Physical Automation typically involves equipment such as machinery, processes in factories, boilers and heat treating ovens, switching in telephone networks, steering and stabilization of ships, aircraft and other applications with minimal or reduced human intervention. Some processes have been completely automated.
Computational Automation typically involves repetitive tasks such as information retrieval, data entry, information compilation, statistical/pattern analysis, software testing, code refactoring and other engineering tasks with predictable inputs (requirements/dependencies), outputs (outcomes) and workflows (transitions/routing).
The biggest benefit of automation is that it saves labor, however, it is also used to save energy and materials and to improve quality, accuracy and precision.
Cognitive Assistant that Learns and Organizes (commonly abbreviated as CALO) is a government and privately funded research project to build a scalable intelligent assistant system.
The team dubbed its new project CALO, for Cognitive Assistant that Learns and Organizes. The name was inspired by the Latin word "calonis," which means "soldier’s servant." The goal of the project is to create cognitive software systems, that is, systems that can reason, learn from experience, be told what to do, explain what they are doing, reflect on their experience, and respond robustly to surprise.
The software, which learns by interacting with and being advised by its users, will handle a broad range of interrelated decision-making tasks that have in the past been resistant to automation. A CALO will have the capability to engage in and lead routine tasks, and to assist when the unexpected happens. To focus the research on real problems and ensure the software meets requirements such as privacy, security, and trust, the CALO project researchers themselves are using the technology during its development.
SRI is leading the multi-disciplinary CALO project team and, beyond participating in the research program, is also responsible for overall project direction, management, and development of prototypes. The project is bringing together leading computer scientists and researchers in artificial intelligence, machine learning, natural language processing, knowledge representation, human-computer interaction, flexible planning, and behavioral studies. 
Robotic Process Automation
Robotic Process Automation (commonly referred to as RPA), is the act of turning repetitive, particularly slow/error-prone and/or frequently required tasks into runnable, reliable, repeatable code or macros/recordings (which typically ultimately generate code either way).
- wikipedia: Robotic Process Automation (RPA)
- Gartner -- Magic Quadrant - Robotic Process Automation (2020): https://www.gartner.com/doc/reprints?id=1-1ZK435W1&ct=200728
Robotic Desktop Automation
Robotic Desktop Automation (RDA) is a subset of RPA that focuses on Desktop Application opening/closing/usage automation.
- How To Automate Your Daily Work Routine on Mac OS & Windows: https://medium.com/@kashishbhutaniofficial/how-to-automate-your-daily-work-routine-on-mac-os-windows-63c170048201
HP Operations Orchestration
- HP Operations Orchestration: http://www8.hp.com/us/en/software-solutions/operations-orchestration-it-process-automation/
- UI Path - Resolving dependency issues on robot systems without internet access?: https://forum.uipath.com/t/resolving-dependency-issues-on-robot-systems-without-internet-access/364093
- Hosting your own NuGet feeds: (for UI Path): https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/nuget/hosting-packages/overview
- IT automation changes the game, but limits remain: http://searchdatacenter.techtarget.com/news/4500248375/IT-automation-changes-the-game-but-limits-remain
- How workflow automation tools trump human intervention: http://searchdatacenter.techtarget.com/tip/How-workflow-automation-tools-trump-human-intervention
- How to Program Your Job: https://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2018/10/agents-of-automation/568795/
- How To Automate Your Daily Work Routine on Mac OS or Windows: https://medium.com/@kashishbhutaniofficial/how-to-automate-your-daily-work-routine-on-mac-os-windows-63c170048201 (use start AppName" on Windows or open App Name.app" on Mac to automatically open all your typically-used Desktop Apps on system restart)
- wikipedia: Automation
- wikipedia: Workflow
- Automation is coming, but it'll take longer than you'll think (and won't take your job): http://www.zdnet.com/article/automation-is-coming-but-itll-take-longer-than-youll-think/
- Amazon - Home Automation store: http://www.amazon.com/b/?node=6563140011&ref=ha_van
- Volvo CEO -- We will accept all liability when our cars are in autonomous mode: http://fortune.com/2015/10/07/volvo-liability-self-driving-cars/
- Amazon gets busy locking in domain names for Internet of things: http://fortune.com/2015/10/06/amazon-locks-in-iot-domains/
- Bill Gates says software bots will eventually take jobs away in 20 years. What do people think?: http://www.quora.com/Bill-Gates-says-software-bots-will-eventually-take-jobs-away-in-20-years-What-do-people-think
- A General Technique for (playing) Automating NES Games: http://java.dzone.com/articles/52-papers-52-weeks-general (making games that can play themselves for testing, demo purposes, user simulations, etc...)
