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Nutrition is the selection of foods and preparation of foods, and their ingestion to be assimilated by the body. By practicing a healthy diet, many of the known health issues can be avoided. The diet of an organism is what it eats, which is largely determined by the perceived palatability of foods and known dietary requirements. Dietitians are health professionals who specialize in human nutrition, meal planning, economics, and preparation. They are trained to provide safe, evidence-based dietary advice and management to individuals (in health and disease), as well as to institutions. Clinical Nutritionists are health professionals who focus more specifically on the role of nutrition in chronic disease, including possible prevention or remediation by addressing nutritional deficiencies before resorting to drugs. Government regulations on the use of this professional title is less universal than for "dietician." A poor diet may have an injurious impact on health, causing deficiency diseases such as scurvy and kwashiorkor; health-threatening conditions like obesity and metabolic syndrome; and such common chronic systemic diseases as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and osteoporosis.


Nutrients are the components in foods that an organism utilizes to survive and grow. Nutrients needed in very small amounts are called Micronutrients and those that are needed in larger quantities are called Macronutrients. Macronutrients provide the bulk energy for an organism's metabolic system to function, while Micronutrients provide the necessary co-factors for metabolism to be carried out. Both types of nutrients can be acquired from the environment. They are used to build and repair tissues, regulate body processes, and are converted to and used for energy. Methods for nutrient intake are different for plants and animals. Plants take in nutrients directly from the soil through their roots and from the atmosphere through their leaves. Animals and protists have specialized digestive systems that work to break down Macronutrients for energy and utilize micronutrients to carry out both metabolism and anabolism or constructive synthesis in the body. Organic nutrients include carbohydrates, fats, proteins (or their building blocks, amino acids), and vitamins. Inorganic chemical compounds such as dietary minerals, water, and oxygen may also be considered nutrients. The effects of nutrients are dose-dependent and shortages are called deficiencies.

Essential Nutrients

Essential Nutrients are any substance that must be obtained from the diet because the body cannot make it in sufficient quantity to meet its daily needs. A nutrient is said to be "essential" if it must be obtained from an external source, either because the organism cannot synthesize it or produces insufficient quantities; for humans what makes a nutrient essential is the fact that it is needed by the body, and we cannot make it from other materials in adequate amounts. It is not more or less necessary in metabolism. For example, Biopterin is necessary in metabolism, but we can make all we need. In contrast, Folic Acid is equally necessary, but we cannot make it. Hence, Folic Acid is considered an essential nutrient which must be consumed through dietary sources.[1]





Dietary Needs


Caloric Intake

Caloric Restriction


Intermittent Fasting



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Vitamin A


Vitamin B

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Vitamin C


Vitamin D


Vitamin E


Vitamin K



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Calcium builds bones and teeth; activates enzymes throughout the body; helps regulate blood pressure; and helps muscles to contract, nerves to send messages, and blood to clot.

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Potassium balances fluids in the body, helps to maintain a steady heartbeat and to make muscles contract, and may benefit bones and blood pressure.

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Sodium balances fluids in the body, helps send nerve impulses, and helps make muscles contract.

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Iodine is a trace element that is naturally present in some foods, is added to some types of salt, and is available as a dietary supplement. Iodine is an essential component of the thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). Thyroid hormones regulate many important biochemical reactions, including protein synthesis and enzymatic activity, and are critical determinants of metabolic activity[48][49]. They are also required for proper skeletal and central nervous system development in fetuses and infants[50]

[51] [52] [53]


Chloride is used by your body to make gastric juices. You’ll often find it alongside sodium in the fluids around the cells. That means chloride works alongside sodium to ensure your body fluids stay balanced. The good news is that dietary chloride isn’t difficult to come by. You can find it in table salt (sodium chloride), soy sauce, and most vegetables. The richest sources of vegetable-based chloride include celery and tomatoes.

[54] [55]


Magnesium (similar to Calcium), builds bones and teeth. It also helps to regulate blood pressure and blood sugar and enables muscles to contract, nerves to send messages, blood to clot, and enzymes to work.



Iron helps make hemoglobin (the oxygen-carrying chemical in the body's red blood cells) and myoglobin (a protein in muscle cells). Iron is essential for activating certain enzymes and for making amino acids, collagen, neurotransmitters, and hormones.

