primer on Canadian Web Accessibility Standards:
  308. eSSENTIAL Accessibility -- AODA Frequently Asked Questions:
  309. New Accessibility Requirements Fast Approaching Under AODA:
  310. Government accessibility standards and WCAG 2 by country:
  311. About the HTML Epidemic, WebAIM “Million” Report, and Teach Access:
  312. WCAG 2.1 -- UX Checklist - items broken down into POUR headings:
  313. User1st creates web accessibility testing solution (Press Release):
  314. ADA Standards for Accessible Design :
  315. IBM Launches Open Source Equal Access Toolkit:
  316. IBM launches Equal Access Toolkit to help developers build accessible websites and applications:
  317. IBM introduces Agent Building and Learning Environment (ABLE):
  318. Designing for accessibility - Dos and don'ts (UK - Home Office Digital):
  319. wikipedia: International Symbol of Access (ISA)
  320. What You Can Do to Remove Barriers on the Web:
  321. Game Accessibility Feature Tags are now Available on Microsoft Store for Xbox:
  322. Technical Language, Advice Understandability, and Perceptions of Expertise and Trustworthiness - The Case of the Financial Planner (WHITEPAPER):
  323. Egghead courses -- Develop Accessible Web Apps with React:
  324. WAI -- Before, After, Demo (BAD) website:>fter/home.html (great reference for how a website without A11Y was able to fix most of their issues)
  325. A Beginner's Guide to Web Accessibility:
  326. Legacy version of Google's Web Accessibility course:
  327. Google's Accessibility guide for Android/Chrome developers: | Accessible Styles | Semantic HTML | A11Y overview
  328. A11ycasts with Google Sr. Accessibility Engineer Rob Dodson:
  329. Perkins -- eLearning, School for the Blind - App Accessibility Checklist:
  330. Common Types Of Learning Disabilities:
  331. The impact of motion animation on cognitive disability:
  332. Xbox Accessibility Guidelines Provide Best Practices So More Gamers Can Play:
  333. Xbox One and Windows 10 Add In-Game Transcription:
  334. Microsoft starts new program to help (game developers) make more accessible games:
  335. XBox's new "Adaptive Controller":
  336. Microsoft’s new Xbox controller is designed entirely for players with disabilities:
  337. Microsoft is testing Xbox party chat accessibility features:
  338. Android -- Test your app's accessibility:
  339. Android -- Using Espresso for automated Accessibility Checking:
  340. Microsoft Inclusive Toolkit wins 2017's "Best Empowering category" in the annual "World Changing Ideas" competition:
  341. Microsoft - our approach to Accessibility:
  342. Microsoft Is 'Doubling Down' on Accessibility to Help Close Disability Divide:
  343. Apple A11Y features landing page:
  344. Apple introduces SignTime... ASL for iOS, more accessibility features for people with disabilities:
  345. Accessibility in SwiftUI:
  346. The Business Case for an Accessible Website:
  347. American Institutes for Reasearch (AIR) -- Hidden Market - The Purchasing Power of Working-Age Adults With Disabilities:
  348. Canadian Survey on Disability Reports:
  349. The 2006 Participation and Activity Limitation Survey: Disability in Canada:
  350. eCH -- 0059 - Accessibility Standard for European Union (German):
  351. "How Accessible Are We?" -- Digital India report (2020):
  352. Manual Accessibility Testing - Keyboard and Screen Reader Navigation:
  353. Avoid "Keyboard Traps" To Make Your Site More Accessible:
  354. Accessibility compliance deadline looms in Ontario:
  355. Ontario Making Public Spaces More Accessible:
  356. MIT -- The role of accessibility in a universal web (WHITEPAPER):
  357. Accessible jQuery-ui Components Demonstration:
  358. Accessible Icon Buttons:
  359. HTMHell special - close buttons:
  360. Implementing A Pure CSS Collapsible (that can still have keyboard support via a tiny bit of JS):
  361. MozDev -- WAI-ARIA roles - Using the aria-live property::
