Agriculture

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Agriculture is the cultivation and growth of plant and/or animal species which can be used as sources of food (energy) for sustenance of another plant and/or animal species. The modern example of agriculture is farming (i.e. planting vegetables, raising livestock, etc...)


Contents

Growing basics

[1]

Photosynthesis

Plants consume CO2 as a food nutrient. Combined with water and sunlight, they generate plant sugars (metabolic energy) while releasing oxygen that humans and other animals breathe. The following formula describes the "Photosynthesis process":

6CO2 + 6H20 + LIGHT + Chlorophyl ==> C6H12O6 (glucose) + 6O2 (oxygen)

Hydrocarbon Combustion

Clean hydrocarbons such as natural gas can be combusted to produce kinetic energy and heat. The byproducts of that combustion are simply water and CO2 (plant food). Hydrocarbons, in other words, set free the CO2 that plants need in order to produce higher crop yields.

CH + O2 ==> CO2 (plant food) + H2O (water)

Haber equation for fertilizer creation

Haber's equation describes the process by which hydrocarbons are combined with atmospheric nitrogen to create nitrogen fertilizer that can be directly used by plants. Hydrocarbons are needed to produce ammonia, which is the basis for all nitrogen-based fertilizers such as ammonium nitrate, urea, etc. You cannot use solar panels to efficiently produce fertilizer, nor can you use "wind farms". Hydrogen from hydrocarbons are necessary for an efficient process. So shutting down natural gas pipelines means you don’t have the hydrocarbons to produce fertilizer. Without fertilizer, crop yields plummet.

3N2 + 3H2 ==> 2NH3 (ammonia)

[2] [3] [4]


Gardening

Greenhouse

Urban Gardening

Seed Bombing


CSA

Community Supported Agriculture.


Permaculture

Permaculture is a more natural and simplistic approach to farming (including planting, growing, maintaining without pesticides or inorganic fertilizers, renewing plant seed/stocks and a localized focus to the distribution of food).

[5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11]

The 12 Principles

  1. Observe and Interact – “Beauty is in the mind of the beholder” By taking the time to engage with nature we can design solutions that suit our particular situation.
  2. Catch and Store Energy – “Make hay while the sun shines” By developing systems that collect resources when they are abundant, we can use them in times of need.
  3. Obtain a yield – “You can’t work on an empty stomach” Ensure that you are getting truly useful rewards as part of the working you are doing.
  4. Apply Self Regulation and Accept Feedback – “The sins of the fathers are visited on the children of the seventh generation” We need to discourage inappropriate activity to ensure that systems can continue to function well. Negative feedback is often slow to emerge.
  5. Use and Value Renewable Resources and Services – “Let nature take its course” Make the best use of nature’s abundance to reduce our consumptive behavior and dependence on non-renewable resources.
  6. Produce No Waste – “Waste not, want not” or “A stitch in time saves nine” By valuing and making use of all the resources that are available to us, nothing goes to waste.
  7. Design From Patterns to Details – “Can’t see the forest for the trees” By stepping back, we can observe patterns in nature and society. These can form the backbone of our designs, with the details filled in as we go.
  8. Integrate Rather Than Segregate – “Many hands make light work” By putting the right things in the right place, relationships develop between those things and they work together to support each other.
  9. Use Small and Slow Solutions – “Slow and steady wins the race” or “The bigger they are, the harder they fall” Small and slow systems are easier to maintain than big ones, making better use of local resources and produce more sustainable outcomes.
  10. Use and Value Diversity – “Don’t put all your eggs in one basket” Diversity reduces vulnerability to a variety of threats and takes advantage of the unique nature of the environment in which it resides.
  11. Use Edges and Value the Marginal – “Don’t think you are on the right track just because it’s a well-beaten path” The interface between things is where the most interesting events take place. These are often the most valuable, diverse and productive elements in the system.
  12. Creatively Use and Respond to Change – “Vision is not seeing things as they are but as they will be” We can have a positive impact on inevitable change by carefully observing and then intervening at the right time.

