Difference between revisions of "Cloud Computing"
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=== Grid ===
=== Grid ===
[[Grid]] computing is another. Grid focuses on sharing (distributing) computing resources (for example, processing experiment data output by a highly advanced lab instrument). Grids tend to be more loosely coupled, heterogeneous, and geographically dispersed compared to conventional cluster computing systems. Forming a Grid is commonly done in Academia and in the Scientific Research community, as it helps to analyze and store massive amounts of data across a network of computing resources.<ref>Difference - Cloud Computing vs Grid Computing: http://www.thepicky.com/tech/difference-cloud-computing-vs-grid-computing/</ref> It is commonly done for intensive compute jobs such as crunching numbers (i.e. massive statistical analysis) or processing a massive amount of data output from a particular device (such as a Mass Spectrometer in a lab, underwater sensors on a submarine, etc).
[[Grid]] computing is another . Grid focuses on sharing (distributing) computing resources (for example, processing experiment data output by a highly advanced lab instrument). Grids tend to be more loosely coupled, heterogeneous, and geographically dispersed compared to conventional cluster computing systems. Forming a Grid is commonly done in Academia and in the Scientific Research community, as it helps to analyze and store massive amounts of data across a network of computing resources.<ref>Difference - Cloud Computing vs Grid Computing: http://www.thepicky.com/tech/difference-cloud-computing-vs-grid-computing/</ref> It is commonly done for intensive compute jobs such as crunching numbers (i.e. massive statistical analysis) or processing a massive amount of data output from a particular device (such as a Mass Spectrometer in a lab, underwater sensors on a submarine, etc).
Revision as of 17:57, 28 August 2012
Cloud Computing is computing resources and access platforms which are stored, hosted and carried out in a foreign (3rd party) data server configuration.
With Cloud Computing, companies can scale up to massive capacities in an instant without having to invest in new infrastructure, train new personnel, or license new software. Cloud Computing is of particular benefit to small and medium-sized businesses who wish to completely outsource their data-center infrastructure, or large corporations who wish to get peak load capacity without incurring the higher cost of building larger data centers internally. In both instances, service consumers use what they need on the Internet and pay only for what they use.
The service consumer no longer has to be at a PC, use an application from a powerful OS with large computing resources and processor speeds, or purchase a specific version that's configured for each smartphone, PDA, or other device on which they intend to subscribe to or utilize the service. The consumer does not own the infrastructure, software, or platform in the cloud. He has lower upfront costs, capital expenses, and operating expenses. He does not care about how servers and networks are maintained in the cloud. The consumer can access multiple servers anywhere on the globe without knowing which ones and where they are located.
While Cloud Computing eliminates many of the initial costs and complexities of buying, configuring, and managing the hardware and software needed to build and deploy applications, and the applications are conveniently delivered on-demand, as a service over the Internet (the cloud), there are other pitfalls and hidden costs associated with moving to a cloud-based solution. First and foremost (and probably most obvious of the "hidden" costs is the learning curve required to deploy an application to a cloud-based solution as opposed to on a locally controlled and managed server, or, a hosted solution (although this barrier is getting smaller and smaller every day, as the interfaces for controlling cloud-based solutions improve). Another big hidden cost to consider is the pricing model, in particular if a Cloud Computing service provider calculates billing based on storage, network bandwidth consumed, time deployed (all too commonly misleadingly referred to as "compute time"), or actual compute time (i.e. time spent utilizing memory and computing resources, accessing a database or transferring data over a network). Lastly, whether a provider charges more like a traditional utility (i.e. Electricity) based on actual usage, or, whether the meter is running regardless of the state of a deployment or its usage (like a taxi-cab from hell that has huge upfront/after-service fees and/or one that charges whether the person is in the car or not, or does not at least slow down the meter while idling).
Virtualization is probably the core component of Cloud Computing as offering a way to intelligently divide and manage the available resources on a given hardware/software configuration into specific representations for specific users, organizations or communities.
Cluster computing is one subset of Cloud Computing. It is most commonly used for bursty, high bandwidth ativities (such as streaming a live video feed to thousands of users from several different temporarily replicated endpoints).