[57] [58] [59] [60]


Zinc is a trace mineral, which means you only need a very small amount of it every day. Most people (unless suffering some condition) can get this essential nutrient by eating a balanced diet. Your body uses zinc to Heal wounds, Support the function of your immune system, Develop your reproductive system, Develop your sense of taste and smell, Produce and store insulin, Help your thyroid and metabolism work properly, Make proteins and DNA. Secondarily, it can be used to reduce symptoms of ‌Common cold, Diarrhea, Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and other medical conditions.

It can be found in (by order of concentration) shellfish such as Oysters, Crab, and Lobster, Red meat, Pork, Chicken and other poultry, Nuts, Whole Grains, Beans and certain Legumes, Dairy products, as well as Fortified foods like breakfast cereal.

[61] [62] [63] [64] [65] [66] [67] [68]


Selenium is an essential mineral that’s only needed in small amounts, but plays a major role in important processes in your body such as your metabolism and thyroid function. In addition, it acts as a powerful antioxidant, may reduce your risk of certain cancers (cancer, including breast, lung, colon, and prostate cancers), may protect against heart disease, helps prevent mental decline, boosts your immune system, and may even help reduce asthma symptoms.

It can be found in (by order of concentration) Oysters, Brazil nuts, Halibut, Yellowfin tuna, Eggs, Sardines, Sunflower seeds, Chicken breast, Shiitake mushrooms.

[69] [70] [71]


Manganese helps form bones and helps metabolize amino acids, cholesterol, and carbohydrates.

[72] [73]


Copper assists with metabolizing fuel, making red blood cells, regulating neurotransmitters, and mopping up free radicals.

[74] [75] [76]


Phosphorus promotes bone growth and health, while also helping maintain your cell membranes. It works with B-complex vitamins to make energy from the food you eat. Your body stores this energy in the bones.

[77] [78]

Folic Acid

Folic Acid supports cardiovascular health, healthy homocysteine levels, reduces the risk of neural tube defects, helps insomnia, stress support, may help restless legs syndrome.



Boron is a mineral found in foods such as nuts and in the environment. Boron is sometimes also taken in supplement form to boost athletic performance and improve thinking or coordination. Some women use boron to treat yeast infections.

[80] [81]


Molybdenum activates several enzymes that break down toxins and prevents the buildup of harmful sulfites in the body.



Chromium helps maintain normal blood sugar levels and helps cells draw energy from blood sugar.

[83] [84]

Organic Acids

Organic Acids include Acetic acid, Citric acid, Lactic acid, Malic acid, Choline, and Taurine.




Fad Diets


[86] [87] [88] [89] [90] [91]

Wheat Belly



Ketogenic diet (abbreviated as "keto" for short) is a high-fat, moderate protein, low carbohydrate diet that strictly eliminates certain foods.


Paleogenic diet (abbreviated as "paleo" for short; also known as the "caveman diet") is meant to model the foods that prehistoric humans had access to and incorporated into their diets naturally through hunting & gathering.

[92] [93] [94] [95] [96] [97] [98] [99]


An extreme variation of the "paleo" diet which emphasizes only eating animal-based foods. The key to this diet is the elimination of most things, starting with basic meats such as lean chicken, eggs, beef and/or fish, and potentially slowly but surely adding in more variety of animal types and additional animal-derived foods like dairy (milk, cheese, yogurt) perhaps even eventually adding in very small amounts of fruits & vegetables with each dish focusing most meals on the meat portions.



Raw Food


Recreational Substances

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[111] [112] [113] [114] [115] [116] [117] [118] [119] [120] [121]

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Microdosing is taking small amounts (dosages) of a given medication or substance (sometimes including illegal, prohibited or monitored substances) over a set period of time to achieve enhanced productivity, creativity, focus or other mental/physical capabilities for the duration of the micro-dosage (sometimes even as an extended side-effect, after-effect, or combined-effect of several micro-dosages).



Calorie Counter


MyFitnessPal is one of the leading Social Nutrition/Fitness Tracking sites. It was acquired by major retail clothing and fitness equipment brand UnderArmor on Feb. 4th, 2015[136]. The primary feature and selling point has always been its claorie counting functionality, integration with multiple other services (such as FitBit, Jawbone, Garmin Connect, MapMyFitness, RunKeeper, Endomondo, etc), and its massive food database which contains about 5 million verified food labels, types and recipes (with pre-calculated calorie/nutrient content info).