[12]


Land Requirements

To paraphrase a discussion from Permies forum: "According to research done by Ecology Action, the minimum land needed to grow a complete vegan diet for one person is 4000 square feet (0.0918 acres[13]; so for a family of 4, then 16000 sq.ft or 0.37 acres is the bare minimum), under ideal conditions. Under less than ideal conditions of heat, drought, flood, cold, etc (which you should always plan for), you'll need more. According to Eliot Coleman in "The New Organic Grower" the maximum land one person can manage to grow vegetables on intensively by themselves (no hired help or volunteers) is about 2 acres as a full-time job (8+ hours/day, 7 days/week); so say it was a hobby farm and you plan to devote approximately 15% of your time to it or 24 hours/week (i.e 1hr/day on weekdays + 7.5hrs/day on weekends), then a single person could manage about 0.85 acres of land, or enough to satisfy the needs of three families when grown to full capacity. One proposed solution for managing larger acreage or sharing the responsibilities of even a small acreage is the "you-pick'em" (u-pick) and/or "rent-a-plot" approaches popularized by Sepp Holzer[14][15][16][17], whereby consumers pay to pick and package their own produce (perhaps even pay to attend a weekend class and go home with a basket of berries or other produce) thereby reducing prodution and demand on the land owner, or, whereby the production itself is leased out to hobbyists whom might have an interest in permaculture, farming or nature in general, but who don't have the budget or desire to be large land owners themselves or maintain an entire farm.

In any case, that gives some minimums and maximums yields for fruits and vegetables. For grazing livestock, you need to know the carrying capacity[18] of the specific parcel of land. This varies enormously. In the Eastern US you can raise one cow on one acre of pasture (mini breeds at about 3 per acre). In more arid areas, such as Central Texas it takes at least 20-25 acres per cow. To the west it may take 100 acres per cow. Carrying capacity can be greatly improved with proper management (see the work of Alan Savory[19][20][21][22] and/or Geoff Lawton[23][24]) but the initial carrying capacity of the land, what you have to start with, is important so you don't overstock at first, which can cause more damage. [25] [26]


Re-Wilding

Foraging

http://northernbushcraft.com/guide.php?ctgy=edible_mushrooms&region=new-brunswick


Closed Loop systems

The Reality of Food Self-Sufficiency: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FJv_nCAdCio

Rainwater Harvesting

An Introduction to Rainwater Harvesting: http://www.gdrc.org/uem/water/rainwater/introduction.html

[27] [28] [29] [30] [31] [32] [33] [34] [35] [36] [37] [38] [39] [40] [41] [42] [43] [44]

Greywater Recycling

[45] [46]

Aquaponics

Aeroponics

Hydroponics


Urban Farming

[50] [51] [52]

Homesteading

[53] [54]



Plants

Fruits

[55]

Shrubs

Raspberries
Blackberries
Blueberries
Strawberries
Goji Berries
Honeysuckle Berries
Gooseberries
Service-berries
Choke-berries
Cranberries
Currants
Mulberries
Saskatoon Berries
Sea Buckthorn
Watermelon
Rhubarb

Vines

Grapes

[56] [57] [58]

Trees

Apples

Cherries

Plums

Pears

Peaches

Pomegranates

Persimmons

Tropical

Lemon
Lime
Orange
Kiwi
Mango
Guava
Dates

Figs

Vegetables

Lettuce

Spinach

Kale

Carrots

Parsnips

Broccoli

Cauliflower

Cucumber

Zucchini

Peppers

Green Pepper
Red Pepper
Yellow Pepper
Orange Pepper
Hot Peppers

Potatoes

Onions

Garlic

Eggplant

Celery

Beats

Squash

Pumpkin

Avocados

Asparagus

Fiddle Heads

Corn

Vines

Beans
Peas

Herbs

[59] [60]

Mint

Broad name for any plant in the "Lamiaceae" family. The strongest and main category of mint is the menthol-containing "Mentha" sub-group.

