Accessibility

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Accessibility (commonly abbreviated as A11Y, also refered to as universal support) is the support for disabled or otherwise impaired persons.


Specifications

WCAG

Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (commonly abbreviated WCAG) is part of a series of accessibility guidelines, including the Authoring Tool Accessibility Guidelines (ATAG) and the User Agent Accessibility Guidelines (UAAG)[1][2].


                                           WCAG 1.0   |   WCAG 2.0
importance of the content A AA AAA A AA AAA
(closed) captionsXXXX*XX
(closed) audio descriptionXXXX*XX
full text alternativeX*X
sign languageX
  1. A = Priority 1, Web developers must satisfy these requirements, otherwise it will be impossible for one or more groups to access the Web content. Conformance to this level is described as A.
  2. AA = Priority 2, Web developers should satisfy these requirements, otherwise some groups will find it difficult to access the Web content. Conformance to this level is described as AA or Double-A.
  3. AAA = Priority 3, Web developers may satisfy these requirements, in order to make it easier for some groups to access the Web content. Conformance to this level is described as AAA or Triple-A.

[3] [4] [5]

POUR principles

In addition to the specific multimedia accessibility techniques, WCAG defines defines four key principles of accessibility:

  1. Perceivable - Information can be presented in different ways; for example, in braille, different text sizes, text-to-speech, or symbols, etc.
  2. Operable - Functionality can be used in different modalities; for example, keyboard, mouse, sip-and-puff, speech input, touch, etc.
  3. Understandable - Information and functionality is understandable; for example consistent navigation, simple language, etc.
  4. Robust - Content can be interpreted reliably by a wide variety of browsers, media players, and assistive technologies.

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There are currently two stable versions of WCAG that are both supported by W3C:

WCAG 2.0 was published in December 2008, and has become widely adopted as the standard for web accessibility by many businesses and governments around the world. It defines 12 Guidelines under the four POUR principles. Under each Guideline there are more specific Success Criteria divided into three Conformance Levels: A, AA, and AAA. WCAG 2.0 defines 61 Success Criteria.


WCAG 2.1 was published in June 2018, to better address accessibility for people with cognitive and learning disabilities, people with low vision, and people with disabilities using mobile devices. WCAG 2.1 is fully backward compatible with WCAG 2.0, so that if your content conforms to WCAG 2.1 it also conforms to WCAG 2.0. WCAG 2.1 defines 13 Guidelines and 78 Success Criteria.

WCAG 2.0 – Quick Facts and Guide: https://www.hurix.com/wcag-quick-facts-and-guide/ [10] [11] [12] [13]

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WAI

Web Accessibility Initiative (commonly abbreviated WCAG).

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ARIA

ARIA Landmarks Example: https://w3c.github.io/aria-practices/examples/landmarks/index.html [18] [19] [20] [21] [22]


ATAG

UAAG

Kiosks

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Printed Materials

  • Best Practices and Guidelines for Large Print Documents used by the Low Vision Community authored by the Council of Citizens with Low Vision: https://perma.cc/MQ2K-5UAQ

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a11y

Wordpress as of v4.3.x offers Accessibility prompts via JavaScript to communicate with Screen Reader software (where available natively in the client's browser or via Plugin). Simply

wp.a11y.speak('YOUR TEXT TO BE SPOKEN HERE'); 
  • a11y
  • The Accessibility (a11y) Project: https://www.a11yproject.com/ (aside from tons of great blogs/tutorials/resources, a nice visual explaining the 11 characters between "A" and "Y" of the word AccessibilitY)

AAM

ACC Name


Section 508

United States government initiative towards Accessibility for IT.

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Diversity & Inclusion

Concerns "Accessible employment" and workplace inclusivity (equal participation & opportunities).

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Societal approaches

Equality-vs-Equity-vs-Justice.png

Equality


Equity

Justice


Information Architecture

Content Strategy

Accessibility Auditors

There are three "tiers" or types of 3rd-party Accessibility providers:

  1. Tier 1 - scan & overlay (no "preventive" coverage against lawsuits) $2-5k USD
  2. Tier 2 - hybrid, scan & overlay with wait & see approach (partial coverage) $6-12k USD
  3. Tier 3 - full legal coverage (guaranteed compliance & insurance coverage options against lawsuits) $12-25k USD

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Over 10000 cases/year go to court, almost 100% go to court, average of over $20000 USD awarded to plaintiffs.


Desktop Technology-specific A11Y

PDF accessibility

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PPT accessiblity

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Email accessibility

Here are a few tips to help you send accessible emails:

  • Provide a clear, brief, and informative subject line
  • Choose a font style that is easy to read in at least 12-14 point font
  • Use spaces to break up paragraphs
  • Use plain text and avoid using lots of special characters and symbols
  • Avoid flashing or flickering content (think: gifs in your email signature

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Web Technology-specific A11Y

HTML accessibility

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CSS accessibility

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JS accessibility

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Special A11Y concerns

Visual

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Motion preferences

A number of people may suffer from permanent/chronic, temporary/resolvable or situational/environmental issues around motion, flicker and related content changes. These could be triggered through:

  • content animations
  • moving, growing or shrinking pictures/text
  • strobing effects
  • sudden color changes
  • screen transitions

Vestibular Disorders and those who can become triggered into seizures are the major health concern here, but there are also simply those who do not like such "special effects" (or for whom it makes the content harder to read/understand or makes them dizzy, confused or otherwise uncomfortable); so we should respect their preferences and offer them an experience without such effects. The current way to communicate a preference not to be shown animations and related effects is the CSS3 markup "@prefers-reduced-motion".

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Contrast

Text & Images must have sufficient contrast between one another and their respective containers/backgrounds.

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Screen Reader

  • WebAIM -- Designing for Screen Reader compatibility: https://webaim.org/techniques/screenreader/ (similar considerations for all types of apps Desktop/Mobile/Web, but approaches slightly different depending on platform)

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Keyboard navigation

Keyboard Accessibility defines the ability to use a standard or custom (i.e. Braille, RSI positioned keys, etc) keyboard input device rather than any other HCI peripheral device (such as mouse, stylus, finger/touch, voice, etc) to interact with a given Website, WebApp, Desktop App or Mobile App.


When verifying "Keyboard Accessibility" you should check that:

  1. 'Tab to all - users can tab to all the active elements including links, form fields, buttons, and a media player control.
  2. Tab away - users can tab away from (out of) all elements that can be tabbed into.
  3. Tab order - the tab order follows the logical reading order according to the language on the page.
  4. Visual focus - the focus is clearly visible as users tab through the elements, and users can tell if navigating away to another application or tab upon returning, precisely which element has focus at any point in time.
  5. Functionality - users can do everything with the keyboard. That is you don't need to use a mouse to activate actions options, visible changes, and other functionality.
  6. Drop-downs - after users tab to a drop-down list using the arrow keys to move through the options without triggering another action.
  7. Image links - when images are links they have clear & visible focus and they can be activated using the keyboard.

The following table shows some common keyboard shortcuts and keymap conventions:

Interaction

Keystrokes

Navigate to most elements

  • Tab
  • Shift + Tab - navigate backward

Link

Enter

Button

Enter or Spacebar

Checkbox

Spacebar - check/uncheck a checkbox

Radio buttons

  • ↑/↓ or ←/→ - select an option
  • Tab - move to the next element

Select (dropdown) menu

  • ↑/↓ - navigate between menu options
  • Spacebar - expand

Autocomplete

  • Type to begin filtering
  • ↑/↓ - navigate to an option
  • Enter - select an option

Dialog

Esc - close

Slider

  • ↑/↓ or ←/→ - increase or decrease slider value
  • Home/End - beginning or end

Menu bar

  • ↑/↓ - Previous/next menu option
  • Enter - expand the menu (optional) and select an option.
  • ←/→ - expand/collapse submenu

Tab panel

  • Tab - once to navigate into the group of tabs and once to navigate out of the group of tabs
  • ↑/↓ or ←/→ - previous/next tab.

'Tree' menu

  • ↑/↓ - Navigate Previous/next menu option
  • ←/→ - expand/collapse submenu, move up/down one level

Scroll

  • ↑/↓ - scroll vertically
  • ←/→ - scroll horizontally
  • Spacebar/Shift + Spacebar - scroll by page

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Mobile technology-specific A11Y approaches

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Apple (iOS)

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Google (Android)

Touch Target

Minimum sizes for interactive areas are needed to prevent an inability to trigger required events or operate controls in the desired manner (aka. "Fat Fingering"). Most "Mobile design guidelines" encourage practices to prevent any issues here such as 32px padding on either side of any button or link, and use of labels tied to input fields within forms that cause the correct corresponding field to become in focus.

Accessibility Overlays

"Accessibility Overlays" are bolt-on solutions that attempt to "embed" accessibility features and options into an inaccessible or incompletely accessible website or mobile app with many or a specific few unfixed access barriers of certain types. While these can be slightly better than doing nothing, they are no substitute for building a fully accessible experience and often fall far short of primary accessibility and risk (lawsuit exposure, customer churn) reduction goals. Studies have shown that it is always better to "bake accessibility in" from the beginning.

The following issues aren't fully covered by Overlays (and can sometimes be worsened or made more confusing by having the extra layer):

  1. Unlabeled/mislabeled form fields
  2. Zoom disabled
  3. Minimum width
  4. Use of layout tables
  5. Ambiguous anchor text links
  6. Images of text
  7. Focus order
  8. Alt text[146][147]
  9. Consistent identification
  10. Keyboard only usage
  11. Error prevention
  12. Error suggestions
  13. Keyboard traps
  14. Incorrect heading structure
  15. Missing links
  16. No input change
  17. Parsing
  18. Misidentified language
  19. Closed captions
  20. Locked display orientation


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A11Y Lawsuits

  1. Winn-Dixie grocery: https://www.forbes.com/sites/legalnewsline/2017/06/13/first-of-its-kind-trial-goes-plaintiffs-way-winn-dixie-must-update-website-for-the-blind/?sh=a3b943f1b38a
  2. McDonald's self-serve kiosks: https://www.wsj.com/articles/mcdonalds-starts-making-self-service-easier-for-blind-diners-11631900280
  3. Harvard & MIT Universities: https://www.insidehighered.com/news/2019/04/08/mit-and-harvard-fail-get-out-video-captioning-court-case
  4. UC Berkley on textbooks: https://www.3playmedia.com/blog/dra-v-uc-berkeley-a-win-win-with-structured-negotiation/
  5. CVS Pharmacy: https://icharts.net/ada-compliance/
  6. Amazon: https://www.classaction.org/media/bishop-v-amazon-com-inc.pdf[158]
  7. Netflix: https://digitalcommons.law.scu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?referer=https://www.google.com/&httpsredir=1&article=1092&context=historical[159][160][161][162][163][164]
  8. Fox News: https://topclassactions.com/lawsuit-settlements/lawsuit-news/836448-fox-news-website-not-accessible-blind-class-action-says/
  9. Nike: https://www.accessiblemetrics.com/blog/4-key-takeaways-from-2018-web-accessibility-lawsuits/
  10. Burger King: https://www.classaction.org/media/mendizabal-v-burger-king-corporation.pdf[165][166]
  11. Five Guys': https://topclassactions.com/lawsuit-settlements/lawsuit-news/485124-five-guys-class-action-says-website-not-accessible-blind-users/
  12. Domino's: https://www.courthousenews.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/01/Dominos-Ruling.pdf[167][168][169][170][171][172][173][174][175][176][177][178][179][180][181]
  13. Winn-Dixie: https://www.courthousenews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/06/Winn-Dixie-ADA-verdict-.pdf[182][183][184][185][186]
  14. Blue Apron: https://www.levelaccess.com/new-hampshire-court-denies-blue-aprons-motion-dismiss-digital-accessibility-suit/
  15. Conair/CuisinArt: https://www.leagle.com/decision/infdco20201217g35[187]
  16. Amtrak: https://www.ada.gov/amtrak_sa.html[188][189]
  17. HCA hospitals: https://www.fredlaw.com/news__media/2017/01/18/1427/healthcare_sector_is_newest_target_for_website_accessibility_lawsuits/
  18. Hulu: https://www.3playmedia.com/blog/hulu-agrees-to-caption-100-percent-of-english-and-spanish-videos/[190]
  19. eBay: https://www.3playmedia.com/blog/earll-v-ebay-is-a-website-a-place-of-public-accommodation/
  20. Bank of America: https://www.lflegal.com/2015/06/bofa-travel-agreement/
  21. FedEx: https://www.3playmedia.com/blog/fedex-ground-sued-by-eeoc-nad-for-ada-violation/
  22. Hobby Lobby: https://lovata.com/blog/ada-website-compliance-lawsuits-recent-and-high-profile.html
  23. Bank of America (first major bank sued, all the way back in 2000): https://thefinancialbrand.com/27448/could-your-banking-website-be-the-target-of-a-lawsuit/
  24. Hard Rock Casino & Gulf Coast restaurant chains: https://www.sunherald.com/news/local/counties/harrison-county/article141331553.html
  25. NY city MTA: https://www.6sqft.com/judge-rules-that-an-accessibility-lawsuit-against-the-mta-in-queens-can-move-forward/
  26. Robinhood (stock trading platform): https://www.fredlaw.com/wp-content/uploads/2021/02/Website-Accessibility-Complaint-Sanchez-v-Robinhood-SDNY-2-3-2021.pdf[191]
  27. American Airlines: https://www.paddleyourownkanoo.com/2021/07/24/man-sues-american-airlines-because-its-website-discriminates-against-blind-people/ ($40 million)
  28. ViacomCBS: https://www.fiercevideo.com/video/fcc-slaps-viacomcbs-3-5m-fine-over-pluto-tv-closed-captions ($3.5 million)[192][193][194]
  29. Fox News: https://topclassactions.com/lawsuit-settlements/lawsuit-news/fox-news-website-not-accessible-blind-class-action-says/
  30. WWE: https://heelbynature.com/wrestling-news/wwe-news/wwe-settles-lawsuit-for-violation-of-americans-with-disabilities-act/ (settled out of court)[195][196]
  31. Dell: https://regmedia.co.uk/2021/03/04/giannaros_vs_dell_complaint.pdf[197]
  32. Apple: https://appleinsider.com/articles/18/08/20/apple-sued-over-claims-website-is-inaccessible-to-visually-impaired-users[198][199][200][201]
  33. Uber: https://www.docketalarm.com/cases/District_Of_Columbia_District_Court/1--17-cv-01272/EQUAL_RIGHTS_CENTER_v._UBER_TECHNOLOGIES_INC._et_al/55/[202][203][204][205][206]
  34. NBA: https://buckleyfirm.com/uploads/1082/doc/Complaint_for_Permanent_Injunction,_Jahoda_v_NBA.pdf
  35. eHarmony: https://www.pacermonitor.com/public/case/8982926/West_v_eHarmony,_Inc
  36. Rolex: https://www.pacermonitor.com/public/case/23729995/Thorne_v_Rolex_Watch_USA,_Inc
  37. Beyonce's music promotion website: https://www.impactbnd.com/blog/is-your-website-ada-compliant-what-beyonces-website-accessibility-lawsuit-taught-us[207][208]

