Difference between revisions of "E-Commerce"

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'''Electronic-commerce''' (commonly referred to as E-Commerce) is the convergence of computer science and business.
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'''E'''lectronic-'''commerce''' (commonly referred to as ''E-Commerce'' or ''eCommerce''; also abbreviated as ''E-com'', ''ECOM'', or ''eCom'') is the convergence of computer science and business. It represents the act of doing business using electronic technologies, particularly as it relates to the sale of goods or services.
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'''E-Commerce''' tends to refer to a particular subset of [[E-Business]], with focus on ''consumer''-facing commercial activities.
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{{#Widget:Vimeo|id=15076723|width=400|height=265}} {{#ev:youtube|OY2tcQ574Ew|320}} {{#ev:youtube|gOVh-r03zxQ|320}}
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== Topics ==
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Common topics of E-Commerce include:
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# [[Graphic Design]] (logos, artwork, visual image design)
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# [[Web Development]] (HTML, xHTML, HTML5) & [[Web Design]] (CSS)
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# [[Mobile Web]] Development (WAP, xHTML, HTML5)
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# Front-end [[Web Application]]s (JSP, ASP, PHP)
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# [[Database Management]] technologies (Oracle, MySQL, PostgreSQL)
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# [[Web Analytics]] & [[SEO]] (user/device, log/usage & traffic source/referer analysis)
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# [[Data Mining]] (OLAP, extraction/scraping, visualization)
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# [[Behavioral Targeting]] (BT)
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# [[Content Management Systems]] (CMS)
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# [[E-Procurement]] (auctions, online retail, shopping carts, etc)
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# [[E-Payment]] (financial transactions, credit card processing, ATM, NFC, etc)
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# [[E-Security]] (Encryption, DRM, Anti-Virus, Policies, PCI compliance, etc)
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== Techniques ==
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=== Sales of goods ===
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Selling a product online.
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==== BOPIS ====
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* What is BOPIS (Buy Online, Pickup in Store) in Retail?: https://www.parcelpending.com/blog/what-is-bopis-in-retail/
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<ref>Most Consumers Are Using BOPIS -- Or Will, Study Finds: https://www.mediapost.com/publications/article/362136/most-consumers-are-using-bopis-or-will-study-f.html</ref>
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=== Sales of services ===
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Selling a service online that you yourself offer, or, on behalf of another person.
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=== Affiliate Marketing ===
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Affiliate programs offer incentives to those who promote their products/services in the form of "kickbacks", typically financial rewards, credits, or a small % of the sales as profit margin.
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==== Dropshipping ====
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Dropshipping is procuring [[B2B]] or [[B2C]] sales of a given product/service on behalf of the product/service manufacturer and/or wholesaler. In this model, frequently used in small home businesses, an individual basically becomes an informal sales agent for a company that has an inventory of products/services to provide, but who typically does not employ (staff) any or sufficient numbers of sales representatives. As a result, dropshipping helps both the small business & home entrepreneur gain a small margin by acting as a facilitator of the sale, and, the company with excess inventory by providing another medium through which to reach customers and move their products/services.
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* What Is Dropshipping?: https://www.shopify.com/blog/what-is-dropshipping
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=== Advertising ===
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Selling advertising space against original content you've published, and in some cases, within legal requirements (such as copyright and content reuse), against embedded or otherwise re-marketed third-party content, is one of the primary means of conducting commerce electronically.
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==== Email Campaigns ====
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'''Email Campaigns''' are a main [[Marketing]] tool of [[E-Commerce]], and can be quite productive to drive traffic and purchase activity when utilized in careful moderation with precision of targeting users with information they actually want and need so will find useful/helpful.
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Common types of Email Campaigns include:
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* Welcome/onboarding
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* Abandonment cart
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* Cross-sell
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* Upsell
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* VIP customer emails
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* Product review
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* Product replenishment
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* Shipping reminders
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In addition, users can be segmented into “customers” and “leads” categories.
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== Legal Requirements ==
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Different countries have different legal requirements in terms of legality of selling products/services online (what can be sold, by who, how, when, what licenses or permits are required, etc). Main examples of [[E-Commerce]] activities posing serious legal problems are [[Gambling]], [[Pornography]] and/or Adult Services, which comprise a large portion of [[E-Commerce]] but yet is illegal in many jurisdictions and geo-political regions. Unfortunately for honest businesses looking to make a buck without exploiting people or their bodies, [[porn]] has proven to be one of the most profitable, low-cost and high-return [[E-Commerce]] [[Business Model]]s. Although, with an increasing amount of retail business of all types happening online, so-called "legitimate" is quickly starting to regain its share of all [[E-Commerce]] sales as well. Another good example is auctioning online; before eBay legitamized online auctions, they were forbidden in many geo-political regions. Other prime considerations apart from what can be sold and related questions, center around how the actual transactions must be carried out, secured, recorded/logged, accounted for and taxed, as well guaranteed and supported by the retailer (seller) after the purchase by the consumer (buyer).
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* '''Global E-commerce Statistics: http://econsultancy.com/us/reports/global-e-commerce-statistics'''
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=== Canada ===
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In Canada, the Canada Revenue Agency (CRA) is in charge of all income tax and business revenue taxation.
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* CRA - E-commerce records requirements: http://www.cra-arc.gc.ca/tx/bsnss/tpcs/kprc/cmmrc/menu-eng.html
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* CRA - Statement of Business or Professional Activities: http://www.cra-arc.gc.ca/E/pbg/tf/t2125/README.html