  362. Getting screen reader to read new content added (post-pageload) with JavaScript:
  363. ARIA -- "Live" Region Playground: (testing aria-live="" attribute variations: off, polite, assertive... .vs. default/non-present)
  364. WAI-ARIA -- roles:
  365. MozDev -- WAI-ARIA roles - Using the timer role:
  366. MozDev -- WAI-ARIA roles - Using the Navigation role:
  367. MozDev -- WAI-ARIA roles - Using the region role:
  368. MozDev -- WAI-ARIA roles - Using the complimentary role:
  369. DigitalA11Y -- overview of aria-atomic property:
  370. Study on aria-atomic & aria-relevant on aria-live regions:
  371. Color Blindness & Web Design:
  372. Color Contrast for Better Readability:
  373. Ensure High Contrast for Text Over Images:
  374. NIH -- Types of Color Blindness:
  375. wikipedia: Ishihara test
  376. Getting Typography Right in Digital Design:
  377. Web Design is 95% Typography:
  378. Best Fonts To Use for Website Accessibility:
  379. Tricks for ARIA on the iPad/iOS:
  380. Building a Universally Accessible Blog:
  381. MozDev -- ARIA - live regions:
  382. MozDev -- ARIA - alertdialog role:
  383. MozDev -- ARIA - dialog role:
  384. ARIA Dialog role example (Modal):
  385. W3C -- Making a Dialog Modal:
  386. Modal dialogs:
  387. Dialog (Modal):
  388. Creating An Accessible Modal Dialog: | DEMO | SRC
  389. CodePen Home Some Accessible Modal Techniques:
  390. jQuery simple and accessible modal window, using ARIA:
  391. Building better accessibility primitives:
  392. Making Elements Focusable with Tabindex:
  393. Is there a way to do an accessible modal?:
  394. Keep tabbing within modal pane only:
  395. Best Practices for Modal Windows:
  396. Popups -- 10 Problematic Trends and Alternatives:
  397. Semantically-Accurate HTML5 Element for a Modal Dialog:
  398. Best Practices for Modals / Overlays / Dialog Windows:
  399. The a11y Monthly - Making modals accessible:
  400. Inclusive components -- making modals accessible:
  401. Web Accessibility Guidelines v1.0:
  402. How to trap focus inside modal to make it ADA compliant:
  403. Considerations for Styling a Modal:
  404. Demonstration of a keyboard- and screen-reader accessible modal dialog:
  405. Benefits and drawbacks of modal windows:
  406. How To Make Modal Windows Better For Everyone:
  407. Is there a way to do an accessible modal?:
  408. Creating An Accessible Modal Dialog:
  409. Accessible modal window using ARIA and Vanilla JS:
  410. jQuery simple and accessible modal window, using ARIA:
  411. jQuery trap input plugin:
  412. React Modals:
  413. React-Bootstrap Modal Accessibility Warnings from React-A11y:
  414. Notes On Client-Rendered Accessibility:
  415. ReactJS docs - Accessibility:
  416. Deque - React Accessiblity best practices (WEBINAR):
  417. Getting Started with Web Accessibility in React:
  418. Accessibility -- Never Remove the Outlines:
  419. Outline NONE in CSS -- a { outline: none; } - DON'T DO IT!:
  420. The plague of outline:0:
  421. The Friendly Inbox - Making Emails Accessible For Subscribers With Disabilities:
  422. WCAG 2.0 -- Link Purpose (In Context):
  423. Accessibility -- Web Links Should Be Links, and Web Buttons Should Be Buttons:
  424. WebAIM -- Link A11Y best practices:
  425. WebAIM -- Links and Hypertext:
  426. Text Links - Best Practices for Screen Readers:
  427. Don't Rely on the Title Attribute for Accessibility:
  428. Improving the Accessibility of Social Media in Government:
  429. YouTube Expands Speech Recognition and Translation AI Features:
  430. Facebook's Accessibility help page:
  431. Twitter’s web redesign isn’t as accessible as it should be, experts say:
  432. Seiichi Miyake: 5 Brilliantly Simple Uses for His "Tenji Blocks":
  433. The Unexpected Benefits of Web Accessibility: Why It’s More Than Just “The Right Thing To Do”:
  434. History of Assistive Technology:
  435. Assistive Technology timeline:
  436. To Hell with WCAG 2:
