Artificial Intelligence

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Artificial Intelligence (commonly abbreviated AI) is the process of thought, or thought-like actions, within (or emanating from) machines, electronics, appliances and/or other computing devices.



"Any event, occurrence, relationship or entity in a given environment which is caused or produced by an intervention or external factor introduced by a party from outside of the given environment's natural ecosystem"[1]

SYNONYMS: Not real, man-made, synthetic, manufactured, generated, unnatural, imitation, simulated [2]


"A capability of autonomously combining, differentiating, learning, planning and foreseeing, with the aim to reach a predefined goal." [3]

SYNONYMS: IQ, aptitude, brainpower, brains, cleverness, comprehension, discernment, intellect, judgment, mentality, mind, perception, perspicacity, savvy, sense, skill, smarts, understanding, wit [4]


The typical "prototype" or demonstration of the capabilities of a form of AI is a "Chat Bot" (commonly known as Bots) which could answer questions either spoken or typed in a natural "stream-of-thought" form of 2-way interactive conversation. Of course, this is just one type of AI, and one which is quite difficult to get right in order to avoid side-splitting hilarious responses without the use of many prepared/canned statements to commonly used "AI-stumping" questions such as: "what is the meaning of life", "is the universe finite or infinite", "how many dimensions are there", etc. Those type of questions typically either crash primitive systems exposing holes in logic or causing infinite computational logic loops, or, on the other hand, expose the programmer/creator/content-authors' biases in the responses.


A Chat Robot (commonly summarized as Chatbot) is a computer program that simulates 2-way human conversation (i.e. chat) for purposes such as question answering, information lookups, task completion, order taking, entertainment, education or research. A successful Chatbot should approach realization of at least some of the promises of Artificial Intelligence. Chatbots are often utilized in applications such as E-Commerce sales, Customer Service & Self-Service, Call Centers & Internet Gaming. Typically, a chatbot will communicate with a real person, but applications are being developed in which two chatbots can actually communicate with each other (though somewhat rarer in present-day applications, future applications could include B2B negotiations & automated-transactions, harmony of nodes/devices/robots operating within ubiquitous networks, automated financial investing decisions, and more.

[10] [11] [12] [13] [14] [15] [16] [17] [18] [19] [20] [21] [22] [23] [24] [25] [26] [27] [28] [29] [30] [31]

Question Answering systems

Intelligent Agent

An "Intelligent Agent" (sometimes abbreviated as "IA", also referred to as a "Virtual/Digital Assistant"), is similar to a Chatbot in that it can be used to answer questions or carry out tasks, but it is not supplemented by human-human interaction like a Chatbot, and, is more generalized to answer all types of queries, than the typically specialized, far narrower focus of a Chatbot. Examples from companies trying to offer this type of service (though with varying levels of sophistication/capabilities):

  1. Amazon - Alexa
  2. Apple - Siri
  3. Google - Google Assistant (formerly "NOW / Ok, Google")
  4. Microsoft - Cortana
  5. Nuance - Dragon
  6. Samsung - Bixby


Risks of AI & Unchecked Technology

The risks of unchecked AI and other technology range from dangerous systems that risk human life or cause excessive errors, to, the anihilation of the human race in an apocalyptic "AI/Robots .vs. Humanity" scenario. [33] [34] [35] [36] [37] [38] [39] [40] [41] [42] [43]

Deep Fakes

[44] [45] [46] [47] [48] [49] [50] [51] [52] [53]


Singularity[54] is the concept that eventually Artificial Intelligence will exceed human intelligence, resulting in the creation of self-aware and potentially sentient[55] beings.



Kevin Warwick advocates a human-machine hybrid (merger) when the singular comes, as he claims it inevitably will. His research is focused on enhanacing human senses and motor-skills through integration of mechanised hardware components.

de Garis

Hugo de Garis claims humanity should build godlike massively intelligent machines later this century, and believes that a war between those who support the development of intelligent machines and those who are against the development of intelligent machines will inevitably occur before the end of the 21st century.


Hans Moravec proposes using transhumanism [56] to enable humans to surpass the capability of both regular (non transhumans) and regular (non-biological) machines.


Isaac Asimov authored the Robot# Three Laws which attempted to ensure a favourable view of humans within the spectrum of AI in robotics. Human life, through ambiguity of other life forms, would be valued above all other beings, including robots and in fact any AI sentient machines themselves.