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* CRA - Business and Professional Income: http://www.cra-arc.gc.ca/E/pub/tg/t4002/README.html
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=== USA ===
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* E-Commerce stats: http://www.census.gov/econ/estats/
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* US E-Commerce - Exporting toolbox: http://export.gov/sellingonline/
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* IRS -- E-Business & E-Commerce Tax Center: http://www.irs.gov/businesses/small/industries/article/0,,id=208385,00.html
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=== Japan ===
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* IT stats in Japan: http://www.stat.go.jp/english/data/getujidb/index.htm#o
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* Cultural Differences in E-Commerce - A Comparison Between the United States and Japan: http://www.isoc.org/inet2000/cdproceedings/7d/7d_1.htm
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* Internet World Stats - Japan: http://www.internetworldstats.com/asia/jp.htm<ref>E-Commerce in Japan – English sites offer quality Japanese products: http://www.stippy.com/japan-work/english-language-ecommerce-sites-offer-latest-japanese-products/</ref>
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== Ontologies ==
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=== GoodRelations ===
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There are a set of semantics within the E-Commerce domain that describes terms and models. GoodRelations is a lightweight ontology for annotating offerings on the Web.
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* GoodRelations: An ontology for linking product descriptions and business entities on the Web: http://www.heppnetz.de/projects/goodrelations/
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* The GoodRelations Ontology specification: http://www.heppnetz.de/ontologies/goodrelations/v1
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<ref>A podcast conversation about GoodRelations, with Martin Hepp and Jamie Taylor: http://cloudofdata.com/2010/02/a-podcast-conversation-about-goodrelations-with-martin-hepp-and-jamie-taylor/</ref>
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=== UNSO (P2P) ===
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* UNSO – Unspecified Ontologies for P2P E-Commerce Applications: http://cslx.haifa.ac.il/~slavax/docs/UNSO_manual.pdf
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* A Dozen Examples of Video for Online Retail: http://developer.practicalecommerce.com/articles/1767-A-Dozen-Examples-of-Video-for-Online-Retail
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== Billing ==
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* [[wikipedia: Bill of sale]]
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* [[wikipedia: Bill of materials]] (aka ''BoM'')
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=== Receipt ===
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* [[wikipedia: Receipt]]
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* '''HTML5 Receipt: http://codepen.io/justinklemm/full/zAdoJ'''<ref>CSS @media browser support summary (2011): http://web.archive.org/web/20110102091651/http://www.codestyle.org/css/media/print-BrowserSummary.shtml</ref><ref>Receipt Printing (alternative stylesheet for regular Printer): http://stackoverflow.com/questions/656906/receipt-printing</ref><ref>Javascript receipt printing using POS Printer: http://stackoverflow.com/questions/11463787/javascript-receipt-printing-using-pos-printer</ref>
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* CSS layout for HTML receipt: http://medialoot.com/item/receipt-html-css-template/ (commercial license required)<ref>Bootstrap -- web order receipt example: http://www.prepbootstrap.com/bootstrap-template/simple-invoice</ref>
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* WORD - DIY "Receipt Book" template: http://www.aztemplates.org/payment-receipt-template.html
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* EXCEL - Free Simple Receipt Template: http://www.vertex42.com/ExcelTemplates/simple-receipt-template.html
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=== Invoice ===
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* [[wikipedia: Invoice]]
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* '''HTML5 Invoice: http://www.jonathantneal.com/blog/the-html5-invoice/'''
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* CSS layout for HTML invoice: https://css-tricks.com/html-invoice/
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* WORD - Simple Invoice template: http://www.free-power-point-templates.com/articles/simple-invoice-template-for-microsoft-word/<reF>MS Office templates - Invoices: http://templates.office.com/en-us/Invoices</ref>
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* EXCEL - Free Invoice Template: http://www.vertex42.com/ExcelTemplates/excel-invoice-template.html
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== Tools ==
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* [[wikipedia: List of free and open source eCommerce software]]
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* '''OpenBazaar: https://openbazaar.org/'''
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* Gumroad: https://gumroad.com/ (sell your products/services directly to your audience via the web)
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* '''Kinek: http://www.kinek.com/''' (cross-border shipping<ref>Canadian cross-border shopping: https://www.kinek.com/cross-border-shopping</ref>/receiving<ref>Shipping to the Border: https://www.kinek.com/shipping-to-the-border</ref> service)
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* BorderLinx - Calculating Shipping Costs (WORDLWIDE): http://www.borderlinx.com/en/shipping-cost-calculator
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=== Shopping Cart ===
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* Shopping Cart Elite: https://www.shoppingcartelite.com/ (full hosted solution)
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* GetShopped - [[WordPress]] plugin: http://getshopped.org/ | [http://wordpress.org/extend/plugins/wp-e-commerce/screenshots/ DEMO]
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* VirtueMart - [[Joomla]] plugin: http://www.virtuemart.net/ | [http://demo.virtuemart.net/ DEMO] | JReviews: http://www.reviewsforjoomla.com/ | [http://demo.reviewsforjoomla.com/ DEMO] <ref>ReviewsAhoy (list of sites powered by JReviews): http://www.reviewsahoy.com/</ref>
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* OScommerce: http://www.oscommerce.com/ | [http://demo.oscommerce.com/ DEMO]
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* PrestaShop: http://www.prestashop.com/ | [http://demo.prestashop.com/en/?view=front DEMO]
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* ZenCart: http://www.zencart.com/ | [http://demo.opensourcecms.com/zencart/ DEMO] (old, simplified fork of OScommerce)
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* LemonStand: http://lemonstand.com/ | [http://demo.lemonstand.com/ DEMO]
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* OpenCart: http://www.opencart.com/ [http://demo.opencart.com/ DEMO] | [https://github.com/opencart/opencart DOWNLOAD]
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* SimpleCart JS: http://simplecartjs.org/
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* WooCommerce: http://www.woothemes.com/woocommerce/
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<ref>Who are competitors to Magento?: http://www.quora.com/Who-are-competitors-to-Magento (Complete list of Top [[OSS]] E-Commerce solutions)</ref>
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<ref>Flying Images to Shopping Cart, Animated Add to Cart using jQuery: https://w3lessons.info/2014/02/11/flying-images-to-shopping-cart-animated-add-to-cart-using-jquery/ | [https://w3lessons.info/demo/flying-images-to-cart/ DEMO]</ref>
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<ref>''addEventListener'' to multiple checkboxes: https://stackoverflow.com/questions/51433092/addeventlistener-to-multiple-checkboxes</ref>
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==== Magento ====