Grid computing is another main subset of Cloud Computing. Grid focuses on sharing (distributing) computing resources (for example, processing experiment data output by a highly advanced lab instrument). Grids tend to be more loosely coupled, heterogeneous, and geographically dispersed compared to conventional cluster computing systems. Forming a Grid is commonly done in Academia and in the Scientific Research community, as it helps to analyze and store massive amounts of data across a network of computing resources. It is commonly done for intensive compute jobs such as crunching numbers (i.e. massive statistical analysis) or processing a massive amount of data output from a particular device (such as a Mass Spectrometer in a lab, underwater sensors on a submarine, etc).
Generally there are three types of Cloud API's.
1. Blind APIs - API's that don't tell you their restrictions. Amazon Web Services is the best example. (Personally I'd rather know what I can or can't do then not know at all)
3. OpenCloud APIs - API's that generally let you do whatever you want as long as you give attribution. Rackspace, GoGrid and Sun are the best examples. A major issue facing a lot of these so called open API's is although you maybe free to remix and use the API, you could be limited by the use of a company's name or trademark. Making the attribution clause a potential mine field.
- Google AppEngine: http://appspot.com
- AppEngine SDKs: http://code.google.com/appengine/downloads.html#Download_the_Google_App_Engine_SDK
Amazon Web Services (AWS)
- Amazon - Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2): http://aws.amazon.com/ec2/
- Amazon - Simple Storage Service (S3): http://aws.amazon.com/s3/
- Amazon - Simple Database (SimpleDB): http://aws.amazon.com/simpledb/
- AWS SDKs: http://aws.amazon.com/code?_encoding=UTF8&jiveRedirect=1
- Windows Azure: http://windows.azure.com/
- Windows Azure SDK: http://www.microsoft.com/windowsazure/sdk/
- MyCloud: https://cloudeap.oracle.com/
- SalesForce - CRM and Employee Management apps: http://www.salesforce.com/platform/
- SalesForce SDKs: http://wiki.developerforce.com/index.php/Tools
- Open source software for buildingprivate and public clouds: http://openstack.org
- Ubuntu Cloud Computing: http://www.ubuntu.com/products/whatisubuntu/serveredition/cloud
- Ubuntu Cloud Planet: http://cloud.ubuntu.com/
- Ubuntu cloud-computing components released : http://news.zdnet.co.uk/software/0,1000000121,39644425,00.htm
Eucalyptus is an open-source system for implementing on-premise private and hybrid clouds using the hardware and software infrastructure that is in place, without modification. Eucalyptus adds capabilities such as end-user customization, self-service provisioning, and legacy application support to data center virtualization features, making IT customer service easier, more fully featured, and less expensive. Eucalyptus can be downloaded for free and used forever. It includes Amazon Web Services API (EC2, S3, EBS) and support for Xen and KVM, and allows you to build a cloud in 6 steps.
The Eucalyptus slogan is:
Your Hardware. Your Data. Your Cloud.
- Eucalyptus: http://www.eucalyptus.com/
- EyeOS :: A cross-browser, OS-like platform: http://www.eyeos.org/
- Download: http://eyeos.org/en/downloads
- Quick Install Instructions: http://wiki.eyeos.org/Quick_Install_Instructions
Unified Cloud Interface
Unified Cloud Computing is an attempt to create an open and standardized cloud interface for the unification of various cloud api's. A singular programmatic point of contact that can encompass the entire infrastructure stack as well as emerging cloud centric technologies all through a unified interface. One of the key drivers of the unified cloud interface is to create an api about other api's. A singular programmatic point of contact that can encompass the entire infrastructure stack as well as emerging cloud centric technologies all through a unified interface.
In this vision for a unified cloud interface the use of the resource description framework (RDF) is an ideal method to describe a semantic cloud data model (taxonomy & ontology). The benefit to an RDF based ontology languages is they act as general method for the conceptual description or modeling of information that is implemented by web resources. These web resources could just as easily be "cloud resources" or API's. This approach may also allow us to easily take an RDF -based cloud data model and use it within other ontology languages or web services making it both platform and vendor agnostic. Using this approach we're not so much defining how, but instead describing what.