[61]

Peppermint

Has ~40% menthol content.

Spearmint

Has ~5% menthol content.

Watermint
Corn mint
American wild mint


Black Pepper
Cilantro

Also known as "Coriander".

Parsley
Chives
Rosemary
Thyme
Summer Savory
Evening primrose oil
Turmeric
Cumin
Ginger
Citronella
Fennel
Cinnamon
Vanilla
St. John's Wort
Echinacea
Evening Primrose
Calendula
Mullein
Chamomile
Lemon Balm
Yarrow

Ornammental Flowers & Weeds

[62] [63]

Dandelions
Chickweed
Lavender
Plantain
Gingko
Tea Tree


Grains

Rice

Oats

Barley

Wheat

Hops

Legumes

Split Peas

Chick Peas

Black-eyed Peas

Kidney Beans

Navy Beans

Black Beans

Red Beans

Nuts

Peanuts

Cashews

Actually a legume, but no one thinks about them as such and they're not really cooked or eaten raw but dried.

Almonds

Walnuts

Seeds

Hemp

Chia

Flax

Sunflower

Grape Seed

Livestock

Birds

Quail

Chickens

[64] [65] [66] [67] [68] [69] [70] [71] [72] [73] [74] [75] [76] [77] [78] [79]

Ducks

Emu

Ostrich


Pigs

Boars


Ruminant

Goats

[80]

Sheep

Deer

Reindeer

Antelope

Gazelle


Bovine

Cows

Bulls

Oxen

Yak

Bison

Buffalo

Water Buffalo

Gaur


Equidae

Donkeys

Mules

Horses


Camelidae

Camel

Llama

Alpaca



Agriculture Automation

[81] [82] [83] [84]


Sensors

Soil

Types of soil:

  • Seed starter
  • Potting Soil
  • Topsoil
  • Black earth
  • Ground cover
  • Hay
  • Wood shavings
  • Mulch
  • Compost

pH

Potential of Hydrogen (commonly abbreviated as pH) is the most common Acidity-to-Alkalinity rating scale. File:PH-scale.png

Macro-Nutrients

NPK.

Nitrogen
Phosphorus
Potassium

Micro-Nutrients

Nitrogen

Water

pH

Both soil and water have pH levels which need to be monitored and in some cases amended to fit the desired agricultural usage.

[85] [86] [87] [88] [89]


TDS

Total Dissolved Solids (TDS).


Contaminants

Fluoride
Chlorine
Chemicals

Light

PAR

Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR)

[90] [91] [92]

LUX

[93]


Air

[94] [95] [96] [97] [98]


Temperature

Humidity

Air flow

Particulates

VOCs

Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC)s.



Tools


Resources

[104] [105] [106] [107] [108] [109] [110] [111]


Tutorials


External Links

[118]

[120][121]