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* Magento: http://www.magentocommerce.com/ | [http://demo.magentocommerce.com/ DEMO] (software platform/company purchased by [[eBay]], then acquired by [[Adobe]])
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* Magento -- Open Source Store: https://magento.com/products/magento-open-source
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* Magento - Hyva Theme: https://bsscommerce.com/blog/hyva-theme-magento-2/ | [https://github.com/hyva-themes/magento2-hyva-admin SRC] (alternative to OOTB "Luma" Theme)<ref>Hyva - a new frontend for Magento2: https://kmfinfotech.com/2022/06/28/hyva-theme-a-new-frontend-for-magento-2/</ref>
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==== Medusa ====
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* Medusa: https://www.medusajs.com ([[OSS]] Shopify alternative)
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=== Product Lookup ===
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* UPC Lookup Database: http://www.upcitemdb.com/ | [http://www.upcitemdb.com/upc/33383000015 EXAMPLE] (101 million+ unique UPC/EAN #s)
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* UPC Index: http://www.upcindex.com/ | [http://www.upcindex.com/780353784214 EXAMPLE] (103 million+ unique UPC/EAN #s)
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* Barcode Lookup: https://www.barcodelookup.com/ | [ EXAMPLE] (20.5 million+ unique UPC/EAN/ISBN #s)
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* Search by GTIN: http://gepir.gs1.org/index.php/search-by-gtin
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=== Comparison Shopping ===
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* eBay Comparison Shopping: http://www.shopping.com/ | [ APP] (Barcode scanner)
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* Amazon Comparison Shopping:  | [ APP] (Barcode scanner)
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* ShopZilla: http://www.shopzilla.com/ (one of the original Comparison Shopping sites)
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* PriceGrabber: http://www.pricegrabber.com/
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* Become: http://www.become.com/
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* NexTag: http://www.nextag.com/
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* '''RepairPal - Comparison Tool for Automobile Service Costs: http://repairpal.com/estimator''' (National average repair estimates by Make / Model / Service-type)
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* ShopSavvy: http://shopsavvy.com/ (Barcode scanner & Price tracker)
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* RedLaser: http://redlaser.com/ (Barcode scanner with product info and link to places to purchase)
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* Consumr: http://www.consumr.com/
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<ref>[[wikipedia: Price comparison service]]</ref>
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==== Travel ====
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* PriceLine: http://www.priceline.com/ (name-your-price Hotel & Airfare search)
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* Rakuten Travel: http://travel.rakuten.com/ (Hotels primarily within Japan)
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* Airfare Watchdog: http://www.airfarewatchdog.com/
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* Expedia: http://www.expedia.com
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* Kayak: http://www.kayak.com/
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* Hotel Tonight: http://www.hoteltonight.com/
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* LateRooms: http://www.laterooms.com/
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* AirBnB: http://www.airbnb.ca/
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* ZipCar: http://www.zipcar.ca/
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* RideShare: http://www.maritimerideshare.com/
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=== Selling Engines ===
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* eBay: http://www.ebay.com (B2C/C2C Auctions)
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* Amazon: http://www.amazon.com (mostly B2C online retail sales)
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* Rakuten: http://www.rakuten.co.jp (Japan's largest sales platform)
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* Alibaba: http://www.alibaba.com/ (B2C/C2C/B2B, China's largest sales plaftorm)
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* Apple iTunes: http://www.apple.com/ca/itunes/ (B2C digital content sales: software/games, music, ebooks/audiobooks, videos/tv/movies, etc)
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* Etsy: http://www.etsy.com
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* FlipKart: http://www.flipkart.com/
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* Digital Product Delivery (DPD): http://getdpd.com/ (ideal for eBooks, album/song sales, PPV/VOD content & paid software downloads)
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<ref>Top 10 Shopping/Sales Platforms: http://searchenginewatch.com/sew/study/2097413/shopping-engines</ref>
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<ref>[[wikipedia: Online shopping]]</ref>
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=== Promotion Platforms ===
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* Google Products: http://www.google.com/shopping
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* Bing Product Ads: http://advertise.bingads.microsoft.com/en-us/product-ads (requires link back to your own store, or your product on a 3rd-party selling platform)
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=== Shipping Costs ===
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* UPS - Estimate Shipping Cost: <ref>2016 UPS RATES -- Air Freight Within and Between Canada & US: https://www.ups.com/media/en/af_zones_rates_upc.pdf</ref>
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* FedEx - Get Rates & Transit Times: https://www.fedex.com/ratefinder/home?cc=US&language=en&locId=express
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* CanadaPost -- Shipping Rate calculator: https://www.canadapost.ca/cpotools/apps/far/business/findARate?execution=e1s1<ref>How do I calculate how much postage I need for a letter or parcel?: https://www.canadapost.ca/web/en/kb/details.page?article=how_to_calculate_you&cattype=kb&cat=sending&subcat=ratesdimensions</ref>
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* USPS -- Shipping Rates: https://www.usps.com/nationalpremieraccounts/calculaterates.htm | [http://www.globalgaragesale.net/shippingcalculator.aspx EXAMPLE -- Quick Multi-fare]<ref>Downloadable Shipping Rates by class of "Business Shipping": https://www.usps.com/business/prices.htm</ref>
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== Resources ==
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* '''Canadian Code of Practice for Consumer Protection in Electronic Commerce: http://www.interac.ca/images/PDFs/canadian_code_of_practice_for_e-commerce.pdf'''
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* OpenSource CMS repository: http://www.opensourcecms.com/ (test-drive backends & frontends of the most popular [[CMS]] solutions)
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* '''Canada Post API: http://www.programmableweb.com/api/canada-post''' (can be used to validate/locate Postal Codes & Street Address and calculate Shipping Costs)<ref>CanadaPost API (SOAP/WSDLs): http://www.canadapost.ca/cpo/mc/business/productsservices/developers/soap/wsdlfiles.jsf</ref><ref>Canada Post API: http://www.programmableweb.com/api/canadapost</ref>
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* BuySafe: http://www.buysafe.com | http://developer.buysafe.com <ref>http://www.programmableweb.com/api/buysafe</ref>
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* Pricenomics: http://priceonomics.com (price range guide, integrates to CraigsList/eBay/Amzaon)
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* '''The Chargeback Challenge: http://www.sitepoint.com/chargeback-challenge/'''
