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European Computer Manufacturers Association, international (commonly abbreviated ECMA) is a standards body and the owners of a famously popular and often referenced scripting language specification.

Widely used languages such as JavaScript, JScript and ActionScript have all been based on the original ECMA standard (among others). ECMA has also published a large number of other major technical specifications adopted across a wide array of industries.[1]




See: JavaScript


Microsoft's "strongly-typed" version of the JavaScript language.

[2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7]


Apple's version of the JavaScript language.

[8] [9]


Each year the EcmaScript (ES) standard is scheduled to receive significant updates, but major versions will only be launched every 2 years.

[10] [11] [12]


ECMAscript 5 (also known as ES2009 based on its year of release).

[13] [14]


ECMAscript 6 (also known as ES2015 based on its year of release).

[15] [16] [17] [18] [19] [20]


ECMAscript 7 (also known as ES2016 based on its year of release).

[21] [22] [23] [24]


ECMAscript 8 (also known as ES2017 based on its year of release).



ECMAscript 9 (also known as ES2018 based on its year of release).



ES2020 (11)

ES2021 (12)


ES2022 (13)

[28] [29] [30]

ES Next

ECMAscript evolving spec is commonly referred to as, however further versions may be listed as groupings of changes or some specific years' functionality logically flow/coalesce into a new versioned standard. In the meantime, everything else is considered ES Next (or the Beta/WIP upcoming features of the "living specification").

[31] [32] [33]




External Links


  1. wikipedia: List of Ecma standards
  2. wikipedia: TypeScript
  3. TypeScript - Quick Guide:
  4. A Proposal For Type Syntax in JavaScript:
  5. How Microsoft Wants To Change TypeScript = Better Programming:
  6. 10 TypeScript features you might not be using yet or didn't understand:
  7. TypeScript - Use polymorphism in place of the switch and other conditionals:
  8. wikipedia: CoffeeScript
  9. CoffeeScript - Quick Guide:
  10. ES modules -- A cartoon deep-dive:
  11. ES5, ES6, ES2016, ES.Next: What's going on with JavaScript versioning?:
  12. How to follow the JavaScript roadmap:
  13. ECMAScript 2009 - ES5 feature summary:
  14. Learn ES5:
  15. ES6 feature summary:
  16. Understanding the differences between ES5 and ES6:
  17. Understanding ECMAScript 6:
  18. Exploring JS -- JavaScript books for programmers: | []
  19. ES6 compatibility table:
  20. These are the features in ES6 that you should know:
  21. ECMAScript 2016 - ES7 feature summary:
  22. ES 7 and ES8 Features:
  23. The final feature set of ECMAScript 2016 (ES7):
  24. ECMAScript 2016 or ES2016 or Es7 introduction:
  25. 2Javascript – ES7 , ES8 New Features:
  26. JavaScript for impatient programmers (E-BOOK):
  27. What’s new in the ES2021 standard for JavaScript?:
  28. What's new in ES2022?:
  29. ES2022 features with simple examples:
  30. What’s New in ES2022? 4 Latest JavaScript Features:
  31. ECMAScript Next support in Mozilla:
  32. ES5 to ESNext  (2019) —  here’s every feature added to JavaScript since 2015:
  33. Exploring ES2018 and ES2019 (E-BOOK):
  34. ES6 plans:
  35. Es6 Features:
  36. An introduction to ES6 Part 1 of 10 -- Using ES6 Today:
  37. ES6 -- The Awesome Parts :
  38. Javascript ES6 -- Learn important features in a few minutes:
  39. ES6 for everyone:

See Also

JavaScript | JScript | ActionScript