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Accessibility Testing

See also: Accessibility Testing

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Assistive Technologies

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Tools

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Screen Readers

Browse and focus modes: https://www.accessibility-developer-guide.com/knowledge/screen-readers/desktop/browse-focus-modes/

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Voice Control


Resources

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Tutorials

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  • Integrating Accessibility Throughout Design with User-Centered Design (UCD): uiaccess.com/accessucd/background.html#ucd[446]

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Don't disable outline, master it instead!: https://websightly.net/en/tutorial/dont-disable-outline-master-it-instead/

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External Links

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References

  1. W3C working group on WCAG: http://www.w3.org/WAI/intro/wcag.php
  2. Accessibility Principles of WAI: https://www.w3.org/WAI/fundamentals/accessibility-principles/
  3. Essential Components of Web Accessibility: https://www.w3.org/WAI/fundamentals/components/
  4. The WCAG-EM Web Accessibility Evaluation Process: https://www.boia.org/blog/what-is-wcag-em-an-introduction-to-accessibility-evaluation-methodology (5 Steps: #1-Scope, #2-Test, #3-Sample, #4-Audit, #5-Report)
  5. W3C -- WCAG 2.0 - Understanding Conformance: https://www.w3.org/TR/UNDERSTANDING-WCAG20/conformance.html
  6. WCAG 2.0 – The 4 POUR Principles and 12 Guidelines: https://www.tngconsulting.ca/wcag-2-0-the-4-pour-principles-and-12-guidelines/
  7. wikipedia: Web Content Accessibility Guidelines
  8. What’s new in WCAG 2.1?: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=f5qv7AnTUHk
  9. WCAG 2.1 techniques/examples: https://www.w3.org/WAI/WCAG21/Techniques/
  10. First Public Draft of WCAG 2.2 Published: https://www.boia.org/blog/first-public-draft-of-wcag-2-2-published
  11. WCAG 2.2 Overview and Feedback: https://webaim.org/blog/wcag-2-2-overview-and-feedback/
  12. Latest Public Draft of WCAG 2.2 Features Nine New Success Criteria, Other Updates: https://www.boia.org/blog/latest-public-draft-of-wcag-2.2-features-nine-new-success-criteria-other-updates
  13. WCAG 2.2 Release Impacts 2021 Web Accessibility: https://www.essentialaccessibility.com/blog/new-wcag-22-release-impacts-2021-web-accessibility
  14. Understanding the Differences Between WCAG 2.2 and WCAG 3.0: https://www.boia.org/blog/understanding-the-differences-between-wcag-2.2-and-wcag-3.0
  15. What to Expect From The First Public Working Draft of WCAG 3.0: https://www.deque.com/blog/first-public-working-draft-wcag-3/
  16. Essential Component parts of (achieving) Web Accessibility: https://www.w3.org/WAI/fundamentals/components/
  17. W3C -- full listing of WAI-ARIA standards: https://www.w3.org/WAI/standards-guidelines/aria/
  18. wikipedia: Web Accessibility Initiative
  19. Mozilla Dev Docs -- ARIA: https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/Accessibility/ARIA
  20. Google Developers -- Introduction to ARIA: https://developers.google.com/web/fundamentals/accessibility/semantics-aria/
  21. MozDev -- Using ARIA - Roles, States & Properties: https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/Accessibility/ARIA/ARIA_Techniques
  22. WebAIM - Alternative Text guideines: https://webaim.org/techniques/alttext/
  23. Authoring Tool Accessibility Guidelines (ATAG) 2.0: http://www.w3.org/TR/ATAG20/
  24. Does WCAG Apply to Kiosks?: https://www.tpgi.com/does-wcag-apply-to-kiosks/
  25. McDonald’s Starts Making Self-Service Easier for Blind Diners: https://www.wsj.com/articles/mcdonalds-starts-making-self-service-easier-for-blind-diners-11631900280
  26. Downloadable Disability Access Symbols: https://perma.cc/TFZ7-BKFV
  27. Braille Transcription Resource List: https://perma.cc/DPU9-944D
  28. Accessibility Guidelines for Print Materials: https://perma.cc/JN75-2WDQ
  29. Creating Accessible Print Materials -- Tip Sheet (Oct. 2017): https://www.vera.org/downloads/publications/print_materials_101617.pdf
  30. Accessibility Guidelines for Print Materials: https://perma.cc/JN75-2WDQ
  31. Appropriate Terms to Use for those with "Accessibility challenges" (which is preferred over "Handicapped" or "Disabled"): https://www.nda.ie/Publications/Attitudes/Appropriate-Terms-to-Use-about-Disability/
  32. Clear Print Accessibility Guidelines: https://perma.cc/HS6Q-LUM7
  33. A Guide to Making Documents Accessible to People Who Are Blind or Visually Impaired: https://perma.cc/9W4Y-SAFK
  34. wikipedia: Section 508 Amendment to the Rehabilitation Act of 1973
  35. Information & Communication Technology (ICT) - Revised 508 Standards & 255 Guidelines: https://www.access-board.gov/ict/
  36. Guide to the ADA Accessibility Standards -- Chapter 3 - Clear Floor or Ground Space and Turning Space: https://www.access-board.gov/ada/guides/chapter-3-clear-floor-or-ground-space-and-turning-space/ | PDF
  37. ADA checklist -- SURVEY FORM 24 - MEDICAL CARE FACILITIES (includes wheelchair physical spacing requirements for turning/maneuverability): https://web.archive.org/web/20090508103508/https://www.access-board.gov/adaag/checklist/Medical.html
  38. US Census Infograph on the Commonality of Specific Disabilities: http://www.disabilityresource.org/3-us-census-infograph-on-the-commonality-of-specific-disabilities
  39. Recent U.S. Disability Statistics from the Census Bureau: https://www.disabled-world.com/disability/statistics/census-stats.php
  40. Employer Assistance and Resource Network (EARN) on "Disability Inclusion" -- Encouraging applicants with disabilities - job descriptions & announcements, employer assistance, and resource network on "Disability Inclusion": https://production-askearn-org.s3.amazonaws.com/EARN_Explainer_Job_Descriptions_Checklist_ab47437635.pdf
  41. What are "land acknowledgements" to (First Nations) and why do they matter?: https://locallove.ca/issues/what-are-land-acknowledgements-and-why-do-they-matter/
  42. Implicit Age Cues in Resumes - Subtle Effects on Hiring Discrimination: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5554369/
  43. When an “Educated” Black Man Becomes Lighter in the Mind’s Eye - Evidence for a Skin Tone Memory Bias: https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/2158244013516770#ref-32
  44. Do We Need Safe or Brave Spaces?: https://alternativebreaks.org/safe-or-brave-spaces/
  45. From Safe Spaces to Brave Spaces: https://tlss.uottawa.ca/site/perspective-autochtone/1d-_From-Safe-Spaces-to-Brave-Spaces.pdf
  46. Biden Signs Executive Order (EO) to Advance Diversity, Equity in Federal Workforce (DEIA): https://www.meritalk.com/articles/biden-signs-eo-to-advance-diversity-equity-in-federal-workforce/
  47. Americans and ‘Cancel Culture’ - Where Some See Calls for Accountability, Others See Censorship, Punishment: https://www.pewresearch.org/internet/2021/05/19/americans-and-cancel-culture-where-some-see-calls-for-accountability-others-see-censorship-punishment/
  48. 10 Best Name Pronunciation Tools: https://beebom.com/name-pronunciation-tools/ (because a name is worth pronouncing properly)
  49. New Brunswick appoints independent commissioner on systemic racism: https://www.msn.com/en-ca/news/canada/new-brunswick-appoints-independent-commissioner-on-systemic-racism/ar-AAOMEGx
  50. Swansea model with Down's syndrome, Beth Matthews, signs with agency: https://www.bbc.com/news/uk-wales-60140181
  51. Scholarship for Black students launched at King’s School of Journalism by Global News: https://globalnews.ca/news/8582893/global-news-j-school-scholarship-halifax/
  52. Content Strategists: What Do They Do?: http://contentini.com/content-strategists-what-do-they-do/
  53. Context As A Content Strategy: Creating More Meaningful Web Experiences Through Contextual Filtering: https://www.slideshare.net/danieleizans/context-as-a-content-strategy-creating-more-meaningful-web-experiences-through-contextual-filtering
  54. Complete Beginner’s Guide to Content Strategy: https://www.uxbooth.com/articles/complete-beginners-guide-to-content-strategy/
  55. The Discipline of Content Strategy: https://alistapart.com/article/thedisciplineofcontentstrategy/
  56. A Checklist for Content Work: https://alistapart.com/article/a-checklist-for-content-work/
  57. To Hell With Bad Browsers: https://alistapart.com/article/tohell/
  58. Content Strategy - The Philosophy of Data: http://boxesandarrows.com/content-strategy-the-philosophy-of-data/
  59. US Dept Justice WCAG PeaPod case: https://www.justice.gov/opa/pr/justice-department-enters-settlement-agreement-peapod-ensure-peapod-grocery-delivery-website
  60. Siteimprove FAQ -- What do you check for in PDFs?: https://files.nwesd.org/website/Accessbility/PDFChecker Info Sheet.pdf
  61. 5 key steps to a successful "Document Accessibility Program": https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/20140903163244-6856374-5-key-steps-to-a-successful-document-accessibility-program/
  62. Make your PowerPoint presentations accessible to people with disabilities: https://support.microsoft.com/en-us/office/make-your-powerpoint-presentations-accessible-to-people-with-disabilities-6f7772b2-2f33-4bd2-8ca7-dae3b2b3ef25
  63. How to Make an Accessible PowerPoint Presentation: https://business.tutsplus.com/tutorials/accessible-powerpoint-presentations--cms-30018
  64. How to Create 508 Compliant Microsoft PowerPoint Presentations: https://www.dau.edu/sites/governance-and-training/SitePages/How to Create 508 Compliant PowerPoint Presentations.aspx
  65. Creating Accessible Presentations in Microsoft PowerPoint: https://www.washington.edu/accessibility/documents/creating-accessible-presentations-in-microsoft-powerpoint/
  66. Accessible Presentations: https://ottawaheart.ca/document/accessible-presentations-slide-deck
  67. Why Accessibility in Email Marketing matters: https://www.responsemedia.com/why-accessibility-in-email-marketing-matters/
  68. Writing CSS with A11Y in mind: https://medium.com/@matuzo/writing-css-with-accessibility-in-mind-8514a0007939
  69. Writing HTML with A11Y in mind: https://medium.com/alistapart/writing-html-with-accessibility-in-mind-a62026493412
  70. Writing CSS with A11Y in mind: https://medium.com/@matuzo/writing-css-with-accessibility-in-mind-8514a0007939
  71. Writing JS with A11Y in mind: https://medium.com/@matuzo/writing-javascript-with-accessibility-in-mind-a1f6a5f467b9
  72. Improving The Color Accessibility For Color-Blind Users: https://www.smashingmagazine.com/2016/06/improving-color-accessibility-for-color-blind-users/
  73. A11Y 101 -- Reduced motion: https://a11y-101.com/development/reduced-motion
  74. MozDev -- A11Y - @media "prefers-reduced-motion": https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/CSS/@media/prefers-reduced-motion
  75. Revisiting "prefers-reduced-motion", the reduced motion media query: https://css-tricks.com/revisiting-prefers-reduced-motion-the-reduced-motion-media-query/
  76. prefers-reduced-motion -- Sometimes less movement is more: https://web.dev/prefers-reduced-motion/
  77. Short note on prefers-reduced-motion and puzzled (Windows) users: https://www.tpgi.com/short-note-on-prefers-reduced-motion-and-puzzled-windows-users/
  78. How to Insert an Animated GIF into a Word Document (and make it more Accessible with "alt" text description): https://www.howtogeek.com/718985/how-to-insert-an-animated-gif-into-a-word-document/
  79. Short note on prefers-reduced-motion and puzzled (Windows) users: https://www.tpgi.com/short-note-on-prefers-reduced-motion-and-puzzled-windows-users/
  80. New in Chrome 74 (2019-05-03) Prefers-reduced-motion media query: https://blog.logrocket.com/new-in-chrome-74-prefers-reduced-motion-media-query-50cd89d3e769/
  81. How to prevent "prefers-reduced-motion" OS setting from impacting animations on the browser (such as FF/Chrome): https://superuser.com/questions/1532014/how-to-prevent-prefers-reduced-motion-setting-from-ever-working-on-chrome
  82. Reduced Motion Setting: https://support.discord.com/hc/en-us/articles/360040613412-Reduced-Motion-Setting
  83. How Light Sensitivity & Photophobia Affect Vestibular Disorders: https://vestibular.org/how-light-sensitivity-photophobia-affect-vestibular-disorders/