- Unified Cloud Interface (UCI): http://code.google.com/p/unifiedcloud/
OpenNebula is a Virtual Infrastructure Manager that orchestrates storage, network and virtualization technologies to enable the dynamic placement of multi-tier services (groups of interconnected virtual machines) on distributed infrastructures, combining both data center resources and remote cloud resources, according to allocation policies.
- OpenNebula: http://opennebula.org/
cloudloop is a universal, open-source Java API and command-line tool for cloud storage, which lets you store, manage, and sync your databetween all major providers.
- Cloudloop: http://www.cloudloop.com/index.html
Cloud Foundry SpringSource Cloud Foundry is the first self-service, pay-as-you-go, public cloud deployment platform for full-feature Java web applications that unifies the entire build, run, and manage application lifecycle for Java.
- CloudFoundry: http://www.cloudfoundry.com/
- SpringSource Launches Enterprise Java Cloud: http://blog.springsource.com/2009/08/19/cloud-foundry/
VMware (upon purchase of SpringSource) announced their own Cloud Environment with the following characteristics:
- RESTful with full programmatic control
- Open Virtualization Framework (OVF) standards based
- Platform independent
- Pure virtual
- Supports multi-tenancy
VMware also provides critical Virtualization software for partitioning your own Operating System and Hardware.
- VMware Developer - vCloud API: http://communities.vmware.com/community/developer/forums/vcloudapi
- vCloud API Spec: http://communities.vmware.com/static/vcloudapi/vCloud_API_Specification_v0.8.pdf
- vCloud API Programming Guide (v0.8): http://communities.vmware.com/static/vcloudapi/vCloud_API_Programming_Guide_v0.8.pdf
- vCloud API v0.8 schema definition files: http://communities.vmware.com/static/vcloudapi/vcloud-api-v0.8-xsd-files.zip
- Admin API v0.8 schema definition files: http://communities.vmware.com/static/vcloudapi/admin-api-v0.8-xsd-files.zip
- Get Jolicloud: http://www.jolicloud.com/community/get-jolicloud#download-jolicloud-usb-creator
- JoliCloud -- List Of Compatible Devices: http://www.jolicloud.com/compatibility
NASA's Nebula Cloud
- NASA Nebula - Cloud Computing: http://nebula.nasa.gov/
The Xen® hypervisor, the powerful open source industry standard for virtualization, offers a powerful, efficient, and secure feature set for virtualization of x86, x86_64, IA64, ARM, and other CPU architectures. It supports a wide range of guest operating systems including Windows®, Linux®, Solaris®, and various versions of the BSD operating systems
- Xen: http://www.xen.org/
Dasein Cloud API
- The Dasein Cloud API: http://dasein-cloud.sourceforge.net/
- cloudtools -- Tools for deploying Java Spring and Grails applications in the Cloud: http://code.google.com/p/cloudtools/
- cloudtools -- Amazon EC2 Keypair (info): http://code.google.com/p/cloudtools/wiki/Ec2KeyPair
- Inventing the Future: http://www.oreillynet.com/pub/a/network/2002/04/09/future.html (early Tim O'reilly post on "Distributed Computing" powered by Web Services)
- Toward a Unified Ontology of Cloud Computing: http://www.collab-ogce.org/gce08/images/7/76/LamiaYouseff.pdf
- A Unified Ontology for Cloud Computing -- Helping the research community achieve a better understanding of this novel technology: http://cloudcomputing.sys-con.com/node/826218
- Demystifying Cloud Computing -- A Three-Minute Tutorial: http://www.cisco.com/web/strategy/docs/gov/FedBiz072909Cloud.pdf
- Creating a Windows Azure Hello World Application Using ASP.NET MVC 3: http://www.microsoft.com/windowsazure/learn/tutorials/getting-started-web-tutorial/
- Ubuntu - EC2 Starters Guide: https://help.ubuntu.com/community/EC2StartersGuide