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* Lijit: http://www.lijit.com | http://www.lijit.com/help/search_apidoc <ref>http://www.programmableweb.com/api/lijit</ref>
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* Use Old: http://usesold.com<ref>Why 3 MIT Grads Want to Send You an Empty Box: http://www.wired.com/business/2013/05/one-click-selling/</ref>
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* '''Tax Rates by State (USA): http://www.tax-rates.org/taxtables/sales-tax-by-state'''<ref>[[wikipedia: Taxation in the United States]]</ref><ref>[[wikipedia: Sales taxes in the United States]]</ref><ref>State and Local Sales Tax Rates in 2014: http://taxfoundation.org/article/state-and-local-sales-tax-rates-2014</ref>
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* '''GST & HST Rates (CANADA): http://www.retailcouncil.org/quickfacts/taxrates'''<ref>[[wikipedia: Taxation in Canada]]</ref><ref>[[wikipedia: Sales taxes in Canada]]</ref>
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* 37 Shopping Cart Options for Developers: http://vandelaydesign.com/blog/web-development/ecommerce/
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* '''Digital (Printable) Receipt - HTML/CSS template''': http://microformats.org/wiki/receipt-example-thinkgeek-2
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* HTML receipt layout for Print: http://blog.nu42.com/2010/03/html-layouts-for-print.html
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* 23 Free (platform-agnostic) Responsive HTML5 CSS3 Checkout Forms: http://dcrazed.com/free-html5-css3-checkout-forms/
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* 30 Best "Opencart" Themes with Responsive Layout: http://www.freshdesignweb.com/30-best-opencart-themes-with-responsive-layout.html<ref>30+ Responsive E-Commerce templates: http://designsmaz.com/ecommerce-responsive-html-templates/</ref>
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* '''Transactional HTML Email Templates: http://blog.mailgun.com/transactional-html-email-templates/'''
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* Cialdini's Six Principles of Influence (summarized): http://changingminds.org/techniques/general/cialdini/cialdini.htm<ref>Dr. Robert Cialdini and 6 principles of persuasion: http://www.influenceatwork.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/02/E_Brand_principles.pdf</ref><ref>Cialdini’s 6 Principles of Influence & Persuasion: http://awealthofcommonsense.com/2016/09/cialdinis-6-principles-of-influence-persuasion/</ref>
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* Responsive eCommerce layout using CSS Grid: https://codepen.io/andybarefoot/full/PBPrex/
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* Digital Consumer Journey - Best Markets for Sustained E-Commerce Growth: https://go.euromonitor.com/white-paper-20-10-29-EcommerceGrowthForecasts.html
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* US Census Bureau - Dept. of Commerce (2012-2021): https://www.census.gov/retail/mrts/www/data/pdf/ec_current.pdf
 +
* E-Commerce Statistics (2020): https://99firms.com/blog/ecommerce-statistics/
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== Tutorials ==
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* '''The NetBeans E-commerce Tutorial''': http://netbeans.org/kb/docs/javaee/ecommerce/language.html?intcmp=925655
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* The NetBeans E-commerce Tutorial - Securing the Application: http://netbeans.org/kb/docs/javaee/ecommerce/security.html?intcmp=925655
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* The NetBeans E-commerce Tutorial - Testing and Profiling: http://netbeans.org/kb/docs/javaee/ecommerce/test-profile.html?intcmp=925655
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* '''How to make your shopping cart suck less: http://theoatmeal.com/comics/shopping_cart'''
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* Lessons Learned from Building Shopify Themes: http://net.tutsplus.com/articles/news/lessons-learned-from-building-shopify-themes/
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* Accepting Payments with GoCardless: http://net.tutsplus.com/tutorials/accepting-payments-with-gocardless/
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* '''How to Track Ecommerce Transactions with Google Analytics: http://www.sitepoint.com/track-ecommerce-transactions-google-analytics-reports/'''
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* A Simple PHP/HTML/JS Order Form Page: http://www.htmlgoodies.com/beyond/webmaster/projects/article.php/3487836/A-Simple-Order-Form-Page.htm
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* Simple PHP Shopping Cart Tutorial: http://jameshamilton.eu/programming/simple-php-shopping-cart-tutorial
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* Simple PHP Shopping Cart: http://phppot.com/php/simple-php-shopping-cart/
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* Tutorial - Building a shopping cart in PHP: http://www.qualitycodes.com/tutorial.php?articleid=25&title=Tutorial-Building-a-shopping-cart-in-PHP
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* Creating Simple Shopping Cart with PHP: http://www.sanwebe.com/2013/06/creating-simple-shopping-cart-with-php/comment-page-1
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* Multiple Items PHP Shopping Cart to PayPal: http://www.sanwebe.com/2013/07/php-multiple-items-shopping-cart-integration-with-paypal
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* Stateful Shopping Cart in PHP using SESSIONS: https://www.codeofaninja.com/2013/04/shopping-cart-in-php.html
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* Ajax Shopping Cart - Create a Stylish Shopping Cart Using JQuery and PHP: http://www.99points.info/2010/12/ajax-shopping-cart-with-jquery-and-php/
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* An AJAX Based Shopping Cart with PHP, CSS & jQuery: http://tutorialzine.com/2009/09/shopping-cart-php-jquery/
 +
* Build An AJAX Powered Shopping Cart: http://net.tutsplus.com/tutorials/php/build-an-ajax-powered-shopping-cart/<ref>Build a Shopping Cart With PHP and MySQL - New Premium Tutorial: http://net.tutsplus.com/tutorials/php/build-a-shopping-cart-with-php-and-mysql-new-plus-tutorial/</ref>
 +
* Create a Shopping Cart Web Application with Spring Boot, Hibernate : https://o7planning.org/en/10683/create-a-shopping-cart-web-application-with-spring-boot-hibernate
 +
* '''Manually Set PHP Session Timeout — PHP Session''': https://prajapatinilesh.wordpress.com/2009/01/14/manually-set-php-session-timeout-php-session/
 +
* Ecommerce Website Tutorial PHP MySQL Tutorial PayPal IPN: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL442E340A42191003&feature=plcp
 +
* Simple PHP Shopping Cart: http://codecanyon.net/item/simple-php-shopping-cart/88625
 +
* CodeIgniter framework from Scratch - build a "Shopping Cart": http://net.tutsplus.com/tutorials/php/codeigniter-from-scratch-shopping-cart/ (Build your own Shopping Cart in 12 lessons)<ref>Enhance a CodeIgniter Shopping Cart with jQuery: http://net.tutsplus.com/tutorials/php/how-to-build-a-shopping-cart-using-codeigniter-and-jquery/</ref>
 +
Build a Content Management System for an E-commerce Store with Next.js and Sanity: https://egghead.io/learn/ecommerce/build-a-content-management-system-for-an-e-commerce-store-with-nextjs-and-sanity
 +
* '''Product Grid Layout:''' http://tympanus.net/codrops/2013/05/17/product-grid-layout/
 +
* Siemens S7-1200 Web server Tutorial - From Getting started to HTML5 User Defined Pages: http://www.dmcinfo.com/latest-thinking/blog/id/8567/siemens-s7-1200-web-server-tutorial--from-getting-started-to-html5-user-defined-pages
 +
* '''Some Ideas for (progressively enhanced / responsive) Checkout Effects:''' http://tympanus.net/codrops/2015/01/22/ideas-checkout-effects/
 +
* How to Set Up Table Rate Shipping in Magento: https://www.sitepoint.com/set-up-table-rate-shipping-in-magento/
 +
* How to Choose a Shipping Strategy for Your Online Store: https://www.shopify.com/blog/8343330-how-to-choose-a-shipping-strategy-for-your-online-store<ref>Examples of shipping rates at Shopify: https://help.shopify.com/manual/shipping/rates-and-methods/examples#shipping-rates-based-on-quantity-purchased</ref>
 +
* '''What is Customer Lifetime Value and Why You Should Care: https://www.livechatinc.com/blog/customer-lifetime-value/'''
  