  84. Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) - Concussion (INFOGRAPHIC): https://visual.ly/community/Infographics/health/brain-injury-concussion-infographic
  85. UK gov -- Health statistics - TBI (INFOGRAPHIC): https://www.pinterest.ca/pin/legal-infographic--463378249151088021/
  86. Traumatic Brain Injuries in California: https://visual.ly/community/Infographics/health/traumatic-brain-injuries-california
  87. Empathy in Accessibility Design - A Focus on Cognitive Disability Persona Spectrum: https://medium.com/@chinemeozumba/empathy-in-accessibility-design-e0360746fed8
  88. An Overview of Cognitive Impairment in Multiple Sclerosis : https://www.verywellhealth.com/cognitive-impairment-in-ms-2440794
  89. Associations among Strength, Steadiness, and Hand Function across the Adult Life Span: https://journals.lww.com/acsm-msse/Fulltext/2011/04000/Associations_among_Strength,_Steadiness,_and_Hand.2.aspx
  90. Top 5 Reasons to Address Gross Motor Skills of Children with ASD: https://www.seekfreaks.com/index.php/2019/02/13/article-review-top-5-reasons-to-address-gross-motor-skills-of-children-with-asd/
  91. What is Dyspraxia?: www.lourdeswellnessspa.com/dyspraxia-motor-skills.html
  92. Disorders of Childhood - Motor Skills Disorders and tests to indentify & evaluate severity: https://www.mentalhelp.net/disorders-of-childhood/motor-skills-disorders/
  93. Motor Skills Disorders: https://www.emedicinehealth.com/motor_skills_disorder/article_em.htm#motor_skills_disorder_causes
  94. Fine Motor Disability: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK563266/
  95. wikipedia: Cerebral Palsy
  96. Cerebral Palsy (CP) awareness (INFOGRAPHICS): https://www.gillettechildrens.org/get-involved/cerebral-palsy-awareness#infographics
  97. Cerebral Palsy lawyers: https://www.abclawcenters.com/practice-areas/types-of-birth-injuries/cerebral-palsy/
  98. Cerebral Palsy - Stats And Facts: https://assistivetechnologyblog.com/2016/08/cerebral-palsy-stats-and-facts.html
  99. What is "Cerebral Palsy" and how many people suffer through it (INFOGRAPHIC): https://globalstemcells.com/new-version/wp-content/uploads/2016/10/cerebral-palsy-infographic.png
  100. wikipedia: Muscular Dystrophy
  101. Muscular Dystrophy symptoms & causes: https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/muscular-dystrophy/symptoms-causes/syc-20375388
  102. Muscular Dystrophy - What Causes This Disabling Condition?: https://universityhealthnews.com/daily/aging-independence/muscular-dystrophy/
  103. DART Therapeutics Completes Study of New Biomarker for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Treatment: https://clinicounselor.com/dart-therapeutics-completes-study-of-new-biomarker-for-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy-treatment/
  104. CDC -- Disease facts - What is Muscular Dystrophy?: https://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/musculardystrophy/facts.html
  105. Muscular Dystrophy info & graphics: https://arthritis-rheumatism.com/muscular-dystrophy/
  106. CSS Working Group resolved to begin working on a spec to standardize "High Contrast" based on MS Edge's implementation story: https://twitter.com/gregwhitworth/status/1100515214355648513
  107. 86 Percent of Websites Fail this Accessibility Basic (color contrast): https://www.boia.org/blog/86-percent-of-websites-fail-this-accessibility-basic
  108. The difference between keyboard and screen reader navigation: https://tink.uk/the-difference-between-keyboard-and-screen-reader-navigation/
  109. Reading Efficiently with a Screen Reader -- JAWS - Headings: https://www.perkinselearning.org/technology/blog/reading-efficiently-screen-reader-headings
  110. Testing with Screen Readers: http://webaim.org/articles/screenreader_testing/
  111. HTML For Screen Readers - Labelling Elements: https://bitsofco.de/html-for-screen-readers-labelling-elements/
  112. Screen reader support for HTML5 sections: https://tink.uk/screen-reader-support-for-html5-sections/
  113. BBC News - Accessibility & Testing with JAWS Screen Reader (guideline): https://bbc.github.io/accessibility-news-and-you/accessibility-and-testing-with-jaws.html
  114. WebAIM - ScreenReader survey: https://webaim.org/projects/screenreadersurvey8/#used (includes OS/ScreenReader/Browser combos)
  115. Global Screen Reader Market Size Status and Forecast 2019-2025: https://www.orbismarketreports.com/global-screen-reader-market-size-status-and-forecast-2019-2025
  116. Configuring Your Machine For Testing With A Screen Reader: http://yuiblog.com/blog/2008/12/30/configuring-screen-readers/
  117. SmashingTV shows How a Screen Reader user surfs the web (WEBINAR): https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OUDV1gqs9GA | Excerpt - Léonie Watson on why semantic HTML document landmarks assist her using a screenreader
  118. Optimizing Pages for Screen Reader Accessibility: http://www.webbie.org.uk/Veli-Pekka/web_access.html
  119. Setting up a screen reader test environment: http://www.iheni.com/screen-reader-testing/
  120. Deque - Why Don’t Screen Readers Always Read What’s on the Screen? Part 1: Punctuation and Typographic Symbols: https://www.deque.com/blog/dont-screen-readers-read-whats-screen-part-1-punctuation-typographic-symbols/
  121. Should I use an aria-label or screen-reader only text?: https://accessible360.com/accessible360-blog/use-aria-label-screen-reader-text/
  122. 5 Myths About Screen Readers That Can Hurt Accessibility: https://www.boia.org/blog/5-myths-about-screen-readers-that-can-hurt-accessibility
  123. Keyboard-based navigation compatibility (even on mobile): https://a11y-guidelines.orange.com/en/web/develop/keyboard-navigation/
  124. WCAG 2.1 -- Understanding Success Criterion 2.4.3 - Focus Order: https://www.w3.org/WAI/WCAG21/Understanding/focus-order.html#examples
  125. Keyboard-Only Navigation for Improved Accessibility: https://www.nngroup.com/articles/keyboard-accessibility/
  126. US government -- Social Security Administration (SSA) - Use the Keyboard to Navigate Screens: https://www.ssa.gov/accessibility/keyboard_nav.html
  127. Give Yourself an Accessibility Test - Don't Use a Mouse: https://www.boia.org/blog/give-yourself-an-accessibility-test-dont-use-a-mouse
  128. How to Test Touch Target Size (buttons, links, …) to Meet UX & Accessibility Standards in 4 Steps: https://medium.com/sketch-app-sources/how-to-test-touch-target-size-buttons-links-to-meet-ux-accessibility-standards-in-4-steps-f1efead7590
  129. Hand tremors and the giant-button-problem: https://axesslab.com/hand-tremors/
  130. Focus Trapping for Accessibility (A11Y) - NOTE: this is a dangerous double-edged sword so use carefully: https://medium.com/@im_rahul/focus-trapping-looping-b3ee658e5177
  131. Focus Trapping - Trap focus inside an element: https://dev.to/r3l_k3r/focus-trappinglooping-for-keyboard-navigation-l6m
  132. Perfecto -- Automated Mobile Accessibility Tseting: https://www.perfecto.io/blog/automated-accessibility-testing
  133. Experitest -- How to incorporate Accessibility into Mobile App Testing: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=d3HpCKNv8Ew
  134. 6-STEP MOBILE APP ACCESSIBILITY CHECKLIST: https://blog.usablenet.com/mobile-app-accessibility-techniques-for-inclusive-design-part-1
  135. App Accessibility is The New Must in Mobile Development: https://buildfire.com/app-accessibility-mobile-development/
  136. Building apps for everyone; why inclusivity & accessibility truly matter: https://appsgamesinsights.libsyn.com/building-apps-for-everyone-why-inclusivity-and-accessibility-truly-matter-episode-6
  137. Flutter -- a11y & i18n: https://docs.flutter.dev/development/accessibility-and-localization/accessibility
  138. HP Notebook PCs - Using the Touchpad, Pointer, and Keyboard in Mobile Internet Experience: https://support.hp.com/us-en/document/c01633349
  139. Getting Started with Touchscreen UIs in Java Platform, Micro Edition (JME, on legacy Mobile devices or tiny screens): https://www.oracle.com/technical-resources/articles/javame/touchscreen-ui.html
  140. How to detect touch screen device using CSS?: https://www.geeksforgeeks.org/how-to-detect-touch-screen-device-using-css/
  141. Extendable Pointer Presenter Whiteboard PPT Point Stick Touch Screen Pen: https://www.walmart.com/ip/Extendable-Pointer-Presenter-Whiteboard-PPT-Point-Stick-Touch-Screen-Pen/710925497
  142. Staples Slim Stylus Pen - Black: https://www.staples.ca/products/2618968-en-staples-slim-stylus-pen-black
  143. Telescopic Teachers Pointer (Extendable/Retractable Presenter Classroom Whiteboard Pointer): https://www.amazon.ca/Telescopic-Extendable-Retractable-Presenter-Whiteboard/dp/B07K5W2DTZ/
  144. Testing for Accessibility on OS X: https://developer.apple.com/library/archive/documentation/Accessibility/Conceptual/AccessibilityMacOSX/OSXAXTestingApps.html
  145. Writing Great iOS Accessibility Labels: https://medium.com/macoclock/writing-great-ios-accessibility-labels-6d903ba17f7f
  146. WebAIM - Alternative Text: https://webaim.org/techniques/alttext/
  147. How Do I Know If an Image Needs "Alt Text"?: https://www.boia.org/blog/how-do-i-know-if-an-image-needs-alt-text
  148. Overlay Fact Sheet: https://overlayfactsheet.com
  149. Why Accessibility Overlay Solutions Fail to Protect or Serve: https://www.accessibility.works/blog/avoid-accessibility-overlay-tools-toolbar-plugins/
  150. The Many Pitfalls of Accessibility Overlays: https://www.essentialaccessibility.com/blog/the-many-pitfalls-of-accessibility-overlays
  151. Honor the ADA - Avoid Web Accessibility Quick-Fix Overlays: https://www.lflegal.com/2020/08/quick-fix/
  152. Are ADA Overlays a Liability? Here’s What Accessibility Experts Had to Say: https://216digital.com/ada-website-overlays/
  153. The Problem with Not Making Websites Accessible by Default: https://www.boia.org/blog/the-problem-with-not-making-websites-accessible-by-default
  154. Why Accessibility Overlays On Your Website Can Make Things Worse: https://www.boia.org/blog/why-accessibility-overlays-on-your-website-can-make-things-worse
  155. US Supreme Court verdict -- Sole reliance on accessiBe will not be sufficient in ensuring full and equal access to a website (Exhibit A For 21-cv-00017, 2020-11-01): https://www.scribd.com/document/490740167/Exhibit-A-for-21-cv-00017
  156. People With Disabilities Say This AcessiBe "AI A11Y Tool" Is Making the Web Worse for Them: https://www.vice.com/en/article/m7az74/people-with-disabilities-say-this-ai-tool-is-making-the-web-worse-for-them
  157. This Company Tapped AccessiBe and its "Overlay + AI" solution for Its Website — and Landed in Court for its troubles: https://www.wired.com/story/company-tapped-ai-website-landed-court/
  158. Amazon Class Action Lawsuit Says Website Not Accessible to the Blind: https://topclassactions.com/lawsuit-settlements/lawsuit-news/amazon-class-action-lawsuit-says-website-not-accessible-blind/
  159. NAD v. Netflix ADA Lawsuit Requires Captioning for Streaming Video: https://www.3playmedia.com/blog/nad-v-netflix-ada-lawsuit-requires-closed-captioning-on-streaming-video/
  160. NAD Calls Out Netflix on “Deaf Tax”: https://www.nad.org/2010/12/17/nad-calls-out-netflix-on-deaf-tax/
  161. Disability History, Part 4: NAD v. Netflix -- A lawsuit that shook the internet: https://listenuptodisabilities.com/2021/04/25/disability-history-part-4-nad-v-netflix/
  162. NAD Files Disability Civil Rights Lawsuit Against Netflix: https://www.disabled-world.com/communication/broadcasts/netflix.php
  163. NAD Files Disability Civil Rights Lawsuit against Netflix: https://www.nad.org/2011/06/16/nad-files-disability-civil-rights-lawsuit-against-netflix/
  164. NAD v. Netflix: https://dredf.org/legal-advocacy/nad-v-netflix/
  165. Burger King Class Action Says Fast Food Chain’s Website Violates ADA : https://topclassactions.com/lawsuit-settlements/lawsuit-news/burger-king-class-action-says-fast-food-chains-website-violates-ada/
  166. : https://topclassactions.com/lawsuit-settlements/lawsuit-news/831860-burger-king-class-action-says-fast-food-chains-website-violates-ada/
  167. Domino's A11Y case: http://cdn.ca9.uscourts.gov/datastore/opinions/2019/01/15/17-55504.pdf
  168. Court Says Domino’s Pizza Website Must Be Accessible to the Blind" https://www.courthousenews.com/court-says-dominos-pizza-website-must-be-accessible-to-the-blind/
  169. Accessibility, the future, and why Domino’s matters: https://arstechnica.com/tech-policy/2019/10/accessibility-the-future-and-why-dominos-matters/
  170. Domino's Website Violated Americans With Disabilities Act, Judge Finds: https://www.mediapost.com/publications/article/364699/dominos-website-violated-americans-with-disabilit.html