Deep Blue


[60] [61]

Deep Mind


Google Home


Google Voice Search

Google Assistant

Google Duplex


[84] [85] [86] [87] [88] [89] [90] [91] [92]


[93] [94] [95] [96] [97] [98] [99] [100] [101] [102] [103] [104] [105] [106] [107] [108] [109] [110] [111] [112] [113] [114]

GitHub Copilot

[115] [116]


[117] [118] [119]



External Links

* 'AI Bar' Uses Facial Recognition To See Who's Next In Line:


  3. Back to basics - What is intelligence?:
  5. wikipedia: IRC bot
  6. wikipedia: Botnet
  7. wikipedia: Software agent
  8. What is a Bot?:
  9. What is a Bot and should I (or my company) be using one?:
  10. ChatBot - sample Design Doc:
  11. What is a ChatBot?
  12. Build a Chatbot That Cares (with IBM Watson)  —  Part 1:
  13. Chatbots May Ease Consumers' Customer Service Concerns (but bring concerns of their own):
  14. Chatbots - The Future of Mobile User Experience is Here: | SLIDES
  15. Can Chatbots Help Reduce Customer Service Costs by 30%?:
  16. Progress toolkit -- Build a Mobile Chatbot in NativeScript: | DOCS
  17. ChatBot tutorial:
  18. Building an Intelligent QA System in Python with Google’s BERT NLP lib & OSS community’s vector entity search Milvus:
  19. 2020 Chatbot Guide (history & overview):
  20. LiveChat's ChatBot API:
  21. Amazon vs Google vs IBM vs Rasa -- Which Chatbot Platform is Easiest to Train?:
  22. AI-Powered Transcription Services Showdown -- AWS vs. Google vs. IBM Watson vs. Nuance Dragon NaturallySpeaking:
  23. NHL Introduces Chatbot To Engage Fans:
  24. Lessons From The Failed Chatbot Revolution — And 5 Industries Where The Tech Is Making A Comeback:
  25. How to build your own Chatbot with Google Dialogflow:
  26. AI for Business - Developing Chatbots:
  27. 4 Ways Chatbots Make Your Office Life Easier:
  28. Building a Chatbot with OpenAI's "GPT-3" engine, Twilio SMS and Python:
  29. Implementing a Web Chat With AI in Java: | SRC
  30. How to Build a Smart Chatbot Assistant with ChatEngine and IBM Watson Assistant: | SRC
  31. Use a Chatbot To Generate Documents and E-Sign: (in Microsoft PowerApps - Virtual Agents, Adobe Document generation & Adobe Sign)
  32. How to Use Google Assistant to Perform Actions in Apps:
  33. Why Elon Musk fears artificial intelligence:
  34. Elon Musk says he's terrified of AI taking over the world and most scared of Google's DeepMind AI project:
  35. Elon Musk, Blasting Off in Domestic Bliss (and some comments on Google/AI):
  36. Elon Musk and Mark Zuckerberg are both wrong about AI and the robot apocalypse:
  37. Elon Musk - "A.I.-Human Symbiote" Will Prevent A.I. Domination:
  38. Should Artificial Intelligence Be Regulated?:
  39. Elon Musk decided to exit OpenAI, an artificial intelligence research group, over disagreements about the company’s development:
  40. The Role of Professional Norms in AI Governance - Some Observations and Outline of a Framework:
  41. The Royal Society -- Governing artificial intelligence - ethical, legal and technical opportunities and challenges:
  42. Ethics and Governance of AI at Berkman Klein: Report on Impact, 2017-2019:
  43. BERKELEY ROUNDTABLE ON THE INTERNATIONAL ECONOMY -- BRIE Working Paper2020-5Governing AI:Understanding the Limits, Possibility, and Risksof AI in an Era of Intelligent Tools and Systems:
  44. wikipedia: Deepfake
  45. Deepfakes are getting easier than ever to make, new research paper shows:
  46. How to spot a deepfake:
  47. Deepfakes are coming... We’re not ready:
  48. This Deepfake of Mark Zuckerberg Tests Facebook’s Fake Video Policies:
  49. An AI app that “undressed women” (faked nudes) shows how deepfakes harm the most vulnerable:
  50. Deepfakes A Growing Cyberthreat Concern:
  51. Facebook -- Creating a dataset and a challenge for deepfakes:
  52. wikipedia: Fitzpatrick scale (skin color phototyping test)
  53. Synthetic Deepfake Actors Are Coming to a Screen Near You:
  54. wikipedia: Singularity
  55. wikipedia: Sentience
  56. wikipedia:Transhumanism
  57. What's inside Watson?:
  58. Watson - the smartest machine on Earth:
  59. Watson and healthcare:
  60. Smarter Apps With Cognitive Computing:
  61. Is IBM's Watson Still an AI Success Story?:
