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Linux is the name given to a series of computer operating systems which are derived from a reverse-engineered version of the UNIX kernel originally written by Linus Torvalds as part of a PhD research project.


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Linux Mint is known as the best distribution for Security & Penetration Testing tools.




Linux on Mobile is a foundation and working group dedicated to spreading the use of Linux on Mobile and handheld devices of all types.


See also: Android


Linux's Permissions have long been considered one of its biggest strengths.

Permissions are set in the following order:

User Group Other

For instance, when "only the User/Owner of the file can Read or Write the file, no one else can access in any other way":


Another common setting is that "both the User/Owner and any Users in the Group owning the file can Read, Write, or Execute the file, everyone else can only Read or Execute it but not Write (modify) it":



Change the ownership of a file:


Change the ownership of a set of files in a directory recursively:


For example:

chown myuser -R /opt/SomeDir/SomeFile.txt

[16] [17] [18] [19] [20] [21]


Modify the permissions for the ways a file can be accessed by certain roles:


For example:

chmod 755 /opt/SomeDir/SomeFile.txt

[22] [23] [24] [25] [26]



Service Management to run applications on startup/reboots.



 tcpdump -A -s 0 'tcp port 80 and (((ip[2:2] - ((ip[0]&0xf)<<2)) - ((tcp[12]&0xf0)>>2)) != 0)'
 tcpdump -X -s 0 'tcp port 80 and (((ip[2:2] - ((ip[0]&0xf)<<2)) - ((tcp[12]&0xf0)>>2)) != 0)'


Secure-file CoPy (commonly abbreviated as scp) is a standard Linux/Windows library for copying the contents of a file. It is a rare example of a command which works in both the MS-DOS Command Prompt.

To copy from your local system to a remote directory:

scp -r <FILE_OR_FOLDER> <USERNAME>@<DOMAIN>:/some/remote/directory/

To copy from a remote directory to your local system:

scp <USERNAME>@<DOMAIN>:<FILE_OR_FOLDER> /some/local/directory/




Watch in real-time for updates to a particular file or folder.

watch -n 10 -d <COMMAND>

For example:

watch -n 10 -d tail -f error.log

This will listen and update every 10 seconds for a specific command. The command could be anything from "ls -l <DIRECTORY>" to watch for files being added to or changed within a given directory (say "/var/messages/"), to "tail -ef <FILE>" to listen for updates to a log file.


Tool for viewing the "tail end" of a file, however you can also use it to view the majority of its contents (even full contents, like "cat"), depending on the arguments passed in.

tail -ef <FILENAME>


Global Regular Expression Printer (grep) is a tool to filter and/or search through the contents of a file from the command-line in Linux/Unix. It is commonly used on plain-text data sets for finding or "grepping out" lines that match a given regular expression

Example of finding the location of Apache Web Server from the list of running processes:

ps -ef | grep apache



Long-running Processes


Long-running processes that can live outside of the terminal/command window they were called/run from are possible using a combination of nohup command prefix and the & ampersand process indicator. Using just & allows you to silence other commands that would normally get sent to that process, so you can continue working and running other commands in the same terminal while that process runs; using just nohup will prevent the hangup/kill signals from stopping your process (for instance if you use CTRL+C or CTRL+Z and intend to stop other processes while working in the same window, it will not run your process run with nohup); finally, using both nohup and & would allow a process to run after the terminal/command prompt it was run from gets closed. This is one step lower than running as an actual service, the only difference being that processes will need to be run manually (or by some additional scripted process), whereas services will run automatically immediately upon login.[34][35].






Samba is a free software re-implementation of the SMB/CIFS networking protocol. Samba is an important component to seamlessly integrate Linux/Unix Servers and Desktops into Active Directory environments. It can function both as a domain controller or as a regular domain member.

[40] (Windows; commonly abberviated SMB one flavor of which is CIFS - Common Internet File System) [41] (Linux) [42] (Mac) [43] (Novell) [44] (legacy) [45] [46] [47] [48]


Secure copy a file from one host (server) to another.



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External Links


  1. DistroWatch - Top Linux Distros list:
  2. wikipedia: DistroWatch
  3. The Top Linux Distributions Of All Time:
  4. Whatever happened to these (once) Red-Hot Linux Distros?:
  5. RedHat on DistroWatch:
  6. RHEL docs -- Chapter 1 - Red Hat Software Collections (repos) 3.4:
  7. Red Hat Enterprise Linux -- (current/past version) release dates:
  8. How To Install Wine 2.0 on CentOS, RHEL & Fedora :
  9. CentOS on DistroWatch:
  10. [HOWTO] Install phpMyAdmin in CentOS 5:
  11. SUSE on DistroWatch:
  12. The Perfect Setup - Mandrake/Mandriva 10.2:
  13. wikipedia: Mandriva Linux
  14. Mandriva Linux is dead, but these 3 forked distros carry on its legacy:
  15. xandrOS on DistroWatch:
  16. wikipedia: chown
  17. chmod basic tutorial:
  18. Linux chown command - detailed tutorial:
  19. chmod guide:
  20. CHOWN command in Linux/Unix explained with examples:
  21. 12 Linux Chown Command Examples to Change Owner and Group:
  22. wikipedia: chmod
  23. chmod guide:
  24. chmod detailed tutorial:
  25. chmod quick tutorial:
  26. 7 chmod Command Examples for Beginners:
  27. Useful SystemD commands (hints for systemctl or systemctl vs chkconfig and service):
  28. How To Use Systemctl to Manage Systemd Services and Units:
  29. Use tcpdump to get HTTP requests, response header and response body?:
  30. Packet Analysis - 15 TCPDUMP Command Examples:
  31. Linux 'Install' command overview:
  32. Finding Apache configuration file (httpd.conf) location:
  33. Tutorial -- How to Use ack & grep on Ubuntu 14.04:
  34. Starting Tomcat as a service on LINUX:
  35. Starting Tomcat as a Service on Linux:
  36. details about nohup:
  37. /usr/local or /opt?:
  38. What is /usr/local/bin?:
  39. Filesystem Hierarchy Standard (FHS):
  40. wikipedia: Server Message Block
  41. wikipedia: Network File System
  42. wikipedia: Apple Filing Protocol
  43. wikipedia: Service Advertising Protocol
  44. wikipedia: NetBIOS
  45. CIFS vs SAMBA, What are the differences:
  46. Common Internet File System:
  47. Just what is SMB?:
  48. Linux mount CIFS Windows Share:
  49. 12 scp command examples to transfer files on Linux:
  50. Linux Command Line Learning Resources (comprehensive list of links to Linux guides/books/man-pages):
  51. Linux distribution popularity trends plotted:
  52. The Top 10 Linux Distributions Of All Time:
  53. 10 of the Most Popular Linux Distributions Compared:
  54. What is a TTY on Linux? (and How to Use the tty Command):
  55. Unix - Mac OS X - "grep" command man pages:
  56. Untar a File in Linux/Ubuntu:
  57. A Guide to Kill, Pkill and Killall Commands to Terminate a Process in Linux:
  58. How to pipe text from command line to the clipboard:
  59. HowTo -- Save The Output Of A Linux/Unix Command To A File:
  60. How to copy a list of file names to text file?:
  61. How to check whether a directory is empty or not in Shell Scripting?:
  62. Bash Shell Check Whether a Directory is Empty or Not:
  63. Installing the WAT on 64-bit Linux systems:

See Also

Unix | Ubuntu | Operating System | Server | Open Source | C | Android