  171. Domino’s accessibility lawsuit update: https://sheribyrnehaber.medium.com/dominos-accessibility-lawsuit-update-a66e7e592eab
  172. Lexis-Nexus legal news -- Domino’s, Blind Patron Settle ADA, Website Accessibility Suit: https://www.lexislegalnews.com/mealeys-cyber-tech-e-commerce/articles/69324?nl_pk=741a37e7-1565-473f-baaa-0984144b9f07
  173. California Federal Court Holds Domino’s Website Violates the ADA, Limits Penalties Under Unruh Act to $4,000 : https://www.bclplaw.com/en-US/insights/california-federal-court-holds-dominos-website-violates-the-ada-limits-penalties-under-unruh-act-to-dollar4000.html
  174. Federal Website Access Lawsuit Numbers Increase 7 Percent in 2019, With Possible Bump from Supreme Court Denial of Cert in Domino’s: https://www.adatitleiii.com/2019/11/federal-website-access-lawsuit-numbers-increase-7-percent-in-2019-with-possible-bump-from-supreme-court-denial-of-cert-in-dominos/
  175. The Impact of the Robles V. Domino’s Pizza Lawsuit on Hearing-Impaired Community: https://cielo24.com/2019/11/domino-v-robles-lawsuit-accessibility/
  176. How your small business website can get you sued : https://www.inquirer.com/business/small-business-website-sued-suits-ada-20200211.html
  177. What does the Domino’s ADA case mean for small-medium-businesses: https://accessibe.com/blog/trends/what-does-the-dominos-ada-case-mean-for-small-medium-businesses
  178. Blind man sued Domino's over its website. Here's what the Supreme Court had to say: https://mashable.com/article/supreme-court-reject-dominos-inaccessible-website
  179. Supreme Court hands victory to blind man who sued Domino’s over site accessibility: https://www.cnbc.com/2019/10/07/dominos-supreme-court.html
  180. Another Big Win in the Domino’s Pizza Accessibility Saga: https://www.lflegal.com/2021/06/dominos-june-2021/
  181. Court finds Domino’s Pizza Violated the ADA by Having an Inaccessible Website and Orders WCAG Compliance: https://www.adatitleiii.com/2021/06/court-finds-dominos-pizza-violated-the-ada-by-having-an-inaccessible-website-and-orders-wcag-compliance/
  182. Gil .vs. Winn-Dixie -- D.C. Docket No. 1:16-cv-23020-RNS: https://media.ca11.uscourts.gov/opinions/pub/files/201713467.pdf
  183. D.C. Docket No. 1:16-cv-23020-RNS: https://www.employmentlawspotlight.com/wp-content/uploads/sites/18/2021/04/ADA.pdf
  184. Judge Holds Winn-Dixie Supermarket’s Website Violates the ADA: https://www.courthousenews.com/judge-holds-winn-dixie-supermarkets-website-violates-ada/
  185. Court rules grocery store’s inaccessible website isn’t an ADA violation: https://arstechnica.com/tech-policy/2021/04/appeals-court-rules-stores-dont-need-to-make-their-websites-accessible/
  186. Eleventh Circuit Holds Websites Are Not Places of Public Accommodation and Rejects Commonly Relied-Upon Nexus Standard: https://www.jdsupra.com/legalnews/eleventh-circuit-holds-websites-are-not-1083843/
  187. Conair Website For CuisinArt Is Sued For Excluding Visual Impaired: http://www.innercitypress.com/sdny36steincuisineartwebicp120920.html
  188. $2.25 Million Fund Available in Justice Department Settlement with Amtrak: https://www.justice.gov/opa/pr/225-million-fund-available-justice-department-settlement-amtrak
  189. Amtrak Settles ADA Claims For Stations in Connecticut and Rhode Island: https://ctexaminer.com/2021/01/29/amtrak-settles-ada-claims-for-stations-in-connecticut-and-rhode-island/
  190. The NAD and Hulu Reach Agreement: https://www.nad.org/2016/09/06/the-nad-and-hulu-reach-agreement/
  191. Robinhood Sued in Class Action, Alleging Website Inaccessibility and Discrimination Against Blind Users: https://www.fredlaw.com/news__media/robinhood-sued-in-class-action-alleging-website-inaccessibility-and-discrimination-against-blind-users/
  192. FCC Settles Accessibility Rules Violation With Pluto, ViacomCBS: https://news.bloomberglaw.com/tech-and-telecom-law/fcc-settles-accessibility-rules-violation-with-pluto-viacomcbs
  193. Pluto & ViacomCBS Will Pay $3.5M for Violation of Accessibility Rules: https://www.fcc.gov/document/pluto-viacomcbs-will-pay-35m-violation-accessibility-rules
  194. ViacomCBS and Pluto TV Fined $3.5 Million by FCC for Violating Closed-Caption Rules: https://variety.com/2021/digital/news/pluto-tv-fcc-closed-captioning-rules-1235077364/
  195. WWE Settles Legal Dispute on Accessibility for Blind & Visually Impaired for Online Shop: https://411mania.com/wrestling/wwe-settles-legal-dispute-online-website-blind-ada/
  196. WWE Settles Lawsuit Over Shop Website: https://www.wrestlinginc.com/news/2020/12/wwe-settles-lawsuit-over-shop-website-677800/
  197. Screen access technology has existed for decades': Visually impaired man sues Dell over 'inaccessible' website: https://www.theregister.com/2021/03/05/giannaros_v_dell/
  198. Apple Store accessibility lawsuit (Robert Shaw vs. Apple): https://blog.fawny.org/2020/02/20/shawvapple/
  199. Mendez v. Apple Inc.: https://www.pacermonitor.com/public/case/25398561/Mendez_v_Apple_Inc
  200. Apple sued over claims website is inaccessible to visually impaired users: https://appleinsider.com/articles/18/08/20/apple-sued-over-claims-website-is-inaccessible-to-visually-impaired-users
  201. The Apple Park Visitor's Center is a demonstration of an accessible building when cost is no object. 1/?: https://threadreaderapp.com/thread/967652885604450305.html
  202. Court Denies Uber’s Motion to Dismiss ADA Discrimination Complaint: https://lawstreetmedia.com/news/tech/court-denies-ubers-motion-to-dismiss-ada-discrimination-complaint/
  203. Justice Department Sues Uber for Overcharging People with Disabilities: https://www.justice.gov/opa/pr/justice-department-sues-uber-overcharging-people-disabilities
  204. An Uber fee unfairly impacts riders with disabilities, a DOJ lawsuit says: https://www.npr.org/2021/11/10/1054407560/justice-department-uber-wait-time-riders-disabilities
  205. Justice Department Sues Uber Over Charging Wait-Time Fees for Disabled People: https://www.wsj.com/articles/justice-department-sues-uber-over-charging-wait-times-fees-for-physically-disabled-people-11636570208
  206. Uber manager sobs on stand during trial over wheelchair accessibility: https://www.courthousenews.com/uber-manager-sobs-on-stand-during-trial-over-wheelchair-accessibility/
  207. What You Should Know About the Beyoncé Website Accessibility Lawsuit: https://www.diacedesigns.com/beyonce-website-accessibility-lawsuit/
  208. Beyonce's Website the Focus of an Accessibility Lawsuit: https://www.boia.org/blog/beyonces-website-the-focus-of-an-accessibility-lawsuit
  209. 2021 Website Accessibility Lawsuit Recap (REPORT): https://f.hubspotusercontent30.net/hubfs/6576634/2021 Accessibility Lawsuit Complete Report.pdf
  210. September 2021 recap - A11Y Lawsuits landscape: https://www.accessibility.com/digital-lawsuits/recap/september-2021
  211. 2020 Full Year Report Digital Accessibility Lawsuits: https://info.usablenet.com/2020-report-on-digital-accessibility-lawsuits
  212. Digital Accessibility Year in Review -- 2019: https://www.boia.org/blog/digital-accessibility-year-in-review-2019
  213. 2018 ADA Web Accessibility Lawsuit Recap Report: https://blog.usablenet.com/2018-ada-web-accessibility-lawsuit-recap-report
  214. Recent Web Accessibility Lawsuits: http://www.webaxe.org/recent-web-accessibility-lawsuits/
  215. Are you next? Trends in Digital Accessibility Lawsuits: https://www.accessibility.com/event/2022/trends-in-digital-accessibility-lawsuits
  216. Overview of the Financial Penalties of AODA Non-Compliance (in Canada): https://www.boia.org/blog/overview-of-the-financial-penalties-of-aoda-non-compliance
  217. US House Bill H.R.8478 Could Finally Offer Businesses Clarity on Web Accessibility: https://builtin.com/operations/web-accessibility-ADA-compliance
  218. Now Is the Time to Make Your Entire Sales Funnel Accessible: https://www.boia.org/blog/now-is-the-time-to-make-your-entire-sales-funnel-accessible
  219. Brands Are Losing Billions by Not Being Digitally Accessible: https://www.boia.org/blog/brands-are-losing-billions-by-not-being-digitally-accessible
  220. Looking Ahead to Potential Developments in Online Accessibility Law: https://www.natlawreview.com/article/looking-ahead-to-potential-developments-online-accessibility-law
  221. Practice website accessibility (or get ready to practice law) -- A new wave of AwDA litigation: https://www.cda.org/Home/News-and-Events/Newsroom/Article-Details/practice-website-accessibility-a-new-wave-of-awda-litigation
  222. A11Y Attorneys' opinion statement -- DOJ's years-long delay on regulations hurting companies facing disabilities lawsuits over their websites: https://legalnewsline.com/stories/510698224-attorneys-doj-s-years-long-delay-on-regulations-hurting-companies-facing-disabilities-lawsuits-over-their-websites
  223. Fact Sheet -- Class Actions Are Critical to Remedy Disability Discrimination: http://centerjd.org/content/fact-sheet-class-actions-are-critical-remedy-disability-discrimination
  224. Lawsuits Over Digital Accessibility for People With Disabilities Are Rising: https://www.wsj.com/articles/lawsuits-over-digital-accessibility-for-people-with-disabilities-are-rising-11626369056
  225. Equality Act Could Undermine Business Defendants In Web Access Suits: https://www.cato.org/blog/equality-act-would-spell-defeat-businesses-publishers-web-accessibility-debate
  226. New York District Court Issues Important Opinion on the Inapplicability of Title III of the ADA to Consumer-Facing Websites: https://www.blankrome.com/publications/new-york-district-court-issues-important-opinion-inapplicability-title-iii-ada
  227. NY State Court -- Title III legal position statement: https://www.blankrome.com/sites/default/files/2021-11/computerinternetlawyer_-_novdec2021_-_blankromellp.pdf (meant to take some "bite" out of frivolous Digital Accessibility lawsuits)
  228. ADP Settlement Offers Framework for Future Digital-Accessibility Agreements: https://www.wsj.com/articles/adp-settlement-offers-framework-for-future-digital-accessibility-agreements-11642699462
  229. Digital Accessibility Takes Center Stage in ADA Lawsuit: https://www.law.com/nationallawjournal/2022/01/14/11th-circuits-ada-reversal-curbed-florida-litigation-in-2021-but-digital-accessibility-suits-are-here-to-stay-398-82063/?slreturn=20220101154317
  230. The Importance of Having a Letter of "Reasonable Accessibility" to show intent: https://www.boia.org/blog/the-importance-of-having-a-letter-of-reasonable-accessibility
  231. Accessibility in the News, Legal Edition - Updates on ADA Title III News and More: https://www.microassist.com/digital-accessibility/accessibility-news-legal/
  232. Federal Courts Disagree Over Accessibility Online: https://www.theregreview.org/2021/06/16/mcdonough-federal-courts-disagree-accessibility-online/
  233. Web Accessibility Lawsuits dramatically rose in 2021... here’s why: https://www.boia.org/blog/web-accessibility-lawsuits-dramatically-rose-in-2021.-heres-why
  234. Florida Courts Rule ADA Covers Websites With Nexus To Physical Store: https://www.adatitleiii.com/2017/04/florida-courts-rule-ada-covers-websites-with-nexus-to-physical-store/
  235. Builders, Architects, Owners of 5 NC Housing Complexes Settle Discrimination Cases; Agree to Make $1.3 million in Accessibility Modifications: https://www.fairhousingnc.org/2020/builders-architects-owners-of-5-nc-housing-complexes-settle-discrimination-cases-agree-to-make-1-3-million-in-accessibility-modifications/
  236. Strategies for Defending ADA Accessibility “Tester” Lawsuits: http://www.jaburgwilk.com/news-publications/strategies-for-defending-ada-accessibility-lawsuits
  237. The State of Website Accessibility, Serial-plaintiffs, & the lack of new ADA Legislation: https://www.oomphinc.com/notes/2019/06/the-state-of-website-accessibility-2019/
  238. The Real Reason Local Governments are Facing More ADA Non-Compliance Fines: https://www.civicplus.com/blog/ce/local-governments-facing-ada-accessibility-fines
  239. Five Things Every Lawyer Needs to Know About Digital Accessibility: https://www.lawtechnologytoday.org/2018/06/digital-accessibility/
  240. Why Are More Digital Accessibility Suits Being Filed as Class Actions (And What Does It Mean?): https://www.lexology.com/library/detail.aspx?g=dbfb2323-2b58-400e-b39c-d7ef6107bff6
  241. ADA Lawsuits Are on the Rise, Website Complaints Biggest Targets: https://www.law.com/legaltechnews/2019/01/24/ada-lawsuits-are-on-the-rise-website-complaints-biggest-targets/