  62. Google's $500+ million purchase of DeepMind just got very interesting:
  63. Google plots Embedded Google Assistant SDK, tools for developers:
  64. Google Launches Voice-Controlled Smart Home Device:
  65. Google Takes On Amazon For Home Audio Device Supremacy:
  66. A Neural Conversational Model:
  67. wikipedia: Google Assistant
  68. Xiaomi's smart home devices now work with Google Assistant:
  69. Google just gave a stunning demo of Assistant making an actual phone call:
  70. What is Google Assistant, how does it work, and which devices offer it?:
  71. How to get all of Google Assistant’s new voices right now:
  72. Google Duplex Demo from Google IO 2018:
  73. The selfishness of Google Duplex:
  74. Google Duplex sounds human when it, um, calls to book appointments:
  75. No one knows how Google Duplex will work with eavesdropping laws:
  76. Pretty sure Google's new talking AI just beat the Turing test:
  77. Duplex shows Google failing at ethical and creative AI design:
  78. Google responds to Duplex backlash, says AI voice system will identify itself when making calls:
  80. Google says it's designing Duplex with 'disclosure built-in':
  81. Google Swears Its Duplex AI Assistant Will Tell You It's a Bot Calling:
  82. What is Google Duplex and how do you use it?:
  83. OpenAI’s DALL-E AI image generator can now edit pictures, too: (software to generate a piece of "artwork" based on text descriptions, can now attempt to make edits of existing photos based on text descriptions too)
  84. Introducing OpenAI:
  85. OpenAPI -- Better Language Models and Their Implications:
  86. OpenAI’s GPT-2 -- the model, the hype, and the controversy:
  87. Is OpenAI Solving the Wrong Problem?:
  88. Microsoft announces new supercomputer, lays out vision for future AI work:
  89. The Great Debate in AI Ethics Surfaces on Social Media -- Elon Musk .vs. Mark Zuckerberg, Stephen Hawking .vs. Ray Kurzweil, etc:
  90. AI-Critic Elon Musk Quits Ethics Research Group OpenAI:
  91. Elon Musk quits "AI ethics board" OpenAI following Tesla conflict (according to their blog post):
  92. Building games and apps entirely through natural language using OpenAI’s code-davinci model:
  93. wikipedia: GPT-3
  94. GPT-3 Powers the Next Generation of Apps:
  95. GPT-3 examples:
  96. GPT-3 showcase -- Figma plugin - Mobile App "automated UI designer":
  97. GPT-3 showcase -- code generator:
  98. GPT-3 showcase -- layout generator:
  99. GPT-3 showcase -- quick 3D model generator:
  100. OpenAI GPT-3 -- Good At Almost Everything!:
  101. What is GPT-3? Everything your business needs to know about OpenAI’s breakthrough AI language program:
  102. OpenAI’s GPT-3 algorithm is here, and it’s freakishly good at sounding human :
  103. OpenAI GPT-3 - Good At Almost Everything!:
  104. Lex Freidman -- GPT-3 .vs. Human Brain:
  105. GPT-3 -- An Even Bigger Language Model - Computerphile:
  106. What are "Few-Shot Learners":
  107. Understanding few-shot learning in machine learning:
  108. An Introduction to Few-Shot Learning:
  109. What Is GPT-3 And Why Is It Revolutionizing Artificial Intelligence?:
  110. GPT-3, explained -- This new language AI is uncanny, funny — and a big deal:
  111. What Is GPT-3 -- How It Works and Why You Should Care:
  112. GPT-3 Is Amazing—And Overhyped:
  113. Giving GPT-3 fails a Turing Test:
  114. OpenAI’s new "language model"-based Text Generator GPT-3 is shockingly good—and completely mindless:
  115. Developers react to "GitHub Copilot" beta: (Microsoft collaboration with OpenAI on "code development suggestions" tool)
  116. Analyzing the Legal Implications of GitHub Copilot:
  117. GPT-3’s free alternative GPT-Neo is something to be excited about:
  118. ‘OpenAI should be renamed ClosedAI’ -- Reaction to Microsoft’s exclusive license of OpenAI’s GPT-3:
  119. AI Weekly -- Meet the people trying to replicate and open-source OpenAI’s GPT-3:

See Also

Semantic Web | Web 4.0 | Machine Learning| Recommendation Engine | Search Engine | Rule Engine | Robot | Phishing | Spam | STT/TTS | NLP | GraphDB | LOD | BI | Analytics | Biometrics | Surveillance | A11Y