Cloud Computing is computing resources and access platforms which are stored, hosted and carried out in a foreign (3rd party) data server configuration.
With Cloud Computing, companies can scale up to massive capacities in an instant without having to invest in new infrastructure, train new personnel, or license new software. Cloud computing is of particular benefit to small and medium-sized businesses who wish to completely outsource their data-center infrastructure, or large companies who wish to get peak load capacity without incurring the higher cost of building larger data centers internally. In both instances, service consumers use what they need on the Internet and pay only for what they use.
The service consumer no longer has to be at a PC, use an application from the PC, or purchase a specific version that's configured for smartphones, PDAs, and other devices. The consumer does not own the infrastructure, software, or platform in the cloud. He has lower upfront costs, capital expenses, and operating expenses. He does not care about how servers and networks are maintained in the cloud. The consumer can access multiple servers anywhere on the globe without knowing which ones and where they are located. 
Cluster computing is one subset of Cloud Computing.
Grid computing is another.
Virtualization is a core component of Cloud Computing which divides the available resources on a given hardware and/or software configuration into specific representations for specific users, organizations or communities.
- Toward a Unified Ontology of Cloud Computing: http://www.collab-ogce.org/gce08/images/7/76/LamiaYouseff.pdf
- A Unified Ontology for Cloud Computing -- Helping the research community achieve a better understanding of this novel technology: http://cloudcomputing.sys-con.com/node/826218
- Ubuntu Cloud Computing: http://www.ubuntu.com/products/whatisubuntu/serveredition/cloud
- Ubuntu Cloud Planet: http://cloud.ubuntu.com/
- Ubuntu cloud-computing components released : http://news.zdnet.co.uk/software/0,1000000121,39644425,00.htm
Eucalyptus is an open-source system for implementing on-premise private and hybrid clouds using the hardware and software infrastructure that is in place, without modification. Eucalyptus adds capabilities such as end-user customization, self-service provisioning, and legacy application support to data center virtualization features, making IT customer service easier, more fully featured, and less expensive. Eucalyptus can be downloaded for free and used forever. It includes Amazon Web Services API (EC2, S3, EBS) and support for Xen and KVM, and allows you to build a cloud in 6 steps.
The Eucalyptus slogan is:
Your Hardware. Your Data. Your Cloud.
- Eucalyptus: http://www.eucalyptus.com/
- EyeOS :: A cross-browser, OS-like platform: http://www.eyeos.org/
- Download: http://eyeos.org/en/downloads
- Quick Install Instructions: http://wiki.eyeos.org/Quick_Install_Instructions
Unified Cloud Interface
Unified Cloud Computing is an attempt to create an open and standardized cloud interface for the unification of various cloud api's. A singular programmatic point of contact that can encompass the entire infrastructure stack as well as emerging cloud centric technologies all through a unified interface. One of the key drivers of the unified cloud interface is to create an api about other api's. A singular programmatic point of contact that can encompass the entire infrastructure stack as well as emerging cloud centric technologies all through a unified interface.
In this vision for a unified cloud interface the use of the resource description framework (RDF) is an ideal method to describe a semantic cloud data model (taxonomy & ontology). The benefit to an RDF based ontology languages is they act as general method for the conceptual description or modeling of information that is implemented by web resources. These web resources could just as easily be "cloud resources" or API's. This approach may also allow us to easily take an RDF -based cloud data model and use it within other ontology languages or web services making it both platform and vendor agnostic. Using this approach we're not so much defining how, but instead describing what.
- unifiedcloud -- Unified Cloud Interface (UCI): http://code.google.com/p/unifiedcloud/
OpenNebula is a Virtual Infrastructure Manager that orchestrates storage, network and virtualization technologies to enable the dynamic placement of multi-tier services (groups of interconnected virtual machines) on distributed infrastructures, combining both data center resources and remote cloud resources, according to allocation policies.