  
 
== External Links ==
 
== External Links ==
  
 +
* [[wikipedia: E-commerce]]
 +
* [[wikipedia: E-commerce payment system]]
 +
* [[wikipedia: Online shopping]]
 +
* [[wikipedia: Barcode]]
 +
* [[wikipedia: Universal Product Code]] (''UPC'')
 +
* [[wikipedia: Stock keeping unit]] (''SKU'')
 +
* [[wikipedia: Price look-up code]] (''PLU'')
 +
* [[wikipedia: International Article Number]] (aka. "European Article Number" or ''EAN'')
 +
* [[wikipedia: Global Trade Item Number]] (''GTIN'')
 +
* [[wikipedia: International Standard Book Number]] (''ISBN'')
 +
* [[wikipedia: International Standard Serial Number]] (''ISSN'')
 +
* [[wikipedia: International Standard Music Number]] (''ISMN'')
 +
* The History of the UPC and Item Identification: http://www.idhistory.com/
 +
* The History of Online Shopping in Nutshell: http://www.instantshift.com/2010/03/26/the-history-of-online-shopping-in-nutshell/
 +
* What is Amara’s Law and How is it Relevant to Ecommerce: https://www.vendasta.com/blog/amaras-law-ecommerce/
 +
* ReadWriteWeb - A look at the top 7 internet/ecommerce companise before the "bubble burst": http://www.readwriteweb.com/archives/public_internet_bigcos_market.php (evaluate profitability to disprove the proposed 2nd Internet/Tech Bubble)
 +
* An E-Commerce Empire, From Porn to Puppies: http://nichegeek.com/an_e_commerce_empire_from_porn_to_puppies
 +
* Online retailers, marketing firms scam consumers for $1.4 billion: http://blogs.zdnet.com/BTL/?p=27776&tag=nl.e550
 
* FREE Graphics for Your Online Store: http://www.neowave.com.my/ecommerce_freegraphics.asp
 