References

  1. The STARVATION MATRIX decoded -- Russia, fertilizer, hydrocarbons, CO2, the Haber equation and crop yields explained: https://www.naturalnews.com/2022-03-09-the-starvation-matrix-decoded-russia-fertilizer-hydrocarbons-co2-crop-yields.html
  2. wikipedia: Haber process
  3. wikipedia: Nitrogen fixation
  4. wikipedia: Ammonia production
  5. Goodreads -- Listopia - The Best Permaculture Books Ever: https://www.goodreads.com/list/show/12585.The_Best_Permaculture_Books_Ever
  6. 6 Maps for the Permaculture Farm Design: https://www.tenthacrefarm.com/6-maps-permaculture-farm-design/ (#1-Base map, #2-Sun map, #3-Sector map, #4-Zone map, #5-Master Plan, #6-Water map)
  7. Using Google Earth to zone your farm: https://web.archive.org/web/20150102095400/http://www.almostafarmer.com/using-google-earth-to-zone-your-farm/
  8. Zones of human use in a permaculture system -- organize our spaces according to how (and how often) they're used: https://www.freepermaculture.com/permaculture-zones/
  9. Permaculture Design Principle 4 – Zones and Sectors, Efficient Energy Planning: https://deepgreenpermaculture.com/permaculture/permaculture-design-principles/4-zones-and-sectors-efficient-energy-planning/
  10. A Beautiful System - Narayan Reddy on soil carbon: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4BqUXLsWkL4
  11. Larry Korn - Permaculture and the Philosophy of Masanobu Fukuoka: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lv2e5gbjnnM
  12. 12 Principles of Permaculture by David Holmgren: http://justlists.wordpress.com/2010/01/14/principles-of-permaculture/
  13. How Many Sq. Feet In An Acre?: http://able2know.org/topic/26485-1
  14. Podcast discussing Sepp Holzer's ideas about growing fruit trees: http://forums2.gardenweb.com/forums/load/fruit/msg0412381723452.html
  15. Sepp Holzer's Permaculture: http://www.richsoil.com/sepp-holzer/sepp-holzer-permaculture.jsp
  16. Holzer´sche Permakultur: http://www.krameterhof.at/en/index.php?id=holzersche_permakultur
  17. Sepp Holzer's Innovations in Permaculture: http://www.krameterhof.at/pdf/presse/permaculture-pm68.pdf
  18. What is Carrying Capacity?: http://www.gdrc.org/uem/footprints/carrying-capacity.html
  19. A Solution to Desertification - Holistic Resource Management: http://www.odi.org.uk/work/projects/pdn/papers/paper27a.html
  20. Holistic Management: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kQGy0vxeL_k
  21. Cell Grazing - First 10 Years in Australia: http://www.tropicalgrasslands.asn.au/Tropical%20Grasslands%20Journal%20archive/PDFs/Vol_34_2000/Vol_34_03-04_00_pp207_218.pdf
  22. Savory's Bitterness Scale: http://www.holisticdecisions.com/LA_FREE_brittleness.pdf
  23. Permaculture Behind Greening the Desert - The solution to all the world's problems can be found in a garden: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=keQUqRg2qZ0
  24. Permaculture - Geoff Lawton at TEDxAjman: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-CxP0Thljr4
  25. How many acres is a good starting point for permaculture?: http://www.permies.com/t/11714/permaculture/many-acres-good-starting-point
  26. So What IS Permaculture?: http://spiralseed.co.uk/permaculture/
  27. Rainwater Harvesting 101: https://www.watercache.com/education/rainwater-harvesting-101
  28. Rainwater Harvesting calculations: http://www.rain-barrel.net/rainwater-calculator.html
  29. Zero+ Calculator (EXCEL): http://zeropluscampus.umn.edu/tools/calculator.php
  30. Rainwater harvesting & greywater recycling: http://www.branz.co.nz/RWHGWR
  31. Amazon top sellers for "Rainwater Collection" search term: https://www.amazon.com/s/ref=nb_sb_noss?url=search-alias%3Dlawngarden&field-keywords=rainwater+collection
  32. Build an outdoor Rainwater Collection System: http://www.motherearthnews.com/diy/build-a-rainwater-collection-system-zb0z1307zsal.aspx