- OpenNebula: http://opennebula.org/
cloudloop is a universal, open-source Java API and command-line tool for cloud storage, which lets you store, manage, and sync your databetween all major providers.
- Cloudloop: http://www.cloudloop.com/index.html
Cloud Foundry SpringSource Cloud Foundry is the first self-service, pay-as-you-go, public cloud deployment platform for full-feature Java web applications that unifies the entire build, run, and manage application lifecycle for Java.
- SpringSource Launches Enterprise Java Cloud: http://blog.springsource.com/2009/08/19/cloud-foundry/
VMware (upon purchase of SpringSource) announced their own Cloud Environment with the following characteristics:
* RESTful with full programmatic control * OVF standards based * Platform independent * Pure virtual * Supports multi-tenancy
- VMware Developer - vCloud API: http://communities.vmware.com/community/developer/forums/vcloudapi
- vCloud API Spec: http://communities.vmware.com/static/vcloudapi/vCloud_API_Specification_v0.8.pdf
- vCloud API Programming Guide v0.8http://communities.vmware.com/static/vcloudapi/vCloud_API_Programming_Guide_v0.8.pdf
- vCloud API v0.8 schema definition files: http://communities.vmware.com/static/vcloudapi/vcloud-api-v0.8-xsd-files.zip
- Admin API v0.8 schema definition files: http://communities.vmware.com/static/vcloudapi/admin-api-v0.8-xsd-files.zip
- Get Jolicloud: http://www.jolicloud.com/community/get-jolicloud#download-jolicloud-usb-creator
- JoliCloud -- List Of Compatible Devices: http://www.jolicloud.com/compatibility
NASA's Nebula Cloud
- NASA Nebula - Cloud Computing: http://nebula.nasa.gov/
The Xen® hypervisor, the powerful open source industry standard for virtualization, offers a powerful, efficient, and secure feature set for virtualization of x86, x86_64, IA64, ARM, and other CPU architectures. It supports a wide range of guest operating systems including Windows®, Linux®, Solaris®, and various versions of the BSD operating systems
- Xen: http://www.xen.org/
Generally there are three types of Cloud API's.
1. Blind API's - API's that don't tell you their restrictions. Amazon Web Services is the best example. (Personally I'd rather know what I can or can't do then not know at all)
3. OpenCloud API's - API's that generally let you do whatever you want as long as you give attribution. Rackspace, GoGrid and Sun are the best examples. A major issue facing a lot of these so called open API's is although you maybe free to remix and use the API, you could be limited by the use of a company's name or trademark. Making the attribution clause a potential mine field.
Dasein Cloud API
- The Dasein Cloud API: http://dasein-cloud.sourceforge.net/
- Shuttleworth - standards and open source against 'gross' cloud lock-in: http://www.theregister.co.uk/2009/04/01/shuttleworth_cloud_standards/
- Cloud Myths Dispelled: http://www.eucalyptus.com/enterprise/info/cloud-myths-dispelled/
- Is cloud computing more than just smoke?:
- Is Amazon the Wal-Mart of Cloud Computing?: http://www.appistry.com/blogs/sam/amazon-wal-mart-cloud-computing
- A Break in the Cloud? The Reality of Cloud Computing: http://www.cluteinstitute.com/Programs/Prague_2009/Article%20439.pdf
- April's Fools DAY -- YouTube Flails, Amazon Cloud Computing In A Blimp, 3D Chrome Browsing, Google Masters A.I.: http://www.charged.co.za/latest-news/april-fools-youtube-flails-amazon-cloud-computing-in-a-blimp-3d-chrome-browsing-google-masters-ai
- CODING HORROR -- Scaling Up vs. Scaling Out -- Hidden Costs: http://www.codinghorror.com/blog/archives/001279.html