* FREE Graphics for Your Online Store: http://www.neowave.com.my/ecommerce_freegraphics.asp
 +
* '''Shopping.co.th - Thai Shopping network at Sanook''': http://shopping.sanook.com/
 +
* Semantic Web-based E-Commerce -- Webmasters, Get Ready!: http://www.semanticuniverse.com/articles-semantic-web-based-e-commerce-webmasters-get-ready.html
 +
* Apple Store fails the Nordstrom test: http://blogs.zdnet.com/Apple/?p=5336&tag=nl.e550
 +
* E-Commerce in Japan – English sites offer quality Japanese products: http://www.stippy.com/japan-work/english-language-ecommerce-sites-offer-latest-japanese-products/
 +
* Taobao, Yahoo! JAPAN open e-commerce platforms: http://www.japantoday.com/category/technology/view/taobao-yahoo-japan-open-e-commerce-platforms
 +
* Artists Get a New Way to Make Money on Threadless: http://mashable.com/2010/06/01/threadless-society6/
 +
* Eighty Six Examples of Content Sliders on Ecommerce Sites: http://developer.practicalecommerce.com/articles/1420-Eighty-Six-Examples-of-Content-Sliders-on-Ecommerce-Sites-
 +
* Develop a Scrolling 'Merchandiser' Like Gardener's Supply Company: http://developer.practicalecommerce.com/articles/2058-Develop-a-Scrolling-Merchandiser-Like-Gardener-s-Supply-Company
 +
* JavaScript's appendChild() and the Mythical prependChild(): http://developer.practicalecommerce.com/articles/2082-JavaScript-s-appendChild-and-the-Mythical-prependChild-
 +
* Sliding and Gliding Page Content with JavaScript: http://developer.practicalecommerce.com/articles/2048-Sliding-and-Gliding-Page-Content-with-JavaScript
 +
* E-Commerce Retailers Find Value in Online Video: http://www.reelseo.com/retailers-find-online-video/
 +
* Optimized Video Delivers Success To E-Commerce Retailers: http://www.reelseo.com/optimized-e-commerce-success/
 +
* How Amazon.com survived, thrived and turned a profit (in the DotBom bust): http://www.seattlepi.com/business/158315_amazon28.html
 +
* EBay vs. Amazon -- A duel to be the plumbing of e-commerce: http://www.zdnet.com/blog/btl/ebay-vs-amazon-a-duel-to-be-the-plumbing-of-e-commerce/46601?tag=nl.e539
 +
* The Future Of... Shopping: http://www.zdnet.com/videos/new-tech/the-future-of-shopping/6215166
 +
* Best Buy - Next Steps Into the Semantic Web: http://semanticweb.com/best-buy-next-steps-into-the-semantic-web_b19640
 +
* Rise in Fuel Prices Driving India to Shop Online: http://www.zdnet.com/blog/india/rise-in-fuel-prices-driving-consumers-to-shop-online-ecommerce-infograph/599
 +
* In India, Online Retailers Take a New Tack: http://www.nytimes.com/2011/09/15/business/with-no-amazon-as-a-rival-flipkart-moves-fast-in-india.html
 +
* Christopher Walken Impersonator Phones It In For A Living: http://www.ny1.com/content/157902/christopher-walken-impersonator-phones-it-in-for-a-living
 +
* Reality check -- E-commerce is still less than 5% of retail sales: http://www.splatf.com/2011/08/ecommerce-2q11/
 +
* The Astounding Power Of Pinterest (INFOGRAPHIC): http://www.fastcodesign.com/1670750/infographic-the-astounding-power-of-pinterest
 +
* Open Source Cola and the NAPSTER MOMENT for the Food Industry: http://www.wired.co.uk/news/archive/2013-04/15/trade-secrets-open-source-cola<ref>OpenCola Softdrink RECIPE: http://www.colawp.com/colas/400/cola467_recipe.html</ref><ref>How to make Coca-Cola and Open Cola: http://www.wired.co.uk/news/archive/2013-04/15/making-your-own-cola</ref>
 +
* Get Ready To Be Tracked Next Time You Go Shopping: http://www.businessinsider.com/retailers-track-customers-2013-7
 +
* E-commerce will make the shopping mall a retail wasteland: http://www.zdnet.com/article/e-commerce-will-make-the-shopping-mall-a-retail-wasteland/
 +
* How Instacart Built Its On-Demand Grocery Delivery Service: http://stackshare.io/posts/the-tech-behind-instacarts-grocery-delivery-service
 +
* We-commerce -- The sharing economy's uncertain path to changing the world: http://www.techrepublic.com/article/we-commerce-the-sharing-economys-uncertain-path-to-changing-the-world/
 +
* Amazon to make first physical footprint in Manhattan: http://www.zdnet.com/article/amazon-to-make-first-physical-footprint-in-manhattan/
 +
* How Amazon Tricks You Into Thinking It Always Has the Lowest Prices: http://recode.net/2015/01/13/how-amazon-tricks-you-into-thinking-it-always-has-the-lowest-prices/
 +
* Jet.com Will Launch With Amazon Prices Front and Center: http://recode.net/2015/07/21/jet-com-will-launch-with-amazon-prices-front-and-center/
 +
* Behind the Numbers of Jet.com’s Audacious Plan to Attack Amazon: http://www.wsj.com/articles/BL-DGB-42690
 +
* Five Ways the Guy Behind Diapers.com Plans to Challenge Amazon — Again: http://recode.net/2015/01/09/five-ways-the-guy-behind-diapers-com-plans-to-challenge-amazon-again/
 +
* Will Amazon Soon Challenge Jet, the Hot Discount Shopping Site From a Former Employee?: http://recode.net/2015/07/05/will-amazon-soon-challenge-jet-the-hot-shopping-site-from-a-former-employee/
 +
* Amazon’s Dash Buttons hint at a future of interface-free shopping: http://www.theverge.com/2015/8/11/9127805/amazon-buy-buttons-future-of-shopping
 +
* E-Commerce Web Performance and Speed -- Experts Share Common Mistakes (and How to Improve): http://dzone.com/articles/ecommerce-web-performance-speed-experts-share-comm
 +
* Wal-Mart buys Jet for $3 billion, hopes to turbo charge e-commerce: http://www.zdnet.com/article/wal-mart-buys-jet-for-3-billion-hopes-to-turbo-charge-e-commerce
 +
* How to Perfect the Shopping Cart Checkout: http://www.livechatinc.com/blog/perfect-the-shopping-cart-checkout/
 +
* 17 Incredible Ecommerce Trends That Will Boost Your Sales in 2017: https://www.shopify.com/partners/blog/17-incredible-ecommerce-trends-that-will-boost-your-sales-in-2017
 +
* Want it tomorrow? Some online shopping habits are terrible for the environment: https://www.cbc.ca/news/technology/online-shopping-carbon-footprint-1.4914942
 +
* Why Websites With Search Make A First Impression: https://www.mediapost.com/publications/article/329727/why-websites-with-search-make-a-first-impression
 +
* Late To The E-Commerce Party -- What Marshalls, At Home And Others Got Wrong: https://www.forbes.com/sites/stevendennis/2019/10/08/late-to-the-e-commerce-party-what-marshalls-at-home-and-others-got-wrong/
 +
* 5 Design Features Your E-Commerce Site Must Have to Succeed: https://www.mytotalretail.com/article/5-design-features-your-e-commerce-site-must-have-to-succeed/
 +
* Why E-Commerce is Going ‘Headless’: https://www.mytotalretail.com/article/why-e-commerce-is-going-headless/
 +
* We wouldn’t have ecommerce without Amazon: https://qz.com/1688548/amazons-control-of-e-commerce-has-changed-the-way-we-live/
 +
* Study Reveals Global E-commerce Retail Sales Are Up in April: https://wwd.com/business-news/business-features/study-reveals-global-e-commerce-retail-sales-are-up-in-april-1203633668/
 +
* E-Commerce Versus The Big Pause: https://www.forbes.com/sites/forbescommunicationscouncil/2020/06/03/e-commerce-versus-the-big-pause/
 +
* Thanks, PayPal - Their New $4 Billion Startup Can Save You Tons Of Money: https://www.joinhoney.com/g-blog/AR-US-HoneyCompany-B-PayPal4BillionStartup/
 +
* Tailor Product Descriptions to the Channel and Audience: https://www.practicalecommerce.com/tailor-product-descriptions-to-the-channel-and-audience
 +
* USPS Woes Could Impact Ecommerce SMBs: https://www.practicalecommerce.com/usps-woes-could-impact-ecommerce-smbs
 +
* The Next Phase of the Retail Apocalypse - Stores Reborn as E-Commerce Warehouses: https://www.wsj.com/articles/the-next-phase-of-the-retail-apocalypse-stores-reborn-as-e-commerce-warehouses-11595044859
 +
* The Importance of Good Content for E-Commerce: https://www.mytotalretail.com/article/the-importance-of-good-content-for-e-commerce/
 +
* The 4-Point Design Checklist to Build a Successful Ecommerce App: https://medium.com/hackernoon/the-4-point-design-checklist-to-build-a-successful-e-commerce-app-66715426ba0c
 +
* Existing Infrastructure Could Support $77.7 Billion More In E-Commerce: https://www.forbes.com/sites/michelleevans1/2020/10/29/existing-infrastructure-could-support-777-billion-more-in-e-commerce/
 +
* E-Commerce Looks Strong, But We Need To Examine Its Key Vulnerability (SHIPPING): https://www.forbes.com/sites/jiawertz/2020/10/31/e-commerce-looks-strong-but-we-need-to-examine-its-key-vulnerability/
 +
* E-Commerce to Total a Quarter of Global Retail by 2024, GroupM Forecasts: https://www.wsj.com/articles/e-commerce-to-total-a-quarter-of-global-retail-by-2024-groupm-forecasts-11608116401
 +
* CHEQ Warns Of Bots Skewing Ecommerce Metrics As Ad Fraud Increases: https://www.mediapost.com/publications/article/359024/cheq-warns-of-bots-skewing-ecommerce-metrics-as-ad.html
 +
* Google Cloud introduces product discovery tools for retailers: https://www.retaildive.com/news/google-cloud-introduces-product-discovery-tools-for-retailers/593733/ (''Vision API Product Search'' & ''Recommendation AI'')
 +
* Omnichannel fuels Target’s 145% growth in E-Commerce: https://www.digitalcommerce360.com/2021/03/02/omnichannel-fuels-targets-145-growth-in-ecommerce/ (Target’s online sales crossed $16 billion in 2020, with store pickup and curbside pickup growing 70% and 600% year over year, respectively)
 +
* ONLINE GROCERY REPORT - Coronavirus is accelerating US online grocery shopping adoption—here are the market stats, trends and companies to know: https://www.businessinsider.com/online-grocery-report-2020
 +
* Can making deliveries once a week make e-commerce sustainable and more profitable?: https://www.retailwire.com/discussion/can-making-deliveries-once-a-week-make-e-commerce-sustainable-and-more-profitable/ (Jet delivery spin-off "Olive" tries new approach to batch deliveries)
 +
* In 2021, online grocery sales will surpass $100 billion (to make up 12.4% of total US E-Commerce sales): https://www.emarketer.com/content/2021-online-grocery-sales-will-surpass-100-billion
 +
* Google partnering with Shopify is 'pivotal and a masterstroke,' experts say: https://www.androidcentral.com/google-shopify-partnership-small-business-ecommerce
 +
* ‘Squad Shopping’ is on the Rise: https://www.sumoheavy.com/squad-shopping-is-on-the-rise/
 +
* New E-Commerce Checkout Research – Why 68% of Users Abandon Their Cart: https://baymard.com/blog/ecommerce-checkout-usability-report-and-benchmark
 +
* Online Shopping Is Reshaping Real-World Cities: https://www.wired.com/story/dark-stores-ecommerce-cities-urban-planning/
 +
* Adobe blog -- The New AI-Powered Commerce: https://blog.adobe.com/en/publish/2021/06/14/the-new-ai-powered-commerce
 +
* COMMENTARY 'High Times' Partners With Ecommerce Platform On Cannabis Delivery Service: https://www.mediapost.com/publications/article/372845/high-times-partners-with-ecommerce-platform-on-c.html
 +
* How ecommerce and small businesses were affected by COVID‑19: https://www.digitalcommerce360.com/2021/02/19/ecommerce-during-coronavirus-pandemic-in-charts/
 +
* US ecommerce grows 14.2% in 2021: https://www.digitalcommerce360.com/article/us-ecommerce-sales/
 +
* Shopify warns of more losses ahead as e-commerce slowdown hurts earnings outlook: https://www.theglobeandmail.com/business/article-shopify-warns-of-greater-losses-ahead-as-e-commerce-slowdown-hurts/
 +
 +
== References ==
 +
 +
<references />
 +
 +
== See Also ==
 +
 +
[[E-Business]] | [[E-Payment]] | [[M-Commerce]] | [[Retail]] | [[CMS]] | [[E-Learning]] | [[LBS]] | [[BT]] | [[Digital Currency]] | [[Business Model]] | [[Metrics]]