  242. How To Prevent a Web Accessibility Lawsuit: https://www.boia.org/blog/how-to-prevent-a-web-accessibility-lawsuit
  243. Why Websites Need an Accessibility Statement: https://www.boia.org/blog/why-websites-need-an-accessibility-statement
  244. ElementsCasino -- ACCESSIBILITY POLICY: http://www.elementscasinoflamboro.com/accessibility/
  245. Rideau Carleton Raceway Casino -- Accessibility Statement: https://www.rideaucarletoncasino.com/accessibility.htm
  246. LA Times -- Lawsuits targeting business websites over ADA violations are on the rise (Hotels, Restaurants, Entertainment destinations & Government websites targeted by lawsuits): https://www.latimes.com/business/la-fi-hotels-ada-compliance-20181111-story.html
  247. “Worldwide Web Accessibility - cases from the USA”: http://www.clickawaypound.com/bgarticle1.html
  248. New York State Division of Human Rights announces settlements of accessibility complaints against Redbox, Coinstar, ecoATM: https://www.wnypapers.com/news/article/current/2021/05/26/146782/new-york-state-division-of-human-rights-announces-settlements-of-accessibility-complaints-against-redbox-coinstar-ecoatm
  249. Lawsuit Provides Blind Individuals with Access to New York State’s Emergency Mass Notification System: https://www.legalreader.com/lawsuit-provides-blind-individuals-with-access-to-new-york-states-emergency-mass-notification-system/
  250. Judge Approves ADA Class Action Settlement Against Eyewear Company Over Website's Lack of Visibility: https://www.law.com/thelegalintelligencer/2021/10/07/judge-approves-ada-class-action-settlement-against-eyewear-company-over-websites-lack-of-visibility/
  251. CBD firms facing lawsuits over website accessibility: https://hempindustrydaily.com/cbd-firms-facing-lawsuits-over-website-accessibility/
  252. Appellate Court Finds Websites Not Covered Under ADA, Sets Up Circuit Split: https://bankingjournal.aba.com/2021/04/appellate-court-finds-websites-not-covered-under-ada-sets-up-circuit-split/
  253. 10 awesome companies you didn’t know were sued for ADA website compliance: https://augustafreepress.com/ten-awesome-companies-you-didnt-know-were-sued-for-ada-website-compliance/
  254. Title III Lawsuits - 10 Big Companies Sued Over Website Accessibility: https://www.essentialaccessibility.com/blog/title-iii-lawsuits-10-big-companies-sued-over-website-accessibility
  255. 4 Healthcare Companies Sued Over ADA Website Compliance (and Why it Matters!): https://healthcareweekly.com/ada-compliance-healthcare-websites/
  256. Roadmap to Web Accessibility in Higher Education: https://www.3playmedia.com/blog/white-paper-roadmap-web-accessibility-in-higher-education/
  257. Is Your WordPress Site an Accessibility Lawsuit Waiting to Happen?: https://mediatemple.net/blog/web-development-tech/is-your-wordpress-site-an-accessibility-lawsuit-waiting-to-happen/
  258. Federal Website Accessibility Lawsuits Increased in 2021 Despite Mid-Year Pandemic Lull: https://www.adatitleiii.com/2022/03/federal-website-accessibility-lawsuits-increased-in-2021-despite-mid-year-pandemic-lull/
  259. Website Access And Other ADA Title III Lawsuits Hit Record Numbers: https://www.jdsupra.com/legalnews/website-access-and-other-ada-title-iii-48088/
  260. ADA Title III Federal Lawsuit Filings Hit An All Time High: https://www.adatitleiii.com/2022/02/ada-title-iii-federal-lawsuit-filings-hit-an-all-time-high/
  261. ADA turns 30, evolves with The Digital Age: https://www.accessibility.works/blog/ada-turns-30-standards-for-ada-compliance/
  262. A Look at the Legal Landscape of Web Accessibility Compliance : https://monsido.com/blog/web-accessibility-compliance
  263. Can You Afford $25,000? Website Accessibility Lawsuits Cost Money: https://krisrivenburgh.medium.com/can-you-afford-25-000-website-accessibility-lawsuits-cost-money-21987cd913f3
  264. 5 things I learned about web accessibility by testing a screen reader: https://yellowpencil.com/articles/things-learned-about-accessibility-using-screen-reader/
  265. Woman helping teach child who has speech language disorder 10 Most Common Speech-Language Disorders & Impediments: https://www.speechpathologygraduateprograms.org/2018/01/10-most-common-speech-language-disorders/
  266. Experitest’s Web and Mobile Accessibility Testing Explained in Full: https://experitest.com/mobile-app-testing/experitests-web-and-mobile-accessibility-testing-explained-in-full/
  267. Why Automated Web Accessibility Testing Tools Aren’t Enough: https://www.essentialaccessibility.com/blog/automated-accessibility-testing-tools-how-much-do-scans-catch
  268. Performing an accessibility self-audit: https://www.dundee.ac.uk/guides/performing-accessibility-self-audit
  269. Working Together - People with Disabilities and Computer Technology: https://www.washington.edu/doit/working-together-people-disabilities-and-computer-technology
  270. 12 Facts And Figures About Having A Disability In Canada: https://www.cbc.ca/strombo/news/by-the-numbers-international-day-of-persons-with-disabilities
  271. Is The “Accessible Icon” Wheelchair Logo Due For A Redesign?: https://www.cbc.ca/strombo/news/is-the-accessible-icon-wheelchair-logo-due-for-a-redesign.html
  272. How to Effectively Support Employees With Disabilities: https://www.healthworkscollective.com/how-to-effectively-support-employees-with-disabilities/ | Example of alternative mouse for A11Y needs
  273. How can screen readers be used in Accessibility Testing?: https://www.tpgi.com/screen-readers-accessibility-testing/
  274. Top 20 Accessibility Testing Tools for Web Applications: https://www.softwaretestinghelp.com/accessibility-testing-tools/
  275. UsabelNet offers "A11Y User Testing" with members of the Disability Community: https://info.usablenet.com/digital-accessibility-support-services/user-testing
  276. 10 Accessible Web Design Examples to Model Your Site After: https://blog.usablenet.com/accessible-web-design-examples-to-model-your-site-after
  277. The Ultimate Guide to Achieving Website ADA Compliance: https://www.digitalauthority.me/resources/ada-compliance-website/
  278. Manual Accessibility Testing - Keyboard and Screen Reader Navigation: https://www.telerik.com/blogs/manual-accessibility-testing-keyboard-and-screen-reader-navigation
  279. Assistive Technology intro (WEBINAR): https://monsido.com/services/webinars?utm_source=pardot&utm_medium=email&utm_content=recording&utm_campaign=MAR9-Webinar&wchannelid=qoc8k846tm&wmediaid=n66od6tthz | SLIDES
  280. What is Assistive Technology? : https://star-center.org/what-is-assistive-technology/
  281. Assistive Technology for Visually Impaired -- Making a Difference: https://verbit.ai/assistive-technology-for-visually-impaired/
  282. Assistive Technology for Visually Impaired Individuals - What to Choose and How: https://esighteyewear.com/assistive-technology-visually-impaired/
  283. Refreshable Braille Displays: https://www.afb.org/node/16207/refreshable-braille-displays
  284. Braille Alphabet & Numbers: https://www.wonderbaby.org/sites/wonderbaby2.perkinsdev1.org/files/braille-letters-numbers.pdf
  285. DIY ‘smart’ white cane works like a self-driving car: https://www.futurity.org/blindness-white-cane-smart-technology-robotics-2643062/
  286. Multimodal sensing and intuitive steering assistance improve navigation and mobility for people with impaired vision: https://www.science.org/doi/10.1126/scirobotics.abg6594
  287. Engineers 3D-Print Personalized, Wireless Wearables That Never Need a Charge: https://news.arizona.edu/story/engineers-3d-print-personalized-wireless-wearables-never-need-charge
  288. UN guide to Assistive technology: https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/assistive-technology
  289. Rethinking Assistive Technology: https://www.edutopia.org/article/rethinking-assistive-technology
  290. Assistive Technology and Low Vision Open House: http://blog.watap.org/2013/08/assistive-technology-and-low-vision.html
  291. Understanding Assistive Technology - How Do People with Mobility Disabilities Use Technology?: https://www.levelaccess.com/understanding-assistive-technology-how-do-people-with-mobility-disabilities-use-technology/
  292. Making assistive technology better through user-centricity: https://trexorobotics.com/user-centric-assistive-technology/
  293. Back-to-School Transition with Augmentative Communication and Assistive Technology: https://franciscanchildrens.org/blog/back-to-school-augmentative-comm-assistive-tech/
  294. Devices that Empower: Celebrating Assistive Technology: https://chicagolighthouse.org/blog/celebrating-assistive-technology/
  295. Assistive Technology Can Benefit All Students: https://www.edutopia.org/blog/assistive-technology-can-benefit-all-students-jenny-grabiec
  296. 7 STEPS THAT WILL HELP YOU DECIDE ON THE BEST DIGITAL ASSISTIVE TECHNOLOGY FOR YOUR CLIENTS: https://pterrer.com/2013/07/01/7-steps-that-will-help-you-decide-on-the-best-digital-technology-for-your-clients/
  297. Craig Hospital - The Don & Melba Rugg Assistive Technology Lab: https://craighospital.org/services/assistive-technology
  298. Assistive Technology Professional (ATP) : https://www.thoughtco.com/assistive-technology-professional-198921
  299. 5 Assistive Technology Stores for your Techie with Special Needs : https://www.friendshipcircle.org/blog/2013/12/12/5-assistive-technology-stores-for-your-techie-with-special-needs/
  300. What is the relationship between Assistive Technology and Universal Design? : https://sulaimanhpu.blogspot.com/2016/08/what-is-relationship-between-assistive.html
  301. US Library of Congress (LoC) – Devices & Aids: https://www.loc.gov/nls/resources/blindness-and-vision-impairment/devices-aids/
  302. US LoC – Braille Displays and Notetakers: https://www.loc.gov/nls/resources/blindness-and-vision-impairment/devices-aids/braille-displays-notetakers/
  303. Assistive Technology for Visually Impaired: https://lighthouseeducationcenter.org/program/assistive-technology/
  304. What is Digital Braille? https://www.electronicink.com/what-is-electronic-braillie/ (see video at bottom of article)
  305. What Is Electronic Braillie?: https://www.electronicink.com/what-is-electronic-braillie/
  306. Bonocle - Braille pocket tool: https://www.bonocle.co/en/
  307. Orbit Reader 20: https://www.orbitresearch.com/product/orbit-reader-20/
  308. Innovision - BrailleMe: http://innovisiontech.co/brailleme/
  309. Mobile assistive technologies for the visually impaired: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24054999/
  310. 10 Free Screen Readers For Blind Or Visually Impaired Users: https://medium.com/usabilitygeek/10-free-screen-readers-for-blind-or-visually-impaired-users-45a45c757617
  311. 6 best screen readers for the blind or visually impaired people: https://tecoreviews.com/reviews/6-best-screen-readers-for-the-blind-or-visually-impaired-people/
  312. Assistive Technology for Visually Impaired and Blind People: https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/bfm%3A978-1-84628-867-8/1.pdf
  313. Sensor-Based Assistive Devices for Visually-Impaired People: Current Status, Challenges, and Future Directions: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5375851/
  314. Old Cynthia URL: http://www.contentquality.com/mynewtester/cynthia.exe?rptmode=1&url1=https://www.alc.ca | Cynthia - Section 508 checker
  315. Android Accessibility scanner guide: https://support.google.com/accessibility/android/faq/6376582
  316. How to use PA11Y: https://bitsofco.de/pa11y/
  317. Microsoft -- Supplier Accessibility toolkit: https://www.microsoft.com/en-us/accessibility/supplier-toolkit-resources
  318. Colorblind Web Page Filter: http://www.color-blindness.com/2006/04/10/colorblind-web-page-filter/
  319. HTML CodeSniffer - A11Y bookmarklet: http://squizlabs.github.io/HTML_CodeSniffer/
  320. Automated Accessibility Testing Tool (AATT): https://github.com/paypal/AATT (free service from PayPal that wraps HTML CodeSniffer & Axe with hooks to SeLion, Nemo, Nightwatch)
  321. PA11Y: https://pa11y.org/
  322. TPGi -- Website Accessibility Scan: https://www.tpgi.com/free-website-accessibility-scan/
  323. JavaScript Bookmarklets for Accessibility Testing: https://pauljadam.com/bookmarklets/
  324. CKEditor -- Accessibility Checker: https://ckeditor.com/ckeditor-4/accessibility-checker/
  325. PowerMapper - SortSite: https://www.powermapper.com/products/sortsite/
  326. Tenon - Accessibility as a Service: https://tenon.io