Grain Mill

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Mortar & Pestle

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External Links

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  • A Comprehensive list of “Deadly” Nightshades: (can have adverse effects on those with auto-immune diseases, food allergies and can potentially cause or contribute to leaky-gut syndrome)

[205] [206]


  1. Nutrients .vs. Essential Nutrients:
  2. USDA on Community Supported Agriculture:
  3. Nova Scotia Open Farm Day:
  4. Public invited to Open Farm Day (07/09/20):
  5. Friends of NB Farming/Agriculture:
  6. OpenFarm Day - PEI:
  7. Summary of Health Canada's Assessment of a Health Claim about Vegetables and Fruit and Heart Disease:
  8. Is Intermittent Fasting the Best Way to Lose Weight?​: (report shows no more effective than "Calorie restriction" diets)
  9. wikipedia: Macronutrient
  10. Micronutrients vs Macronutrients:
  11. Micronutrients vs. Macronutrients - What They Are and Why They Matter:
  12. What are Macros & Micros?:
  13. wikipedia: Protein
  14. wikipedia: Fat
  15. wikipedia: Carbohydrates
  16. wikipedia: Sugars
  17. wikipedia: Fiber
  18. wikipedia: Water
  19. wikipedia: H2O
  20. Is water a macronutrient or a micronutrient?:
  21. The Truth About Water:
  22. Which Minerals Should You Add to Distilled Water Before Drinking?:
  23. wikipedia: Antioxidants
  24. wikipedia: Vitamins
  25. Are vitamin supplements worth the money? Depends on what you want them to do:
  26. wikipedia: Vitamin_A
  27. wikipedia: Vitamin_B
  28. wikipedia: Spirulina (dietary supplement)
  29. wikipedia: Vitamin_C
  30. wikipedia: Vitamin_D
  31. wikipedia: Vitamin_E
  32. wikipedia: Vitamin_K
  33. wikipedia: Minerals
  34. National Institute of Health (NIH) -- National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health - Vitamins & Minerals:
  35. Harvard Medical -- Precious metals and other important minerals for health:
  36. 7 of the Most Important Minerals in the Body (and their sources):
  37. The 5 Most Important Minerals You Should Be Getting in Your Diet:
  38. wikipedia: Calcium in biology
  39. wikipedia: Calcium supplement
  40. wikipedia: Calcium metabolism
  41. wikipedia: Potassium#Nutrition
  42. wikipedia: Potassium in biology
  43. wikipedia: Potassium deficiency (human)
  44. wikipedia: Potassium deficiency (plants)
  45. wikipedia: Sodium in biology
  46. wikipedia: Sodium supplement
  47. wikipedia: Sodium deficiency
  48. National Research Council, Committee to Assess the Health Implications of Perchlorate Ingestion. Health Implications of Perchlorate Ingestion (Washington, DC - The National Academies Press, 2005):
  49. Institute of Medicine, Food and Nutrition Board. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc (Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 2001):
  50. World Health Organization. United Nations Children’s Fund & International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders. Assessment of iodine deficiency disorders and monitoring their elimination (3rd ed. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO, 2007):
  51. wikipedia: Iodine in biology
  52. wikipedia: Iodine deficiency
  53. NIH - Iodine fact sheet:
  54. wikipedia: Sodium_chloride#Food_industry_and_agriculture
  55. wikipedia: Potassium chloride (medical use)
  56. wikipedia: Magnesium
  57. wikipedia: Human iron metabolism
  58. wikipedia: Iron supplement
  59. wikipedia: Iron deficiency
  60. wikipedia: Iron-deficiency anemia
  61. wikipedia: Zinc sulfate (medical use)
  62. wikipedia: Zinc supplements
  63. wikipedia: Zinc gluconate
  64. wikipedia: Zinc oxide
  65. wikipedia: Zinc acetate
  66. wikipedia: Zinc deficiency
  67. wikipedia: Zinc toxicity
  68. The Benefits of Zinc - What You Need to Know:
  69. wikipedia: Selenium in biology
  70. wikipedia: Selenium deficiency
  71. Science-Based Health Benefits of Selenium:
  72. wikipedia: Manganese#Biological_role
  73. wikipedia: Manganese deficiency (medicine)
  74. wikipedia: Copper in health