Latest revision as of 14:11, 2 September 2022

Electronic-commerce (commonly referred to as E-Commerce or eCommerce; also abbreviated as E-com, ECOM, or eCom) is the convergence of computer science and business. It represents the act of doing business using electronic technologies, particularly as it relates to the sale of goods or services.

E-Commerce tends to refer to a particular subset of E-Business, with focus on consumer-facing commercial activities.



Topics

Common topics of E-Commerce include:

  1. Graphic Design (logos, artwork, visual image design)
  2. Web Development (HTML, xHTML, HTML5) & Web Design (CSS)
  3. Mobile Web Development (WAP, xHTML, HTML5)
  4. Front-end Web Applications (JSP, ASP, PHP)
  5. Database Management technologies (Oracle, MySQL, PostgreSQL)
  6. Web Analytics & SEO (user/device, log/usage & traffic source/referer analysis)
  7. Data Mining (OLAP, extraction/scraping, visualization)
  8. Behavioral Targeting (BT)
  9. Content Management Systems (CMS)
  10. E-Procurement (auctions, online retail, shopping carts, etc)
  11. E-Payment (financial transactions, credit card processing, ATM, NFC, etc)
  12. E-Security (Encryption, DRM, Anti-Virus, Policies, PCI compliance, etc)

Techniques

Sales of goods

Selling a product online.

BOPIS

[1]

Sales of services

Selling a service online that you yourself offer, or, on behalf of another person.


Affiliate Marketing

Affiliate programs offer incentives to those who promote their products/services in the form of "kickbacks", typically financial rewards, credits, or a small % of the sales as profit margin.

Dropshipping

Dropshipping is procuring B2B or B2C sales of a given product/service on behalf of the product/service manufacturer and/or wholesaler. In this model, frequently used in small home businesses, an individual basically becomes an informal sales agent for a company that has an inventory of products/services to provide, but who typically does not employ (staff) any or sufficient numbers of sales representatives. As a result, dropshipping helps both the small business & home entrepreneur gain a small margin by acting as a facilitator of the sale, and, the company with excess inventory by providing another medium through which to reach customers and move their products/services.


Advertising

Selling advertising space against original content you've published, and in some cases, within legal requirements (such as copyright and content reuse), against embedded or otherwise re-marketed third-party content, is one of the primary means of conducting commerce electronically.

Email Campaigns

Email Campaigns are a main Marketing tool of E-Commerce, and can be quite productive to drive traffic and purchase activity when utilized in careful moderation with precision of targeting users with information they actually want and need so will find useful/helpful.

Common types of Email Campaigns include:

  • Welcome/onboarding
  • Abandonment cart
  • Cross-sell
  • Upsell
  • VIP customer emails
  • Product review
  • Product replenishment
  • Shipping reminders

In addition, users can be segmented into “customers” and “leads” categories.