  327. CommonLook: https://commonlook.com/accessibility-software/pdf/ (best "PDF document" A11Y scanning)
  328. 5 Website Accessibility Checkers You Need Today: https://www.mediacurrent.com/blog/5-website-accessibility-checkers/
  329. Top 25 Awesome Accessibility Testing Tools for Websites: https://dynomapper.com/blog/27-accessibility-testing/246-top-25-awesome-accessibility-testing-tools-for-websites
  330. What are the best and free tools to perform Web accessibility testing?: https://www.quora.com/What-are-the-best-and-free-tools-to-perform-Web-accessibility-testing
  331. Website Accessibility Software Market is Booming Worldwide By Top Emerging Key Players -- Google, Siteimprove, DYNO Mapper, Deque, BoIA, Crownpeak, Level Access, DubBot, Monsido, Silktide: https://weeklywall.com/website-accessibility-software-market-is-booming-worldwide-by-top-emerging-key-playersgoogle-siteimprove-dyno-mapper-deque-boia-crownpeak-level-access-dubbot-monsido-silktide/
  332. wikipedia: JAWS (screen_reader)
  333. NVDA -- Keyboard Commands - Quick Reference Guide: https://dequeuniversity.com/assets/pdf/screenreaders/nvda.pdf
  334. Quick Reference Guide -- NVDA for Windows Keyboard Commands: https://dequeuniversity.com/assets/pdf/screenreaders/nvda-guide.pdf
  335. Quick Reference Guide -- NVDA Keyboard Commands: https://dequeuniversity.com/assets/pdf/screenreaders/screen-reader-nvda.pdf
  336. VoiceOver - Vision: http://www.apple.com/accessibility/macosx/vision.html
  337. 10 Free Screen Readers For Blind Or Visually Impaired Users: https://usabilitygeek.com/10-free-screen-reader-blind-visually-impaired-users/
  338. DARE Index 2020 - Top Performing Countries: https://g3ict.org/publication/dare-index-2020-top-performing-countries
  339. Global Accessibility Awareness Day (GAAD): https://globalaccessibilityawarenessday.org/ (3rd Thu. in May)
  340. CHALLENGE -- Accessibility know-how needs to go mainstream with developers - NOW: https://mysqltalk.wordpress.com/2011/11/27/challenge-accessibility-know-how-needs-to-go-mainstream-with-developers-now/
  341. Deque -- GAAD 2021 - Basic Accessibility Fundamentals bootcamp: https://accessibility.deque.com/thanks-for-signing-up-gaad-bootcamp
  342. Deque -- GAAD 2021 Workshop - Translating Design Wireframes into Accessible HTML/CSS: https://accessibility.deque.com/thanks-for-signing-up-wireframes-workshop
  343. UC San Diego -- GAAD 2021- Global Accessibility Awareness Fair 2021: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jjFngHfx__A (walkthrough of Screen Reader usage and blockers starts 39:05)
  344. T12t meetup - accessibility mindset at your workplace - GAAD 2021: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2pQA50oGrJU | GAAD 2021 discussions
  345. World Health Organization(WHO) -- International Day of Persons with Disabilities 2020 - A Day for All: https://www.who.int/campaigns/international-day-of-persons-with-disabilities/2020
  346. United Nations (UN) - International Day of Persons with Disabilities: https://www.un.org/en/observances/day-of-persons-with-disabilities
  347. How GAAD Started: https://globalaccessibilityawarenessday.org/about/
  348. Disability Rights after Amsterdam - the way forward: https://disability-studies.leeds.ac.uk/wp-content/uploads/sites/40/library/richard-whittle-Disability-Rights-after-Amsterdam.pdf
  349. World Health Organization (WHO) - "world report on disability" (2011): https://www.who.int/disabilities/world_report/2011/report.pdf
  350. 15% worldwide have physical or mental disability: https://www.cbsnews.com/news/15-worldwide-have-physical-or-mental-disability/
  351. Dawkins is wrong – grossly wrong – about Down’s syndrome: https://www.tortoisemedia.com/2021/06/01/dawkins-is-wrong-grossly-wrong-about-downs-syndrome/
  352. What is the European Union’s Web Accessibility Directive?: https://www.boia.org/blog/what-is-the-european-unions-web-accessibility-directive-1
  353. Guidance on Web Accessibility and the ADA: https://beta.ada.gov/web-guidance/
  354. Make 2020 the year your company stops waiting for an Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) letter/lawsuit to take action on A11Y: https://www.boia.org/blog/waiting-for-ada-demand-letter-to-take-accessibility-seriously
  355. ADA Best Practices Tool Kit for State/Local Governments -- Chapter 6 - Curb Ramps & Pedestrian Crossings (Title II of ADA): https://www.ada.gov/pcatoolkit/chap6toolkit.htm
  356. Auditing Your Website for Accessibility Compliance and Understanding How ADA Applies: https://cynthiang.ca/2018/08/16/presentation-auditing-your-website-for-accessibility-compliance-and-understanding-how-ada-applies/
  357. Congress Did Not Pass ADA Amendment Clarifying Web Accessibility Standards: https://www.boia.org/blog/congress-did-not-pass-ada-amendment-clarifying-web-accessibility-standards
  358. White House Embraces WCAG with Accessibility Updates: https://www.boia.org/blog/white-house-embraces-wcag-with-accessibility-updates (Dark mode, Font size options, more Spanish support, Inclusivity features)
  359. Centers for Disease Control and prevention (CDC) -- Disability Impacts All of Us (INFOGRAPHIC): https://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/disabilityandhealth/infographic-disability-impacts-all.html
  360. Act on the Elimination of Disability Discrimination in Japan: https://inclusion-international.org/act-on-the-elimination-of-disability-discrimination-in-japan/
  361. New law bans bias against people with disabilities, but shortcomings exist, say experts: https://www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2016/05/02/reference/new-law-bans-bias-against-people-with-disabilities-but-shortcomings-exist-say-experts/#.Xb8Dz5JKg0o
  362. Disabled train passengers left disconnected in age of digital smart card use: https://japantoday.com/category/national/feature-disabled-passengers-left-disconnected-in-age-of-digital-smart-card-use
  363. Japan's older population hits record high: https://www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2021/09/20/national/japans-older-population-hits-record-high/
  364. An Overview of Canada’s Accessibility Laws - A Look at the Old and the New: https://www.essentialaccessibility.com/blog/canadian-accessibility-laws/
  365. Summary of the Accessible Canada Act: https://www.canada.ca/en/employment-social-development/programs/accessible-people-disabilities/act-summary.html#section3-9
  366. Accessible Canada Act (INFOGRAPHICS) - Making an accessible Canada for persons with disabilities: https://www.canada.ca/en/employment-social-development/programs/accessible-canada.html
  367. Government of Canada announces appointments to the Canadian Accessibility Standards Development Organization: https://www.canada.ca/en/employment-social-development/news/2019/08/government-of-canada-announces-appointments-to-the-canadian-accessibility-standards-development-organization.html
  368. Accessibility in the (Canadian) public service: https://www.canada.ca/en/government/publicservice/wellness-inclusion-diversity-public-service/diversity-inclusion-public-service/accessibility-public-service.html
  369. TTC -- 2020 Accessibility Plan Status Update: http://ttc.ca/About_the_TTC/Commission_reports_and_information/Commission_meetings/2020/July_14/Reports/6_2020_Accessibility_Plan_Status_Update.pdf
  370. People with disabilities around B.C. to benefit from new accessibility programs: https://news.gov.bc.ca/releases/2017SDPR0062-001760
  371. High-Speed Access for All: Canada's Connectivity Strategy: https://www.ic.gc.ca/eic/site/139.nsf/eng/h_00002.html
  372. Rollout of RHFAC continues cross-Canada: https://www.reminetwork.com/articles/rollout-rhfac-continues-cross-canada/
  373. Best provinces for accessibility in Canada: https://www.zolo.ca/blog/best-provinces-accessibility
  374. Blind New Brunswickers hopeful legislature bill offering free transit fares gets passed: https://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/new-brunswick/blind-new-brunswick-free-transit-bill-1.6382535
  375. Statistics Canada (StatsCan) - Accessibility info/figures: https://www.statcan.gc.ca/en/topics-start/accessibility
  376. Disability-related employment benefits: https://www.canada.ca/en/revenue-agency/services/tax/businesses/topics/payroll/benefits-allowances/disability-related-employment-benefits.html
  377. A Complete Overview of Canada’s Accessibility Laws: https://siteimprove.com/en-ca/blog/a-complete-overview-of-canada-s-accessibility-laws/
  378. Minister Bains announces Canada’s Digital Charter: https://www.canada.ca/en/innovation-science-economic-development/news/2019/05/minister-bains-announces-canadas-digital-charter.html (Charter’s 10 principles will build a foundation of trust for Canadians in the digital sphere)
  379. wikipedia: CNIB Foundation
  380. Accessibility for Ontarians with Disabilities Act (AODA) compliance -- A Primer on Canadian Web Accessibility Standards: https://www.3playmedia.com/2016/06/03/aoda-compliance-a-primer-on-canadian-accessibility-standards/
  381. eSSENTIAL Accessibility -- AODA Frequently Asked Questions: https://www.essentialaccessibility.com/blog/faqs-about-aoda
  382. New Accessibility Requirements Fast Approaching Under AODA: https://www.mondaq.com/canada/discrimination-disability-sexual-harassment/986958/new-accessibility-requirements-fast-approaching-under-aoda
  383. Government accessibility standards and WCAG 2 by country:https://www.powermapper.com/blog/government-accessibility-standards/
  384. About the HTML Epidemic, WebAIM “Million” Report, and Teach Access: http://www.webaxe.org/html-epidemic-webaim-millions-report-teach-access/
  385. WCAG 2.1 -- UX Checklist - items broken down into POUR headings: https://github.com/JenniKobylskiUX/WCAG-Accessibility-UX-Checklist
  386. WCAG 2.1 - Exploring the New Success Criteria: https://www.accessibility.dev/this-is-the-second-of-a-three-part-series-about-wcag/
  387. Introducing WCAG 2.1 AA guidelines to Spree Commerce 4.2 UX: https://spreecommerce.org/introducing-wcag-guidelines-to-spree-commerce/
  388. User1st creates web accessibility testing solution (Press Release): https://www.kmworld.com/Articles/News/News/User1st-creates-web-accessibility-testing-solution-141946.aspx
  389. ADA Standards for Accessible Design : https://www.ada.gov/2010ADAstandards_index.htm
  390. IBM Launches Open Source Equal Access Toolkit: https://www.forbes.com/sites/stevenaquino/2020/05/19/ibm-launches-open-source-equal-access-toolkit/?sh=7fb050d1f776
  391. IBM launches Equal Access Toolkit to help developers build accessible websites and applications: https://developer.ibm.com/blogs/ibm-launches-equal-access-toolkit-developers-accessible-apps-and-websites/
  392. IBM introduces Agent Building and Learning Environment (ABLE): https://researcher.watson.ibm.com/researcher/view_group.php?id=979
  393. Designing for accessibility - Dos and don'ts (UK - Home Office Digital): https://imgur.com/gallery/f2vj5
  394. wikipedia: International Symbol of Access (ISA)
  395. What You Can Do to Remove Barriers on the Web: https://de.ryerson.ca/games/accessibility/_/accessibility_guidelines.pdf
  396. Game Accessibility Feature Tags are now Available on Microsoft Store for Xbox: https://news-xbox-com.cdn.ampproject.org/c/s/news.xbox.com/en-us/2021/11/16/game-accessibility-feature-tags-now-available/amp/
  397. Technical Language, Advice Understandability, and Perceptions of Expertise and Trustworthiness - The Case of the Financial Planner (WHITEPAPER): https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/031289620202700102
  398. Egghead courses -- Develop Accessible Web Apps with React: https://egghead.io/courses/develop-accessible-web-apps-with-react
  399. WAI -- Before, After, Demo (BAD) website: https://www.w3.org/WAI/demos/bad/a>fter/home.html (great reference for how a website without A11Y was able to fix most of their issues)
  400. A Beginner's Guide to Web Accessibility: https://webdesign.tutsplus.com/courses/a-beginners-guide-to-web-accessibility/lessons/pa11y-and-pa11y-dashboard
  401. Legacy version of Google's Web Accessibility course: https://web.archive.org/web/20160327154224/https://webaccessibility.withgoogle.com/course
  402. Google's Accessibility guide for Android/Chrome developers: https://www.google.com/accessibility/for-developers/ | Accessible Styles | Semantic HTML | A11Y overview
  403. A11ycasts with Google Sr. Accessibility Engineer Rob Dodson: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLNYkxOF6rcICWx0C9LVWWVqvHlYJyqw7g
