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Captions (also known as Subtitles when they are used to transcribe one language into another), are visual, textual cues for the hearing impaired, or to supplement fuzzy, unclear or non-standard slang language. The text is usually timed to the speech, conversation, musical performance or other audio track. [1]


Several formats exist for Closed Captioning and are listed below.



The main use of Web Video Text Tracks (WebVTT) format is for marking up external text track resources in connection with the HTML5 <track> element. WebVTT files provide captions or subtitles for video content, and also text video descriptions as specified in Media Accessibility User Requirements (MAUR)[2], chapters for content navigation, and more generally any form of metadata that is time-aligned with audio or video content.


Region: id=fred width=40% lines=3 regionanchor=0%,100% viewportanchor=10%,90% scroll=up
Region: id=bill width=40% lines=3 regionanchor=100%,100% viewportanchor=90%,90% scroll=up

00:00:00.000 --> 00:00:20.000 region:fred align:left
<v Fred>Hi, my name is Fred

00:00:02.500 --> 00:00:22.500 region:bill align:right
<v Bill>Hi, I'm Bill

00:00:05.000 --> 00:00:25.000 region:fred align:left
<v Fred>Would you like to get a coffee?

00:00:07.500 --> 00:00:27.500 region:bill align:right
<v Bill>Sure! I've only had one today.

00:00:10.000 --> 00:00:30.000 region:fred align:left
<v Fred>This is my fourth!

00:00:12.500 --> 00:00:32.500 region:fred align:left
<v Fred>OK, let's go.

The above example shows two regions containing rollup captions for two different speakers. Fred's cues scroll up in a region in the left half of the video, Bill's cues scroll up in a region on the right half of the video. Fred's first cue disappears at 12.5sec even though it is defined until 20sec because its region is limited to 3 lines and at 12.5sec a fourth cue appears.


Timed-Text standard

The original standard for cueing a piece of multimedia's accompanying text on a timeline.


 <tt xmlns="">
    <div xml:id="captions">
      <p begin="00:08" end="00:10">- Nothing is going on.</p>
      <p begin="00:10" end="00:12.5">You liar!</p>
      <p begin="00:13" end="00:15">Are you?</p>
      <p begin="00:17" end="00:20">Violet, please!<br/>- I am not your babe!</p>
      <p begin="00:24" end="00:29">You stupid cow,<br/>look what you gone and done now, ay.</p>
      <p begin="00:34" end="00:36">Vi, please.<br/>- Leave me alone!</p>
      <p begin="00:36" end="00:38.5">- We need to talk.<br/>- Jason, are you deaf?!</p>
      <p begin="00:41" end="00:43">What's going on?</p>
      <p begin="00:43" end="00:45">Get out there and try to salvage this!</p>


Distribution Format Exchange Profile (DFXP), an adopted standard which was combined with Timed-Text to create a final standard for Closed Captioning on the World Wide Web.


 <body region="subtitleArea">
    <p xml:id="subtitle1" begin="0.76s" end="3.45s">
      It seems a paradox, does it not,
    <p xml:id="subtitle2" begin="5.0s" end="10.0s">
      that the image formed on<br/>
      the Retina should be inverted?
    <p xml:id="subtitle3" begin="10.0s" end="16.0s" style="s2">
      It is puzzling, why is it<br/>
      we do not see things upside-down?
    <p xml:id="subtitle4" begin="17.2s" end="23.0s">
      You have never heard the Theory,<br/>
      then, that the Brain also is inverted?
    <p xml:id="subtitle5" begin="23.0s" end="27.0s" style="s2">
      No indeed! What a beautiful fact!
    <p xml:id="subtitle6a" begin="28.0s" end="34.6s" style="s2Left">
      But how is it proved?
    <p xml:id="subtitle6b" begin="28.0s" end="34.6s" style="s1Right">
      Thus: what we call
    <p xml:id="subtitle7" begin="34.6s" end="45.0s" style="s1Right">
      the vertex of the Brain<br/>
      is really its base
    <p xml:id="subtitle8" begin="45.0s" end="52.0s" style="s1Right">
      and what we call its base<br/>
      is really its vertex,
    <p xml:id="subtitle9a" begin="53.5s" end="58.7s">
      it is simply a question of nomenclature.
    <p xml:id="subtitle9b" begin="53.5s" end="58.7s" style="s2">
      How truly delightful!



00:02:17,440 --> 00:02:20,375
Senator, we're making
our final approach into Coruscant.
00:02:20,476 --> 00:02:22,501
Very good, Lieutenant.




[5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] [14] [15]



External Links


  1. wikipedia:Closed_Captioning
  2. Media Accessibility User Requirements (MAUR) - specification:
  3. Web Video Text Tracks (WebVTT) format -- <track> embedded ClosedCaption and/or Subtitle file:
  4. wikipedia: SubRip
  5. Edit the transcript for your video in Microsoft Stream:
  6. Change closed caption settings:
  7. Add subtitles or captions to your Microsoft Stream video:
  8. Generate automatic captions and a transcript for your Microsoft Stream videos:
  9. Find a spoken word or phrase in Microsoft Stream videos:
  10. Adding Closed Captions to Microsoft Stream Videos (via CaptionSync tool):
  11. How to Add Closed Captions to MS Stream Videos (via "3-play media" tool):
  12. Microsoft Stream – An Easy Way to Make Accurate Video Captions:
  13. Microsoft Community support -- Updated help article - Turning on Autogenerate a caption file and exporting from Microsoft Stream – HLS Show Me How:
  14. Problems with Autogenerating Captions:
  15. Closed Caption is gone after i download the video:
  16. The History of Closed Captioning:
  17. Time Magazine - Closed Captioning history:
  18. How Deaf Advocates Won the Battle for Closed Captioning:

See Also

Subtitles | Video | Audio | Text | A11Y | STT