- Getting Started with Amazon EC2 (in PHP): http://paulstamatiou.com/how-to-getting-started-with-amazon-ec2
- How to create an Amazon EC2 instance with Apache, PHP and MySQL (LAMP): http://www.robotmedia.net/2011/04/how-to-create-an-amazon-ec2-instance-with-apache-php-and-mysql-lamp/
- wikipedia: Cloud Computing
- Cloud computing is a trap, warns GNU founder Richard Stallman: http://www.guardian.co.uk/technology/2008/sep/29/cloud.computing.richard.stallman
- Shuttleworth - standards and open source against 'gross' cloud lock-in: http://www.theregister.co.uk/2009/04/01/shuttleworth_cloud_standards/
- Cloud Myths Dispelled: http://www.eucalyptus.com/enterprise/info/cloud-myths-dispelled/
- Is cloud computing more than just smoke?:
- Is Amazon the Wal-Mart of Cloud Computing?: http://www.appistry.com/blogs/sam/amazon-wal-mart-cloud-computing
- A Break in the Cloud? The Reality of Cloud Computing: http://www.cluteinstitute.com/Programs/Prague_2009/Article%20439.pdf
- April's Fools DAY -- YouTube Flails, Amazon Cloud Computing In A Blimp, 3D Chrome Browsing, Google Masters A.I.: http://www.charged.co.za/latest-news/april-fools-youtube-flails-amazon-cloud-computing-in-a-blimp-3d-chrome-browsing-google-masters-ai
- CODING HORROR -- Scaling Up vs. Scaling Out -- Hidden Costs: http://www.codinghorror.com/blog/archives/001279.html
- Markus at PlentyOfFish -- Upgrades, Themes & Date Night: http://plentyoffish.wordpress.com/2009/06/14/upgrades-themes-date-night/
- Jonathan Koomey -- The Environmental Cost Of Cloud Computing: http://www.slideshare.net/gigaom/jonathan-koomey-the-environmental-cost-of-cloud-computing
- Cloud computing is for the birds: http://money.cnn.com/2009/05/04/smallbusiness/cloud_computing_is_for_the_birds.smb/index.htm
- Hooking Stuff Together - Programming the Cloud: http://www.infoq.com/presentations/programming-cloud-gregor-hohpe
- Don’t confuse SaaS with Cloud Computing - Cloud Conference Week, Part 4: http://www.redmonk.com/cote/2008/06/30/dont-confuse-saas-with-cloud-computing-cloud-conference-week-part-4/
- The dangers of cloud computing: http://www.infoworld.com/d/cloud-computing/dangers-cloud-computing-839
- Java Cloud Computing - Two Approaches: http://www.jroller.com/nivanov/entry/java_cloud_computing_two_approaches
- Cloud Computing: An Escapist Fantasy?: http://www.infra20.com/post.cfm/cloud-computing-an-escapist-fantasy
- 20 Real-Life Challenges of Cloud Computing: http://java.dzone.com/articles/20-real-life-challenges-cloud-
- NEC promotes global cloud computing business for telecom operators: http://www.japantoday.com/category/technology/view/nec-promotes-global-cloud-computing-business-for-telecom-operators
- National Institute of Standards and Technology, (NIST) Information Technology Laboratory has published an updated version of their Working Definition of Cloud Computing: http://csrc.nist.gov/groups/SNS/cloud-computing/index.html
- Stress tests rain on Amazon's cloud: http://www.itnews.com.au/News/153451,stress-tests-rain-on-amazons-cloud.aspx
- More data released on cloud stress tests: http://www.itnews.com.au/News/153819,more-data-released-on-cloud-stress-tests.aspx
- Multiple Standards Could Spoil Cloud Computing: http://www.internetevolution.com/author.asp?section_id=561&doc_id=181129
- The cloud computing standards war : http://blog.gardeviance.org/2009/09/cloud-computing-standards-war.html
- Variety & Darwinism In Solutions Is Innovation, In Standards It’s A War?: http://www.rationalsurvivability.com/blog/?p=1316
- Cloud Computing -- Bill of Rights (aka Ten Commandments): http://samj.net/2008/09/cloud-computing-bill-of-rights-aka-ten.html