  404. Perkins -- eLearning, School for the Blind - App Accessibility Checklist: https://www.perkinselearning.org/technology/blog/app-accessibility-checklist
  405. A Quick Primer On The WCAG 2.0 Accessibility Standard: https://www.thrivewebdesigns.com/wcag20-accessibility-standard/
  406. WCAG 2.0 — Accessibility Principles And Guidelines: vanseodesign.com/web-design/wcag-principles-guidelines/
  407. Common Types Of Learning Disabilities: http://learningdisabilitiesnekanso.blogspot.com/2015/10/common-types-of-learning-disabilities.html
  408. The impact of motion animation on cognitive disability: https://www.tpgi.com/the-impact-of-motion-animation-on-cognitive-disability/
  409. Inclusive user testing - and empathy - are core to inclusive design: https://sdtimes.com/softwaredev/inclusive-user-testing-and-empathy-are-core-to-inclusive-design/?activecampaign_id=123002
  410. Xbox Accessibility Guidelines Provide Best Practices So More Gamers Can Play: https://www.boia.org/blog/xbox-accessibility-guidelines-provide-best-practices-so-more-gamers-can-play
  411. Xbox One and Windows 10 Add In-Game Transcription: https://www.boia.org/blog/xbox-one-and-windows-10-add-in-game-transcription
  412. Microsoft starts new program to help (game developers) make more accessible games: https://www.theverge.com/2021/2/16/22286216/microsoft-xbox-games-tested-accessibility-guidelines
  413. XBox's new "Adaptive Controller": https://www.xbox.com/en-US/accessories/controllers/xbox-adaptive-controller
  414. Microsoft’s new Xbox controller is designed entirely for players with disabilities: https://www.polygon.com/2018/5/17/17363528/xbox-adaptive-controller-disability-accessible
  415. Microsoft is testing Xbox party chat accessibility features: https://www.engadget.com/xbox-party-chat-previews-text-to-speech-and-speech-transcription-102644434.html
  416. Low Vision .vs. Legally Blind: https://www.2020detroit.com/low-vision-vs-legal-blindness/
  417. IALVS -- What’s the Difference Between Low Vision and Blindness?: https://ialvs.com/whats-the-difference-between-low-vision-and-being-legally-blind/
  418. Low Vision -- Definition, Causes and Disability: https://wecapable.com/low-vision-disability/
  419. Low Vision and Legal Blindness Terms and Descriptions: https://www.afb.org/blindness-and-low-vision/eye-conditions/low-vision-and-legal-blindness-terms-and-descriptions
  420. Revision of visual impairment definitions in the International Statistical Classification of Diseases: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1435919/
  421. What is Macular Degeneration?: https://www.macular.org/what-macular-degeneration
  422. What is Macular Degeneration?: https://www.macular.org/what-macular-degeneration-alt
  423. Johns Hopkins -- All Children's Hospital - Audiology Types of Hearing Disorders: https://www.hopkinsallchildrens.org/Services/Rehabilitation/Audiology/Types-of-Hearing-Disorders
  424. (What’d You Say?) 7 Common Types of Hearing Disorders: https://www.soundrelief.com/common-hearing-disorders/
  425. Android -- Test your app's accessibility: https://developer.android.com/guide/topics/ui/accessibility/testing
  426. Android -- Using Espresso for automated Accessibility Checking: https://developer.android.com/training/testing/espresso/accessibility-checking#java
  427. Microsoft Inclusive Toolkit wins 2017's "Best Empowering category" in the annual "World Changing Ideas" competition: https://awards.ixda.org/entry/2017/microsoft-inclusive-toolkit-2/
  428. Microsoft - our approach to Accessibility: https://www.microsoft.com/en-us/accessibility/approach
  429. Microsoft Is 'Doubling Down' on Accessibility to Help Close Disability Divide: https://www.boia.org/blog/microsoft-is-doubling-down-on-accessibility-to-help-close-disability-divide
  430. Apple A11Y features landing page: https://www.apple.com/accessibility/
  431. Apple introduces SignTime... ASL for iOS, more accessibility features for people with disabilities: https://www.usatoday.com/story/tech/2021/05/19/apple-new-software-signtime-feature-iphone-ipad-watch-hearing-impaired/5162279001/
  432. Accessibility in SwiftUI: https://developer.apple.com/videos/play/wwdc2019/238/
  433. The Business Case for an Accessible Website: https://www.boia.org/blog/the-business-case-for-an-accessible-website
  434. American Institutes for Reasearch (AIR) -- Hidden Market - The Purchasing Power of Working-Age Adults With Disabilities: https://www.air.org/system/files/downloads/report/Hidden-Market-Spending-Power-of-People-with-Disabilities-April-2018.pdf
  435. Canadian Survey on Disability Reports: https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/en/catalogue/89-654-X
  436. The 2006 Participation and Activity Limitation Survey: Disability in Canada: https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/en/catalogue/89-628-X
  437. eCH -- 0059 - Accessibility Standard for European Union (German): https://www.ech.ch/de/dokument/45a5ea94-5955-4206-a647-0f795b5f72b2
  438. "How Accessible Are We?" -- Digital India report (2020): https://my.visme.co/view/vdjjm3dp-how-accessible-are-we
  439. SiteImprove -- CX strategy - Drive ROI with Accessibility (E-BOOK): https://hello.siteimprove.com/en-us/content/ebook/empathyroi
  440. The ROI of Accessibility: http://www.accessibilitypartners.com/the-roi-of-accessibility/
  441. Optimizing Your eCommerce Site? Accessibility is a Must-Have!: https://www.essentialaccessibility.com/uncategorized/trends-and-impact-of-digital-accessibility-on-ecommerce-in-2021
  442. 6 companies that boosted business with accessibility: https://bighack.org/business-case-accessibility-6-companies-who-boosted-business-with-accessibility/
  443. Avoid "Keyboard Traps" To Make Your Site More Accessible: https://www.boia.org/blog/avoid-keyboard-traps-to-make-your-site-more-accessible
  444. Accessibility compliance deadline looms in Ontario: https://betakit.com/as-accessibility-compliance-deadline-looms-cnib-ottawa-firm-partner-to-offer-website-audits-to-businesses/
  445. Ontario Making Public Spaces More Accessible: https://news.ontario.ca/en/release/1001367/ontario-making-public-spaces-more-accessible
  446. MIT -- The role of accessibility in a universal web (WHITEPAPER): http://dspace.mit.edu/handle/1721.1/88013
  447. Accessible jQuery-ui Components Demonstration: http://hanshillen.github.io/jqtest/#goto_dialog
  448. Accessible Icon Buttons: https://www.sarasoueidan.com/blog/accessible-icon-buttons/
  449. HTMHell special - close buttons: https://www.htmhell.dev/20-close-buttons/
  450. Implementing A Pure CSS Collapsible (that can still have keyboard support via a tiny bit of JS): https://www.digitalocean.com/community/tutorials/css-collapsible
  451. MozDev -- WAI-ARIA roles - Using the aria-live property:: https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/Accessibility/ARIA/ARIA_Live_Regions
  452. Getting screen reader to read new content added (post-pageload) with JavaScript: https://stackoverflow.com/questions/3670570/getting-screen-reader-to-read-new-content-added-with-javascript
  453. ARIA -- "Live" Region Playground: http://schne324.github.io/live-region-playground/ (testing aria-live="" attribute variations: off, polite, assertive... .vs. default/non-present)
  454. WAI-ARIA -- roles: https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/Accessibility/ARIA/Roles
  455. MozDev -- WAI-ARIA roles - Using the timer role: https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/Accessibility/ARIA/Roles/ARIA_timer_role
  456. MozDev -- WAI-ARIA roles - Using the Navigation role: https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/Accessibility/ARIA/Roles/Navigation_Role
  457. MozDev -- WAI-ARIA roles - Using the region role: https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/Accessibility/ARIA/Roles/Region_role
  458. MozDev -- WAI-ARIA roles - Using the complimentary role: https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/Accessibility/ARIA/Roles/Complementary_role
  459. DigitalA11Y -- overview of aria-atomic property: https://www.digitala11y.com/aria-atomic-properties/
  460. Study on aria-atomic & aria-relevant on aria-live regions: https://pauljadam.com/demos/aria-atomic-relevant.html
  461. Color Blindness & Web Design: https://www.usability.gov/get-involved/blog/2010/02/color-blindness.html
  462. Color Contrast for Better Readability: https://www.viget.com/articles/color-contrast/
  463. Ensure High Contrast for Text Over Images: https://www.nngroup.com/articles/text-over-images/
  464. NIH -- Types of Color Blindness: https://www.nei.nih.gov/learn-about-eye-health/eye-conditions-and-diseases/color-blindness/types-color-blindness
  465. wikipedia: Ishihara test
  466. Getting Typography Right in Digital Design: https://medium.springboard.com/the-guide-to-getting-typography-right-in-digital-design-bb61214ff3ad
  467. Web Design is 95% Typography: https://ia.net/topics/the-web-is-all-about-typography-period
  468. Best Fonts To Use for Website Accessibility: https://www.boia.org/blog/best-fonts-to-use-for-website-accessibility
  469. Tricks for ARIA on the iPad/iOS: http://blog.codinginparadise.org/2010/12/tricks-for-aria-on-ipadios.html
  470. Building a Universally Accessible Blog: https://whatsortsofpeople.wordpress.com/2008/07/28/building-a-universally-accessible-blog/
  471. MozDev -- ARIA - live regions: https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/Accessibility/ARIA/ARIA_Live_Regions
  472. MozDev -- ARIA - alertdialog role: https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/Accessibility/ARIA/Roles/alertdialog_role
  473. MozDev -- ARIA - dialog role: https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/Accessibility/ARIA/Roles/dialog_role
  474. ARIA Dialog role example (Modal): http://accessibility.athena-ict.com/aria/examples/dialog.shtml
  475. W3C -- Making a Dialog Modal: https://www.w3.org/TR/2010/WD-wai-aria-practices-20100916/#modal_dialog
  476. Modal dialogs: https://accessuse.eu/en/modal-dialogs.html
  477. Dialog (Modal): http://www.html5accessibility.com/dhtmlStyleGuide.html#dialogmodal
  478. Creating An Accessible Modal Dialog: https://bitsofco.de/accessible-modal-dialog/ | DEMO | SRC
  479. CodePen Home Some Accessible Modal Techniques: https://codepen.io/noahblon/pen/yJpXZa
  480. jQuery simple and accessible modal window, using ARIA: https://a11y.nicolas-hoffmann.net/modal/
  481. Building better accessibility primitives: https://robdodson.me/posts/building-better-accessibility-primitives/
  482. Making Elements Focusable with Tabindex: https://snook.ca/archives/accessibility_and_usability/elements_focusable_with_tabindex
  483. Is there a way to do an accessible modal?: https://stackoverflow.com/questions/10016433/is-there-a-way-to-do-an-accessible-modal
  484. Keep tabbing within modal pane only: https://stackoverflow.com/questions/14572084/keep-tabbing-within-modal-pane-only
  485. Best Practices for Modal Windows: https://uxmovement.com/forms/best-practices-for-modal-windows/
  486. Popups -- 10 Problematic Trends and Alternatives: https://www.nngroup.com/articles/popups/
  487. Semantically-Accurate HTML5 Element for a Modal Dialog: https://stackoverflow.com/questions/3072597/semantically-accurate-html5-element-for-a-modal-dialog
  488. Best Practices for Modals / Overlays / Dialog Windows: https://uxplanet.org/best-practices-for-modals-overlays-dialog-windows-c00c66cddd8c
  489. The a11y Monthly - Making modals accessible: https://developer.yoast.com/blog/the-a11y-monthly-making-modals-accessible/
  490. Inclusive components -- making modals accessible: https://dev.to/alenanik/inclusive-components-making-modals-accessible-1hn9
  491. Web Accessibility Guidelines v1.0: http://web-accessibility.carnegiemuseums.org/code/dialogs/
  492. How to trap focus inside modal to make it ADA compliant: https://uxdesign.cc/how-to-trap-focus-inside-modal-to-make-it-ada-compliant-6a50f9a70700
  493. Considerations for Styling a Modal: https://css-tricks.com/considerations-styling-modal/
  494. Demonstration of a keyboard- and screen-reader accessible modal dialog: http://ncamftp.wgbh.org/sp/tests/dialog/modalDialog.html
  495. Benefits and drawbacks of modal windows: https://ux.stackexchange.com/questions/39778/benefits-and-drawbacks-of-modal-windows
  496. How To Make Modal Windows Better For Everyone: https://www.smashingmagazine.com/2014/09/making-modal-windows-better-for-everyone/
  497. Is there a way to do an accessible modal?: https://stackoverflow.com/questions/10016433/is-there-a-way-to-do-an-accessible-modal