- Verizon finds US developer outsourced his job to China so he could surf Reddit and watch cat videos all day: https://thenextweb.com/shareables/2013/01/16/verizon-finds-developer-outsourced-his-work-to-china-so-he-could-surf-reddit-and-watch-cat-videos/
- CALO Project home: http://caloproject.sri.com/
- Robotic Process Automation (RPA) - according to UIPath team: https://www.uipath.com/rpa/robotic-process-automation (current Gartner Magic Quadrant leaders)
- A guide to Robotic Process Automation (RPA): https://www.processexcellencenetwork.com/rpa-artificial-intelligence/articles/a-guide-to-robotic-process-automation-rpa
- Choosing Your Lane - A Guide to the Three Types of Robotic Process Automation Technology: https://revealgroup.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/02/BluePrism-Choosing-Your-Lane-A-Guide-to-the-Three-Types-of-Robotic-Process-Automation-Technology.pdf (SDKs to develop on, Digital Workforce enablements, Desktop recorded automations)
- Types of Robotic Process Automation: https://www.letsnurture.ca/blog/types-of-robotic-process-automation.html
- Classifying the types of Robotic Process Automation (RPA): https://medium.datadriveninvestor.com/classifying-the-types-of-robotic-process-automation-rpa-e02c45f7bf1c
- Robotic Process Automation -- 4 Indispensable Types of Robots (and How to Use Them): https://www.kofax.com/Blog/2018/april/robotic-process-automation-4-indispensable-types-of-robots-and-how-to-use-them
- Robotic Process Automation - Technology Overview, Types of RPA Software, and Application Examples: https://www.altexsoft.com/blog/robotic-process-automation/
- Top 10 Benefits of RPA in Business: https://marutitech.com/benefits-of-rpa-in-business/
- 10 Benefits of Robotic Process Automation (RPA): https://www.totalebizsolutions.com/blogs-10-benefits-robotic-process-automation-rpa/
- Top 10 Benefits of Robotic Process Automation (RPA): https://www.datamation.com/artificial-intelligence/top-10-benefits-of-robotic-process-automation-rpa/
- Top 10 Benefits of Robotic Process Automation (RPA): https://www.10xds.com/blog/insights/advantages-of-robotic-process-automation/
- Process Automation – RPA Use Cases Part 2: https://www.ashlingpartners.com/rpa-process-automation-use-cases-part-two/
- Top 67 RPA Usecases / Applications/ Examples (2021): https://research.aimultiple.com/robotic-process-automation-use-cases/
- 11 RPA use cases in Different Industries you ought to know: https://www.botreetechnologies.com/blog/rpa-use-cases-for-different-industries/
- 10 RPA Use Cases for IT, HR, Finance & Accounting and More: https://www.kofax.com/Blog/2018/november/10-rpa-use-cases-for-it-hr-finance-accounting-and-more
- 10 Most Popular Robotic Process Automation RPA Tools in 2021: https://www.softwaretestinghelp.com/robotic-process-automation-tools/
- Data Signals Rise Of The Robots, Reddit Too: https://www.mediapost.com/publications/article/360669/data-signals-rise-of-the-robots-reddit-too.html
- RPA - Handling mundane tasks, freeing up developers: https://sdtimes.com/softwaredev/rpa-handling-mundane-tasks-freeing-up-developers/
- Top 10 Robotic Desktop Automation features: https://www.uipath.com/blog/top-10-robotic-desktop-automation-features
- HP Operations Orchestration software (DATA SHEET): http://www.hp.com/hpinfo/newsroom/press_kits/2009/HPSoftwareUniverseHamburg09/HPOODataSheet.pdf
- HP Operations Orchestration (WHITEPAPER): http://h20195.www2.hp.com/V2/GetPDF.aspx/4AA1-5782ENW.pdf
- Gartner -- RPA - Market Guide for Process Mining (2021): https://www.gartner.com/doc/reprints?id=1-289D1SO7&ct=211129&st=sb