Legal Requirements

Different countries have different legal requirements in terms of legality of selling products/services online (what can be sold, by who, how, when, what licenses or permits are required, etc). Main examples of E-Commerce activities posing serious legal problems are Gambling, Pornography and/or Adult Services, which comprise a large portion of E-Commerce but yet is illegal in many jurisdictions and geo-political regions. Unfortunately for honest businesses looking to make a buck without exploiting people or their bodies, porn has proven to be one of the most profitable, low-cost and high-return E-Commerce Business Models. Although, with an increasing amount of retail business of all types happening online, so-called "legitimate" is quickly starting to regain its share of all E-Commerce sales as well. Another good example is auctioning online; before eBay legitamized online auctions, they were forbidden in many geo-political regions. Other prime considerations apart from what can be sold and related questions, center around how the actual transactions must be carried out, secured, recorded/logged, accounted for and taxed, as well guaranteed and supported by the retailer (seller) after the purchase by the consumer (buyer).

Canada

In Canada, the Canada Revenue Agency (CRA) is in charge of all income tax and business revenue taxation.


USA

Japan


Ontologies

GoodRelations

There are a set of semantics within the E-Commerce domain that describes terms and models. GoodRelations is a lightweight ontology for annotating offerings on the Web.

[3]

UNSO (P2P)


Billing

Receipt

Invoice



Tools

Shopping Cart

[12] [13] [14]

Magento

Medusa

Product Lookup


Comparison Shopping

[16]

Travel

Selling Engines

[17] [18]

Promotion Platforms

Shipping Costs

Resources


Tutorials

Build a Content Management System for an E-commerce Store with Next.js and Sanity: https://egghead.io/learn/ecommerce/build-a-content-management-system-for-an-e-commerce-store-with-nextjs-and-sanity


External Links

References

  1. Most Consumers Are Using BOPIS -- Or Will, Study Finds: https://www.mediapost.com/publications/article/362136/most-consumers-are-using-bopis-or-will-study-f.html
  2. E-Commerce in Japan – English sites offer quality Japanese products: http://www.stippy.com/japan-work/english-language-ecommerce-sites-offer-latest-japanese-products/
  3. A podcast conversation about GoodRelations, with Martin Hepp and Jamie Taylor: http://cloudofdata.com/2010/02/a-podcast-conversation-about-goodrelations-with-martin-hepp-and-jamie-taylor/
  4. CSS @media browser support summary (2011): http://web.archive.org/web/20110102091651/http://www.codestyle.org/css/media/print-BrowserSummary.shtml
  5. Receipt Printing (alternative stylesheet for regular Printer): http://stackoverflow.com/questions/656906/receipt-printing
  6. Javascript receipt printing using POS Printer: http://stackoverflow.com/questions/11463787/javascript-receipt-printing-using-pos-printer
  7. Bootstrap -- web order receipt example: http://www.prepbootstrap.com/bootstrap-template/simple-invoice
  8. MS Office templates - Invoices: http://templates.office.com/en-us/Invoices
  9. Canadian cross-border shopping: https://www.kinek.com/cross-border-shopping
  10. Shipping to the Border: https://www.kinek.com/shipping-to-the-border
  11. ReviewsAhoy (list of sites powered by JReviews): http://www.reviewsahoy.com/
  12. Who are competitors to Magento?: http://www.quora.com/Who-are-competitors-to-Magento (Complete list of Top OSS E-Commerce solutions)
  13. Flying Images to Shopping Cart, Animated Add to Cart using jQuery: https://w3lessons.info/2014/02/11/flying-images-to-shopping-cart-animated-add-to-cart-using-jquery/ | DEMO
  14. addEventListener to multiple checkboxes: https://stackoverflow.com/questions/51433092/addeventlistener-to-multiple-checkboxes
  15. Hyva - a new frontend for Magento2: https://kmfinfotech.com/2022/06/28/hyva-theme-a-new-frontend-for-magento-2/
  16. wikipedia: Price comparison service
  17. Top 10 Shopping/Sales Platforms: http://searchenginewatch.com/sew/study/2097413/shopping-engines
  18. wikipedia: Online shopping
  19. 2016 UPS RATES -- Air Freight Within and Between Canada & US: https://www.ups.com/media/en/af_zones_rates_upc.pdf
  20. How do I calculate how much postage I need for a letter or parcel?: https://www.canadapost.ca/web/en/kb/details.page?article=how_to_calculate_you&cattype=kb&cat=sending&subcat=ratesdimensions
  21. Downloadable Shipping Rates by class of "Business Shipping": https://www.usps.com/business/prices.htm
  22. CanadaPost API (SOAP/WSDLs): http://www.canadapost.ca/cpo/mc/business/productsservices/developers/soap/wsdlfiles.jsf
  23. Canada Post API: http://www.programmableweb.com/api/canadapost
  24. http://www.programmableweb.com/api/buysafe
  25. http://www.programmableweb.com/api/lijit
  26. Why 3 MIT Grads Want to Send You an Empty Box: http://www.wired.com/business/2013/05/one-click-selling/
  27. wikipedia: Taxation in the United States
  28. wikipedia: Sales taxes in the United States
  29. State and Local Sales Tax Rates in 2014: http://taxfoundation.org/article/state-and-local-sales-tax-rates-2014
  30. wikipedia: Taxation in Canada
  31. wikipedia: Sales taxes in Canada
  32. 30+ Responsive E-Commerce templates: http://designsmaz.com/ecommerce-responsive-html-templates/
  33. Dr. Robert Cialdini and 6 principles of persuasion: http://www.influenceatwork.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/02/E_Brand_principles.pdf
  34. Cialdini’s 6 Principles of Influence & Persuasion: http://awealthofcommonsense.com/2016/09/cialdinis-6-principles-of-influence-persuasion/
  35. Build a Shopping Cart With PHP and MySQL - New Premium Tutorial: http://net.tutsplus.com/tutorials/php/build-a-shopping-cart-with-php-and-mysql-new-plus-tutorial/
  36. Enhance a CodeIgniter Shopping Cart with jQuery: http://net.tutsplus.com/tutorials/php/how-to-build-a-shopping-cart-using-codeigniter-and-jquery/
  37. Examples of shipping rates at Shopify: https://help.shopify.com/manual/shipping/rates-and-methods/examples#shipping-rates-based-on-quantity-purchased
  38. OpenCola Softdrink RECIPE: http://www.colawp.com/colas/400/cola467_recipe.html
  39. How to make Coca-Cola and Open Cola: http://www.wired.co.uk/news/archive/2013-04/15/making-your-own-cola

See Also

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