  33. Student Project Uses Rainwater to Make St. Edward's University More Sustainable: http://think.stedwards.edu/sustainability/content/student-project-uses-rainwater-make-st-edwards-more-sustainable
  34. Types of Rain Barrels: https://www.homedepot.com/c/ab/types-of-rain-barrels/9ba683603be9fa5395fab90dbd15e17
  35. Non-plastic rain barrels?: https://www.reddit.com/r/Homesteading/comments/4gokk7/nonplastic_rain_barrels/
  36. Swales -Your Comprehensive Guide to Siting and Building Them: https://www.newlifeonahomestead.com/swales/
  37. Landscape Swale Guide - How to Landscape Drainage Swales: https://www.installitdirect.com/learn/landscape-swale/
  38. Retrofitting mulch basins around existing trees: https://permies.com/t/51937/Retrofitting-mulch-basins-existing-trees
  39. MULCH BASINS -- most common form of greywater irrigation allowing it spread into ground sub-surface, avoiding pooling, runoff & odors: https://www.greywatercorps.com/mulch-basin
  40. Diverting water to mulch basin: https://permies.com/t/51926/diverting-water-mulch-basin
  41. Branched Drain Greywater Systems: oasisdesign.net/greywater/brancheddrain/
  42. Greywater mulch basins: www.waldeneffect.org/blog/Greywater_mulch_basins/
  43. Best Roofing Materials for Rainwater Harvesting: https://www.southshoreroof.com/best-roofing-materials-for-rainwater-harvesting/
  44. (More) Best Roofing Materials for Rainwater Harvesting: https://www.doityourself.com/stry/best-roofing-materials-for-rainwater-harvesting
  45. Landscape Sustainability – Wastewater Reuse: https://www.rhynelandscape.com/2013/01/20/15-landscape-sustainability-wastewater-reuse/
  46. Greywater - Where to go from here?: https://sweetwaterproject.org/?p=231 | VIDEO
  47. USDA - Farm Service Agency County Office Committees for Urban Agriculture: https://www.usda.gov/topics/urban
  48. San Diego -- General Plan - Urban Agriculture Amendments 2012 (EXAMPLE): https://www.sandiego.gov/sites/default/files/legacy/planning/genplan/pdf/2012/adoptedgenplanurbanag120301.pdf
  49. Appetite for Change -- 7 farm plots in north Minneapolis: https://appetiteforchangemn.org/urban-ag/
  50. USDA -- URBAN AGRICULTURE TOOL KIT: https://www.usda.gov/sites/default/files/documents/urban-agriculture-toolkit.pdf
  51. Urban Farming Ultimate Guide and Examples: https://grocycle.com/urban-farming/
  52. Urban Farming is Serious Business: https://online.uwa.edu/news/urban-farming/
  53. 13 Essential non-electric kitchen tools for your off-grid homestead: https://www.naturalnews.com/2022-04-27-essential-non-electric-kitchen-tools-for-homestead.html
  54. Another (Sub)Urban Homestead -- Mulch Basin: http://anotherurbanhomestead.blogspot.com/2010/01/mulch-basin.html
  55. How To Spot And Resolve Nutrient Burn: https://blog.growlink.com/how-to-spot-and-resolve-nutrient-burn
  56. SPRAY BURN indications on leaves of grapes (similar various plants): http://www.omafra.gov.on.ca/IPM/english/grapes/diseases-and-disorders/spray-burn.html
  57. Potassium deficiency and flouride toxicity in plants: https://www.sites.ext.vt.edu/newsletter-archive/viticulture/00julaug.html
  58. Grapevine Problems - Leaf Spots Not Caused by Insects or Disease: https://grapes.extension.org/grapevine-problems-leaf-spots-not-caused-by-insects-or-disease/
  59. The Best 20 Medicinal Herbs to Grow for a Plant Medicine Garden: https://www.healingharvesthomestead.com/home/2018/2/13/grow-a-medicinal-herb-garden-with-these-14-easy-to-grow-herbs-youll-love-having-all-of-these-herbs-available
  60. Nature’s 9 Most Powerful Medicinal Plants and the Science Behind Them: https://www.healthline.com/health/most-powerful-medicinal-plants
  61. Peppermint vs Mint - Aren’t They The Same?: https://substitutecooking.com/peppermint-vs-mint/