- Microsoft, T-Mobile Stumble With Sidekick Glitch: http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052748703790404574467431941990194.html?mod=WSJ_hpp_MIDDLENexttoWhatsNewsTop
- Amazon’s EC2 Generating 220M+ Annually: http://cloudscaling.com/blog/cloud-computing/amazons-ec2-generating-220m-annually
- Creator of World Wide Web Holds Court on Cloud: http://www.internetnews.com/webcontent/article.php/3845401
- Dynamically Applied Integrated Systems (PHP and JAVA support in Microsoft's AZURE compute cloud): http://charmalloc.blogspot.com/2009/10/seeing-through-windows-into-cloud-at.html
- How do you put a Database in the Cloud?: http://www.rackspacecloud.com/blog/2009/10/28/how-do-you-put-a-database-in-the-cloud/
- Cloud computing versus grid computing -- Service types, similarities and differences, and things to consider: http://www.ibm.com/developerworks/web/library/wa-cloudgrid/
- Fast Cloud Computing with Amazon Web Services -- New Developments at Stanford: http://speaking.stanford.edu/computing/Fast_Cloud_Computing_at_SU.html
- CLOUD CULTURE -- THE PROMISE AND THE THREAT: http://edge.org/3rd_culture/leadbeater10/leadbeater10_index.html
- OGF Open Cloud Computing Interface Working Group: http://www.occi-wg.org/
- CloudAudit: http://www.cloudaudit.org/
- Private cloud security is no security at all: http://samj.net/2010/02/private-cloud-security-is-no-security.html
- Google looks to be 'cloud-computing' rainmaker for other online business services: http://tech.ca.msn.com/canadianpress-article.aspx?cp-documentid=23609734
- Good and Bad Public Cloud candidates : http://horicky.blogspot.com/2009/04/good-and-bad-public-cloud-candidates.html
- Microsoft - We'll be running 85 to 90 percent of our apps in the cloud this decade: http://www.zdnet.com/blog/microsoft/microsoft-well-be-running-85-to-90-percent-of-our-apps-in-the-cloud-this-decade/6490?tag=nl.e539
- Why is Canada reluctant to adopt cloud computing?: http://www.zdnet.com/blog/igeneration/why-is-canada-reluctant-to-adopt-cloud-computing/5314?tag=mantle_skin;content
- Cloud computing to grow at 5 times rate of traditional IT, says IDC: http://www.zdnet.com/blog/btl/cloud-computing-to-grow-at-5-times-rate-of-traditional-it-says-idc/36161?tag=nl.e589
- Using Amazon Web Services in the enterprise: http://www.zdnet.com/blog/btl/10-things-using-amazon-web-services-in-the-enterprise/36326?tag=nl.e550
- How Microsoft's Azure Stacks up Against Cloud Competitors: http://www.devx.com/enterprise/Article/45095?trk=DXRSS_
- Amazon EC2 C# SOAP Library Example: http://awsec2soap.codeplex.com/
- Introduction to Climate Science - Cloud Types (ok, different type of clouds, but interesting nonetheless): http://mapmaker.meteor.wisc.edu/~jbrunner/ackerman/sm-clouds/cloudbkgrnd.html
- Costs and risks to consider when planning a move to the public cloud: http://blogs.techrepublic.com.com/networking/?p=3405&tag=nl.e102
- Cloud Computing Improves Intelligence Gathering: http://www.digitalmediabuzz.com/2009/11/cloud-computing-intelligence/
- Public versus Private Clouds: http://blogs.msdn.com/b/hanuk/archive/2009/06/15/public-versus-private-clouds.aspx
- Public vs Private Cloud Brouhaha -- My Take: http://www.cloudave.com/1670/public-vs-private-cloud-brouhaha-my-take/
- Cloud Computing Payback - An explanation of where the ROI comes from: http://www.cloudconnectevent.com/downloads/ibm-white-paper.pdf
- Visualizing the impact of climate change using Cloud Computing: http://www.smartplanet.com/technology/blog/thinking-tech/5597/5597/
- Public, Private & Hybrid Clouds - video presentations: http://www.brighttalk.com/summit/cloudcomputing3
- Seven elements of Cloud value: public vs private: http://www.mwdadvisors.com/blog/2009/07/seven-elements-of-cloud-value-public-vs.html