  498. Creating An Accessible Modal Dialog: http://bitsofco.de/accessible-modal-dialog/
  499. Accessible modal window using ARIA and Vanilla JS: https://van11y.net/downloads/modal/demo/index.html
  500. jQuery simple and accessible modal window, using ARIA: https://a11y.nicolas-hoffmann.net/modal/
  501. jQuery trap input plugin: https://github.com/julienw/jquery-trap-input
  502. React Modals: https://react-bootstrap.github.io/components/modal/
  503. React-Bootstrap Modal Accessibility Warnings from React-A11y: https://stackoverflow.com/questions/38596675/react-bootstrap-modal-accessibility-warnings-from-react-a11y
  504. Notes On Client-Rendered Accessibility: https://www.smashingmagazine.com/2015/05/client-rendered-accessibility/
  505. ReactJS docs - Accessibility: https://reactjs.org/docs/accessibility.html
  506. Deque - React Accessiblity best practices (WEBINAR): https://accessibility.deque.com/react-accessibility-webinar
  507. Getting Started with Web Accessibility in React: https://medium.com/@emilymears/getting-started-with-web-accessibility-in-react-9e591fdb0d52
  508. Accessibility -- Never Remove the Outlines: https://medium.com/better-programming/a11y-never-remove-the-outlines-ee4efc7a9968
  509. Outline NONE in CSS -- a { outline: none; } - DON'T DO IT!: http://www.outlinenone.com/
  510. The plague of outline:0: https://webaim.org/blog/plague-of-outline-0/
  511. The Friendly Inbox - Making Emails Accessible For Subscribers With Disabilities: https://www.mediapost.com/publications/article/367871/the-friendly-inbox-making-emails-accessible-for-s.html
  512. WCAG 2.0 -- Link Purpose (In Context): https://www.w3.org/TR/UNDERSTANDING-WCAG20/navigation-mechanisms-refs.html
  513. Accessibility -- Web Links Should Be Links, and Web Buttons Should Be Buttons: https://medium.com/better-programming/accessibility-web-links-should-be-links-and-web-buttons-should-be-buttons-182ff042d087
  514. WebAIM -- Link A11Y best practices: https://webaim.org/techniques/hypertext/#link_to_link
  515. WebAIM -- Links and Hypertext: https://webaim.org/techniques/hypertext/link_text
  516. Text Links - Best Practices for Screen Readers: https://www.deque.com/blog/text-links-practices-screen-readers/
  517. Don't Rely on the Title Attribute for Accessibility: https://www.mediacurrent.com/blog/dont-rely-title-attribute-accessibility-seo/
  518. Create accessible social media content: https://accessibility.iu.edu/creating-content/social-media/index.html | VIDEO
  519. Improving the Accessibility of Social Media in Government: https://digital.gov/resources/improving-the-accessibility-of-social-media-in-government/
  520. YouTube Expands Speech Recognition and Translation AI Features: https://voicebot.ai/2021/10/11/youtube-expands-speech-recognition-and-translation-ai-features/
  521. Facebook's Accessibility help page: https://www.facebook.com/help/273947702950567?cms_id=141636465971794
  522. Twitter’s web redesign isn’t as accessible as it should be, experts say: https://techcrunch.com/2021/08/13/twitters-web-redesign-isnt-as-accessible-as-it-should-be-experts-say/
  523. Seiichi Miyake: 5 Brilliantly Simple Uses for His "Tenji Blocks": https://www.inverse.com/article/54134-seiichi-miyake-google-doodle-tactile-paving
  524. The Unexpected Benefits of Web Accessibility: Why It’s More Than Just “The Right Thing To Do”: https://www.essentialaccessibility.com/blog/the-unexpected-benefits-of-web-accessibility-why-its-more-than-just-the-right-thing-to-do
  525. History of Assistive Technology: https://www.sutori.com/story/history-of-assistive-technology--RJ35ffpub31fn4qokozTFtNg
  526. Assistive Technology timeline: https://earshot103.wixsite.com/assistive-technology/history
  527. To Hell with WCAG 2: http://www.alistapart.com/articles/tohellwithwcag2
  528. Creating Accessible Menus and Mega Menus: https://www.levelaccess.com/challenges-mega-menus-standard-menus-make-accessible/
  529. Accessible Mega Menu: https://adobe-accessibility.github.io/Accessible-Mega-Menu/#accessible-megamenu-1638280592218-1
  530. Creating an animated Menu indicator with CSS Selectors: https://css-tricks.com/creating-an-animated-menu-indicator-with-css-selectors/ (bottom)
  531. Line Menu "currently active" indicator styles: https://tympanus.net/Development/LineMenuStyles/ (many examples if you don't mind scrolling through them all hah)
  532. Bootstrap - subtle but sufficient indicator on dynamic "Mega Menu": https://preview.colorlib.com/theme/bootstrap/website-menu-03/index.html
  533. Moz dev docs -- FireFox - Accessibility Inspector: https://firefox-source-docs.mozilla.org/devtools-user/accessibility_inspector/index.html
  534. A Deep Dive on Skipping to Content: https://css-tricks.com/a-deep-dive-on-skipping-to-content/
  535. How to Create a “Skip to Content” Link : https://css-tricks.com/how-to-create-a-skip-to-content-link/
  536. Skip to Main Content – Accessibility for AEM Web-applications (AEM 6.5.9 & AEMaaCs): https://aemsimplifiedbynikhil.wordpress.com/2021/07/16/skip-to-main-content-accessibility-for-aem-web-applications-aem-6-5-9-aemaacs/
  537. How to skip some content from screen reader: https://stackoverflow.com/questions/22932134/how-to-skip-some-content-from-screen-reader
  538. WebAIM - Skip Navigation Links: https://webaim.org/techniques/skipnav/
  539. What Is Skip Navigation Link and Why Is It Useful? : https://pineco.de/what-is-skip-navigation-link-and-why-is-it-useful/
  540. Carnegie Museum -- Skip Link: web-accessibility.carnegiemuseums.org/code/skip-link/
  541. I found a hidden youtube button (SKIP NAVIGATION). To see it, open youtube and hit tab twice: https://www.reddit.com/r/interestingasfuck/comments/hwii59/i_found_a_hidden_youtube_button_skip_navigation/fyzt4st/
  542. WCAG 2.0 AA is the new Accessibility standard for any "Federal Agency" websites: https://www.adatitleiii.com/2017/01/wcag-2-0-aa-is-the-new-accessibility-standard-for-federal-agency-websites/
  543. Translating Design Wireframes Into Accessible HTML/CSS: https://www.smashingmagazine.com/2020/07/design-wireframes-accessible-html-css/
  544. Disability 3Barriers in Customer Service: https://www.aoda.ca/disability-barriers-in-customer-service/
  545. Accessibility - Definition, Meaning, Examples and Types of Barriers: https://wecapable.com/accessibility-definition-meaning-examples-barriers/
  546. Public Education Campaign on the Business Case for Accessibility: https://aoda.ca/public-education-campaign-on-the-business-case-for-accessibility/
  547. Top 5 Most Common Web Accessibility Mistakes: https://www.mcdpartners.com/news/top-5-common-web-accessibility-mistakes/
  548. Top Ten Most Common Web Accessibility issues: https://www.tpgi.com/ten-common-web-accessibility-issues/ (1.Image ALT text, 2.KeyboardNav visual focus indicator, 3.Use of proper labels, 4.Links without descriptive text, 5.Links/Buttons too small, 6.Tables without proper markup, 7.Headings hierarchy & Section nesting, 8.Color Contrast, 9.Embedding or Linking to inaccessible docs & media, 10.Identical descriptive text for content - multiple related or separate unrelated)
  549. 6 easy ways to make your projects more accessible: https://www.richmedia.com/richideas/articles/6-ways-to-make-your-projects-accessible
  550. Beyond the screenreader - Online accessibility for assistive devices: https://www.richmedia.com/richideas/articles/beyond_the_screenreader_online_accessibility_for_assistive_devices
  551. Unit in Developing Literacy Skills with Assistive Technology: https://dyslexiaaction.org.uk/developing-literacy-skills-with-assistive-technology/
  552. AUSTRALIAN CURRICULUM – NUMERACY CAPABILITIES: https://mrscovichsclassroom.com/numeracy-capabilities/
  553. How a Glasgow, Scotland school celebrated "National Numeracy Day" (2020): https://blogs.glowscotland.org.uk/ea/hillsideprimaryamain2019/2020/05/10/weekly-challenge-numeracy/
  554. UX Planet -- Color, psychology and design: https://uxplanet.org/how-color-can-effect-emotion-ccab0431b1d
  555. An argument for incorporating color early on in UX design: https://uxhacker.co/an-argument-for-incorporating-color-early-on-in-ux-design/
  556. Color meanings and the art of using color symbolism (in UI/UX Design): https://99designs.ca/blog/tips/color-meanings/
  557. Ishihara’s Test for Colour Deficiency - 38 Plates Edition: https://www.color-blindness.com/ishiharas-test-for-colour-deficiency-38-plates-edition/
  558. Color Meanings – The Power and Symbolism of Colors: https://www.color-meanings.com
  559. Real People, Real Stories Episode #9 (2021) -- Charlotte Dales from Inclusively and Aubrey Northam from Mobelux: https://www.tpgi.com/real-people-real-stories-episode-9-2021-charlotte-dales-from-inclusively-and-aubrey-northam-from-mobelux/
  560. What is a screen reader, and why are they important?: https://www.tpgi.com/what-is-a-screen-reader-and-why-are-they-important/
  561. Canadians with disabilities face barriers to financial security, researchers find: https://phys.org/news/2020-08-canadians-disabilities-barriers-financial.html
  562. How America failed students with disabilities during the pandemic: https://www.washingtonpost.com/education/2021/05/20/students-disabilities-virtual-learning-failure/
  563. Australian study shows "those with disability are disproportionally affected by COVID" – New Report From CBM: https://www.96five.com/stories/life/news/2021/those-with-a-disability-disproportionally-affected-by-covid-new-report/
  564. COVID closures disproportionately affecting those with disabilities: https://health.ucdavis.edu/health-news/newsroom/covid-closures-disproportionately-affecting-those-with-disabilities-/2020/10
  565. The pandemic isn’t over — particularly for people with disabilities: https://www.health.harvard.edu/blog/the-pandemic-isnt-over-particularly-for-people-with-disabilities-202105252464
  566. COVID-19's Impact on People with Disabilities: https://www.massgeneral.org/news/coronavirus/Covid-19s-impact-on-people-with-disabilities
  567. Impacts of COVID-19 disproportionately affect poor and vulnerable - UN chief: https://news.un.org/en/story/2020/06/1067502
  568. COVID-19 has disproportionately impacted those living with developmental disabilities: https://www.cnn.com/2020/08/28/health/covid-19-intellectual-development-disabilities-impact-wellness/index.html
  569. COVID-19 Outbreak and Persons with Disabilities: https://www.un.org/development/desa/disabilities/covid-19.html
  570. Impact of COVID-19 on people with physical disabilities - A rapid review: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7603994/
  571. Policy Brief -- A "Disability-Inclusive" Response to COVID-19: https://www.un.org/sites/un2.un.org/files/sg_policy_brief_on_persons_with_disabilities_final.pdf
  572. Workers With Disabilities Disproportionately Impacted By Covid-19 Pandemic: https://www.forbes.com/sites/allisonnorlian/2020/06/22/workers-with-disabilities-disproportionately-impacted-by-covid-19-pandemic/
  573. Role of Governor in promoting disability employment in COVID-19 recovery strategies: https://www.nga.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/03/SEED_Memo.pdf
  574. How to Use Color Blind Friendly Palettes to Make Your Charts Accessible: https://venngage.com/blog/color-blind-friendly-palette/
  575. Microsoft Working on System That Could Benefit Color-blind Gamers: https://gamerant.com/microsoft-patent-system-benefit-color-blind-gamers/
  576. BBC - Accessibility for Products: https://www.bbc.co.uk/accessibility/forproducts/
  577. Personas with Disabilities: https://medium.com/swlh/personas-with-disabilities-9da8d12f1255
  578. Persona Spectrums - Building for Inclusion and Accessibility: https://www.uxbooth.com/articles/persona-spectrums-building-for-inclusion-and-accessibility/
  579. How to Add Alt Text to Images on Facebook: https://www.howtogeek.com/761718/how-to-add-alt-text-to-images-on-facebook/
  580. 5 ways to make websites more accessible for deaf people: https://www.hearinglikeme.com/5-ways-to-make-websites-more-accessible-for-deaf-people/
  581. How to make a website accessible for the deaf and hearing impaired: https://www.paradigmmarketinganddesign.com/how-to-make-a-website-accessible-for-the-deaf-and-hearing-impaired/
  582. Web accessibility for hearing impairments: https://uxdesign.cc/web-accessibility-for-hearing-impairment-3f49fc7b5a34

See Also

i18n | l10n | W3C | Web | SEO | HCI | UI/UX Design | Captions | Subtitles | Video Annotation | HTML/HTML5 | E-Learning | STT/TTS | Speech Recognition | Voice Recognition | Image Recognition | Biometrics | Sustainability