  62. Best 20 Herbs You Should Grow in Your Medicinal Herb Garden: https://www.healingharvesthomestead.com/home/2018/2/13/grow-a-medicinal-herb-garden-with-these-14-easy-to-grow-herbs-youll-love-having-all-of-these-herbs-available
  63. 21 Common Name of Weeds - The Complete List (with pictures): https://www.hortzone.com/blog/name-of-weeds/
  64. 13 Free DIY Chicken Coop Plans: https://www.thespruce.com/free-chicken-coop-plans-1357113
  65. How to Design and Build Your Own Portable Chicken Coop: https://www.thespruce.com/build-a-movable-chicken-tractor-3016887
  66. Top 10 Tips for Building a Chicken Coop:https://www.thespruce.com/building-a-chicken-coop-3016589
  67. Small Chicken Coop with Planter, Clean Out Tray and Nesting Box: https://www.ana-white.com/woodworking-projects/small-chicken-coop-planter-clean-out-tray-and-nesting-box
  68. The Ultimate Guide to Raising Chickens in Winter: https://backyardchickenproject.com/the-ultimate-guide-to-raising-chickens-in-winter/
  69. The 22 Best Cold Hardy Chicken Breeds: https://backyardchickenproject.com/cold-hardy-chicken-breeds/
  70. Hearty Winter Chicken Feed Ideas: https://backyardchickenproject.com/hearty-winter-foods-for-chickens/
  71. How to Winterize the Chicken Coop: 4 Steps for Success: https://backyardchickenproject.com/how-to-winterize-the-chicken-coop-4-steps-for-success/
  72. How to Keep Chicken Water from Freezing This Winter: https://backyardchickenproject.com/raising-chickens-in-winter/
  73. 6 Tips and Tricks for Keeping Chickens Warm in Winter: https://backyardchickenproject.com/keeping-chickens-warm/
  74. 7 Steps to Winterize the Chicken Coop: https://www.ruralsprout.com/winterize-the-chicken-coop/
  75. 10 Common Chicken Keeping Mistakes To Avoid At All Costs: https://www.ruralsprout.com/chicken-keeping-mistakes/
  76. Should You Put Heat in the Chicken Coop?: https://backyardchickenproject.com/heat-in-the-chicken-coop/ (no, or not an excessively large/warm one, as if it fails, there's a high risk the flock dies)
  77. How to Make a Chicken Dust Bath In Just Two Minutes: https://www.ruralsprout.com/homemade-chicken-dust-bath/
  78. Raising Chickens On a Dime - 14 Ways To Save Money On Your Flock: https://www.ruralsprout.com/save-money-raising-chickens/
  79. Making Your Own Mealworm Farm 101: https://www.thehappychickencoop.com/make-your-own-mealworm-farm/ (for feeding birds/pigs)
  80. Goat vs Sheep - 6 Key Differences Explained: https://a-z-animals.com/blog/goat-vs-sheep-6-key-differences-explained/
  81. The Basics of Drip Irrigation: https://thehomesteadinghippy.com/the-basics-of-drip-irrigation/
  82. Garden Tech - A ‘Smart’ Irrigation Controller That Can Change Your Life: https://www.gardenista.com/posts/garden-tech-rachio-smart-irrigation-controller/
  83. How the Rachio 3 Smart Water System takes control of your garden: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vYsPb-diJbs
  84. Hardware Installation — Rachio 3 Smart Sprinkler Controller: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ya8JHP-GeeY
  85. 50 Plants That Like Alkaline Soil: https://drecampbell.com/plants-that-like-alkaline-soil/
  86. 53 Acid Loving Plants That Grow Well in Acidic Soil: https://drecampbell.com/acid-loving-plants/
  87. How Soil pH Influences Grapes: https://www.growingproduce.com/fruits/commentary-how-soil-ph-influences-grapes/
  88. How to Make Soil More Acidic? – 10 Methods: https://treillageonline.com/how-to-make-soil-more-acidic/
  89. Top 8 Ways to Make Soil More Alkaline to Increase Soil pH: https://purechemco.com/blogs/guides/increase-soil-ph-to-make-soil-more-alkaline
  90. What is a Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR) meter?: https://askinglot.com/what-is-a-par-meter
  91. How To Measure Grow Light With A PAR Meter: https://hydrobuilder.com/learn/how-to-measure-grow-light-with-a-par-meter/