- Cloud Computing Types: Public Cloud, Hybrid Cloud, Private Cloud: http://www.circleid.com/posts/20090306_cloud_computing_types_public_hybrid_private/
- The Spectrum of Private to Public Cloud Services: http://blogs.gartner.com/thomas_bittman/2009/04/08/the-spectrum-of-private-to-public-cloud-services/
- Cloud Computing Public or Private? How to Choose Cloud Storage: http://www.sys-con.com/node/707840
- Google Survey - Voters Want Government To Embrace Cloud Computing: http://www.crn.com/news/applications-os/225200099/google-survey-voters-want-government-to-embrace-cloud-computing.htm
- Embracing the Cloud -- Six Ways to Look at the Shift to Cloud Computing: http://www.educause.edu/EDUCAUSE+Quarterly/EDUCAUSEQuarterlyMagazineVolum/EmbracingtheCloudSixWaystoLook/206528
- Cloud predictions for 2011: Gains from early experiences come alive: http://www.zdnet.com/blog/forrester/cloud-predictions-for-2011-gains-from-early-experiences-come-alive/549?tag=nl.e550
- How Secure Is The Cloud? : http://www.tomshardware.com/reviews/cloud-computing-security,2829.html
- Forcing Everyone to Live with Their Heads in ‘The Cloud’ : http://www.infowars.com/forcing-everyone-to-live-with-their-heads-in-the-cloud/
- eBay to build its own private cloud: http://www.zdnet.com/videos/events/ebay-to-build-its-own-private-cloud/6195652
- Stallman vs. Clouds: http://www.linuxjournal.com/content/stallman-vs-clouds
- Google's ChromeOS means losing control of data, warns GNU founder Richard Stallman: http://www.guardian.co.uk/technology/blog/2010/dec/14/chrome-os-richard-stallman-warning
- Dragons in the Cloud: Apple, Google, Amazon and Microsoft: http://www.zdnet.com/blog/perlow/dragons-in-the-cloud-apple-google-amazon-and-microsoft/17460?tag=nl.e539
- Can Apple win 'personal cloud' market?: http://www.zdnet.com/blog/btl/can-apple-win-personal-cloud-market/50121
- Philosophical differences - The Google cloud vs. the Apple cloud: http://www.zdnet.com/blog/btl/philosophical-differences-the-google-cloud-vs-the-apple-cloud/50245
- 7 cloud services compared: How much control do you give up?: http://www.zdnet.com/blog/bott/7-cloud-services-compared-how-much-control-do-you-give-up/3518
- How universities got it so wrong over Patriot Act outsourcing (of student data to the cloud): http://www.zdnet.com/blog/igeneration/how-universities-got-it-so-wrong-over-patriot-act-outsourcing/13153
- Cloud 2020 -- What are the barriers to the cloud?: http://www.zdnet.com/cloud-2020-what-are-the-barriers-to-the-cloud-7000001814/
- Cloud .vs. Grid: http://www.ibm.com/developerworks/web/library/wa-cloudgrid/index.html?ca=drs-
- Difference - Cloud Computing vs Grid Computing: http://www.thepicky.com/tech/difference-cloud-computing-vs-grid-computing/
- Google App Engine for Java, Part 1 - Rev it up!: http://www.ibm.com/developerworks/java/library/j-gaej1/
- Google App Engine for Java, Part 2 - Building the killer app: http://www.ibm.com/developerworks/java/library/j-gaej2/
- Google App Engine for Java, Part 3 - Persistence and relationships: http://www.ibm.com/developerworks/java/library/j-gaej3/
- Microsoft needs to stop scamming MSDN Subscriber with Azure: http://social.msdn.microsoft.com/Forums/en-ZW/windowsazurepurchasing/thread/0edca3f0-874e-4e53-ae86-7ba2740a277c?prof=required
- Internet Information Services (IIS) 7.0 installation for working with Windows Azure: http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/hh403991.aspx#IIS
- Ubuntu promises DIY Amazon cloud: http://www.theregister.co.uk/2009/03/25/ubuntu_amazon_cloud/
- Why Microsoft should fear Ubuntu’s cloud efforts: http://www.ubuntu-news.net/2009/02/23/why-microsoft-should-fear-ubuntus-cloud-efforts/