  437. Creating Accessible Menus and Mega Menus:
  438. Accessible Mega Menu:
  439. Creating an animated Menu indicator with CSS Selectors: (bottom)
  440. Line Menu "currently active" indicator styles: (many examples if you don't mind scrolling through them all hah)
  441. Bootstrap - subtle but sufficient indicator on dynamic "Mega Menu":
  442. A Deep Dive on Skipping to Content:
  443. How to Create a “Skip to Content” Link :
  444. Skip to Main Content – Accessibility for AEM Web-applications (AEM 6.5.9 & AEMaaCs):
  445. How to skip some content from screen reader:
  446. WebAIM - Skip Navigation Links:
  447. What Is Skip Navigation Link and Why Is It Useful? :
  448. Carnegie Museum -- Skip Link:
  449. I found a hidden youtube button (SKIP NAVIGATION). To see it, open youtube and hit tab twice:
  450. WCAG 2.0 AA is the new Accessibility standard for any "Federal Agency" websites:
  451. Translating Design Wireframes Into Accessible HTML/CSS:
  452. Disability Barriers in Customer Service:
  453. Public Education Campaign on the Business Case for Accessibility:
  454. Top 5 Most Common Web Accessibility Mistakes:
  455. Top Ten Most Common Web Accessibility issues: (1.Image ALT text, 2.KeyboardNav visual focus indicator, 3.Use of proper labels, 4.Links without descriptive text, 5.Links/Buttons too small, 6.Tables without proper markup, 7.Headings hierarchy & Section nesting, 8.Color Contrast, 9.Embedding or Linking to inaccessible docs & media, 10.Identical descriptive text for content - multiple related or separate unrelated)
  456. 6 easy ways to make your projects more accessible:
  457. Beyond the screenreader - Online accessibility for assistive devices:
  458. UX Planet -- Color, psychology and design:
  459. An argument for incorporating color early on in UX design:
  460. Color meanings and the art of using color symbolism (in UI/UX Design):
  461. Ishihara’s Test for Colour Deficiency - 38 Plates Edition:
  462. Color Meanings – The Power and Symbolism of Colors:
  463. Real People, Real Stories Episode #9 (2021) -- Charlotte Dales from Inclusively and Aubrey Northam from Mobelux:
  464. What is a screen reader, and why are they important?:
  465. Canadians with disabilities face barriers to financial security, researchers find:
  466. How America failed students with disabilities during the pandemic:
  467. Australian study shows "those with disability are disproportionally affected by COVID" – New Report From CBM:
  468. COVID closures disproportionately affecting those with disabilities:
  469. The pandemic isn’t over — particularly for people with disabilities:
  470. COVID-19's Impact on People with Disabilities:
  471. Impacts of COVID-19 disproportionately affect poor and vulnerable - UN chief:
  472. COVID-19 has disproportionately impacted those living with developmental disabilities:
  473. COVID-19 Outbreak and Persons with Disabilities:
  474. Impact of COVID-19 on people with physical disabilities - A rapid review:
  475. Policy Brief -- A "Disability-Inclusive" Response to COVID-19:
  476. Workers With Disabilities Disproportionately Impacted By Covid-19 Pandemic:
  477. Role of Governor in promoting disability employment in COVID-19 recovery strategies:
  478. How to Use Color Blind Friendly Palettes to Make Your Charts Accessible:
  479. BBC - Accessibility for Products:
  480. Personas with Disabilities:
  481. Persona Spectrums - Building for Inclusion and Accessibility:
  482. How to Add Alt Text to Images on Facebook:
  483. 5 ways to make websites more accessible for deaf people:
  484. How to make a website accessible for the deaf and hearing impaired:
  485. Web accessibility for hearing impairments:

See Also

i18n | l10n | W3C | Web | SEO | HCI | UI/UX Design | Captions | Subtitles | Video Annotation | HTML/HTML5 | E-Learning | STT/TTS | Speech Recognition | Voice Recognition | Image Recognition | Biometrics | Sustainability