  92. Your Smartphone (can become) a Quantum Par Meter -- using the “Photone” App: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=t0umUgrS_UE
  93. wikipedia: Lux
  94. Aerus-Electrolux -- old & new products - owner's manuals: http://www.aerusvacuums.com/Site/Manuals
  95. Aerus-Electrolux -- Guardian Air - Air Purifier (MANUAL): https://www.manualslib.com/manual/569962/Aerus-Lux-Guardian-Air-Air-Purifier.html
  96. Aerus Electrolux - Air purifiers: http://www.aerusvacuums.com/Site/Air
  97. Blueair: https://www.blueair.com/us/air-purifiers
  98. Blueair Air Purifiers review: http://www.air-purifier-power.com/blueair-air-purifier.html
  99. The USDA Natural Resources Conservation Services' PLANTS Database: http://plants.usda.gov/about_plants.html
  100. EXAMPLE - Ark's 52-Variety Family Seed Package: http://stores.arkinstitute.com/-strse-37/Ark's-40-dsh-Variety-Family-Seed/Detail.bok
  101. Farm Transition Loan: http://www.fcc-fac.ca/en/products/lending/transition_loan_e.asp
  102. wikipedia: Loam
  103. Characteristics of Sandy Loam Soil: http://homeguides.sfgate.com/characteristics-sandy-loam-soil-50765.html
  104. Facebook Group -- Stop Spraying in New Brunswick - Interactive map I've created using the data from Natural Resources and Energy Development GIS Open Data initiative: https://www.facebook.com/groups/StopSprayinginNB/permalink/2592252274417298/
  105. Costco - Praying Mantis Natural Insect Control Egg Case: https://www.costco.ca/.product.129014.html
  106. JD Irving - owned & operated woodlands: https://irvingwoodlands.com/jdi-woodlands-map-of-operations.aspx
  107. Acadian Timber - Plaster Rock Limits: http://www.acadiantimber.nb.ca/maps/Acadian Timber PR-Area.pdf
  108. AV Group - New Brunswick Land Ownership: https://av-group.ca/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/NB_QC_Maine_Mills_Dec_10_2013.pdf
  109. NB is in the negative every year after all the silviculture subsidies and management fees are considered: https://www.conservationcouncil.ca/then-and-now-what-the-ag-says-about-forest-management-in-n-b/
  110. THE QUÉBEC ECONOMIC PLAN (2016-2017) -- Forestry sector and its contributions: https://www.budget.finances.gouv.qc.ca/budget/2016-2017/en/documents/Forest.pdf
  111. QUEBEC’S FOREST REGIMES -- LESSONS FOR A RETURN TO PROSPERITY: https://www.iedm.org/files/cahier0416_en.pdf
  112. List of best permaculture readings: http://www.permies.com/t/5969/books/List-permaculture-readings
  113. Holistic Agriculture Library: http://www.soilandhealth.org/01aglibrary/01aglibwelcome.html
  114. Top 100 Permaculture Books: http://www.chelseagreen.com/content/100-best-permaculture-homesteading-books-the-ultimate-reading-list-for-sustainable-living/
  115. Introducing the Permaculture Designers’ Manual, Chapter 1: Introduction to Permaculture: http://permaculture.org.au/2010/03/24/introducing-the-permaculture-designers-manual-chapter-1-introduction-to-permaculture/
  116. Seedbombs are weapon of choice in war against wastelands: http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/blog/2011/apr/11/seed-bombs-derelict-land-flowers
  117. How To Use Fish Emulsion Fertilizer In The Garden: https://plantcaretoday.com/fish-emulsion-fertilizer.html
  118. Flantor Garden Irrigation System: https://www.amazon.com/Flantor-Irrigation-Distribution-Automatic-Greenhouse/dp/B01H6ZN0NU/ref=as_li_ss_tl
  119. Secret Life of Plants (1978) abridged version: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7X0Wy_sCho4
  120. wikipedia: The_Secret_Life_of_Plants
  121. Goodreads -- The Secret Life of Plants - A Fascinating Account of the Physical, Emotional and Spiritual Relations Between Plants and Man (1973): https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/99442.The_Secret_Life_of_Plants

See Also

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