- Markus at PlentyOfFish -- Upgrades, Themes & Date Night: http://plentyoffish.wordpress.com/2009/06/14/upgrades-themes-date-night/
- Jonathan Koomey -- The Environmental Cost Of Cloud Computing: http://www.slideshare.net/gigaom/jonathan-koomey-the-environmental-cost-of-cloud-computing
- Cloud computing is for the birds: http://money.cnn.com/2009/05/04/smallbusiness/cloud_computing_is_for_the_birds.smb/index.htm
- Hooking Stuff Together - Programming the Cloud: http://www.infoq.com/presentations/programming-cloud-gregor-hohpe
- Don’t confuse SaaS with Cloud Computing - Cloud Conference Week, Part 4: http://www.redmonk.com/cote/2008/06/30/dont-confuse-saas-with-cloud-computing-cloud-conference-week-part-4/
- The dangers of cloud computing: http://www.infoworld.com/d/cloud-computing/dangers-cloud-computing-839
- Java Cloud Computing - Two Approaches: http://www.jroller.com/nivanov/entry/java_cloud_computing_two_approaches
- Cloud Computing: An Escapist Fantasy?: http://www.infra20.com/post.cfm/cloud-computing-an-escapist-fantasy
- 20 Real-Life Challenges of Cloud Computing: http://java.dzone.com/articles/20-real-life-challenges-cloud-
- NEC promotes global cloud computing business for telecom operators: http://www.japantoday.com/category/technology/view/nec-promotes-global-cloud-computing-business-for-telecom-operators
- National Institute of Standards and Technology, (NIST) Information Technology Laboratory has published an updated version of their Working Definition of Cloud Computing: http://csrc.nist.gov/groups/SNS/cloud-computing/index.html
- Stress tests rain on Amazon's cloud: http://www.itnews.com.au/News/153451,stress-tests-rain-on-amazons-cloud.aspx
- More data released on cloud stress tests: http://www.itnews.com.au/News/153819,more-data-released-on-cloud-stress-tests.aspx
- Multiple Standards Could Spoil Cloud Computing: http://www.internetevolution.com/author.asp?section_id=561&doc_id=181129
- The cloud computing standards war : http://blog.gardeviance.org/2009/09/cloud-computing-standards-war.html
- Variety & Darwinism In Solutions Is Innovation, In Standards It’s A War?: http://www.rationalsurvivability.com/blog/?p=1316
- Cloud Computing -- Bill of Rights (aka Ten Commandments): http://samj.net/2008/09/cloud-computing-bill-of-rights-aka-ten.html
- Microsoft, T-Mobile Stumble With Sidekick Glitch: http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052748703790404574467431941990194.html?mod=WSJ_hpp_MIDDLENexttoWhatsNewsTop
- Amazon’s EC2 Generating 220M+ Annually: http://cloudscaling.com/blog/cloud-computing/amazons-ec2-generating-220m-annually
- Creator of World Wide Web Holds Court on Cloud: http://www.internetnews.com/webcontent/article.php/3845401
- Dynamically Applied Integrated Systems (PHP and JAVA support in Microsoft's AZURE compute cloud): http://charmalloc.blogspot.com/2009/10/seeing-through-windows-into-cloud-at.html
- How do you put a Database in the Cloud?: http://www.rackspacecloud.com/blog/2009/10/28/how-do-you-put-a-database-in-the-cloud/
- Cloud computing versus grid computing -- Service types, similarities and differences, and things to consider: http://www.ibm.com/developerworks/web/library/wa-cloudgrid/
- Fast Cloud Computing with Amazon Web Services -- New Developments at Stanford: http://speaking.stanford.edu/computing/Fast_Cloud_Computing_at_SU.html
- Cloud .vs. Grid: http://www.ibm.com/developerworks/web/library/wa-cloudgrid/index.html?ca=drs-
- Ubuntu promises DIY Amazon cloud: http://www.theregister.co.uk/2009/03/25/ubuntu_amazon_cloud/
- Why Microsoft should fear Ubuntu’s cloud efforts: http://www.ubuntu-news.net/2009/02/23/why-microsoft-should-fear-ubuntus-cloud-efforts/