  75. wikipedia: Copper deficiency
  76. wikipedia: Copper toxicity
  77. wikipedia: Phosphorus#Biological_role
  78. wikipedia: Phosphorus deficiency
  79. wikipedia: Folate
  80. wikipedia: Boron
  81. What Is Boron? -- Can Boron Capsules Treat a Yeast Infection?:
  82. wikipedia: Molybdenum#Dietary_recommendations
  83. wikipedia: Chromium#Dietary_recommendations
  84. wikipedia: Chromium deficiency
  85. wikipedia: Organic Acids
  86. The Atkins Diet - Everything You Need to Know:
  87. Atkins Diet - What's behind the claims?:
  88. The "Atkins-20" Diet: (there are "Atkins-20"/heavy-loss, "Atkins-40"/moderate-loss & "Atkins-100"/maintenance plans)
  89. The Atkins diet - a complete guide and helpful hints:
  90. What Is the Atkins Diet, and Is It Healthy?:
  91. Atkins diet - What is it, and should I try it?:
  92. Paleo diet - What is it and why is it so popular?:
  93. WebMD -- Diet overviews - The Paleo Diet:
  94. Diet Review - Paleo Diet for Weight Loss:
  95. The Paleo Diet — A Beginner's Guide Plus Meal Plan:
  96. Basic Paleo food list (high-level concept):
  97. The Complete Paleo Diet Food List - What to Eat and What to Avoid:
  98. The Paleo Diet - How It Works, What to Eat, and the Risks:
  99. What You Should and Should Not Eat on The Paleo Diet:
  100. wikipedia: Recreational drug use
  101. wikipedia: Controlled Substances Act
  102. Controlled Substances Act -- Diversion Control Division:
  103. US Dept of Justice -- List of Controlled Substances:
  104. wikipedia: Legality of cannabis by U.S. jurisdiction
  105. DISA - Map of Marijuana Legality by State:
  106. wikipedia: Controlled Drugs and Substances Act
  107. Controlled Substances:
  108. Canada - List of Banned Drugs (used on animals):
  109. Recreational drugs ranked listing common substances according to their danger:
  110. Center on Addiction - Commonly Used Illegal Drugs:
  111. For people registered or designated to produce cannabis for medical purposes:
  112. Registering to produce or possess cannabis for your own medical purposes:
  113. How much Medical Cannabis can you grow in Canada?:
  114. How many Cannabis plants can Medical Patients grow in Canada:
  115. Marijuana Cannabis yields -- How much to expect per plant: (max. 1 lbs with lots of TLC, ave. < 1g)
  116. 4 reasons to start growing Medical Marijuana:
  117. How Much Medical Cannabis Can You Grow in Canada? (Documentation Included):
  118. Feeling burned -- The first year of legal cannabis has been a complete disaster for investors:
  119. McGill -- Diploma in Commercial Cannabis: (McGill offers Canada's first accredited University program on Cannabis)
  122. wikipedia: Decarboxylation
  123. Decarboxylation:
  124. How to Make Rick Simpson Oil:
  125. How to Grow a Cannabis Bonsai Tree from Scratch (Step by Step):
  126. How Many Grams in an Ounce of Marijuana?:
  127. How much marijuana can one plant yield? (indoor average 1.25 oz per plant, but could be up to 16 oz. = 1 lb.)
  128. How much do indoor cannabis plants yield?:
  129. Rick Simpson official -- Make The Medicine (Phoenix Tears) - The Rick Simpson Process of Producing Hemp Oil:
  130. Everything You Wanted To Know About Microdosing (But Were Afraid To Ask):
  131. Microdosing: The Revolutionary Way of Using Psychedelics:
  132. Microdosing' is the future of marijuana:
  133. Short Trip? More People 'Microdosing' on Psychedelic Drugs:
  134. CalorieQueen:
  135. BioRhythm:
  136. Under Armour spending $560 million on social fitness:
  137. I'm Mike Lee, and This Is the Story Behind MyFitnessPal:
  138. 10 Questions with Mike Lee, founder and CEO, MyFitnessPal:
  139. With 30M users, MyFitnessPal launches a health and fitness platform for third-party partners:
  140. Sodexo and MyFitnessPal Partner to Make Good Nutrition Easy:
  141. After Years Of Bootstrapping, MyFitnessPal Raises $18M Round From Kleiner Perkins And Accel:
  142. A note from our founders about the future of MyFitnessPal:
  143. MyFitnessPal Co-Founder Explains How to Lose 100 Million Pounds:,2817,2421864,00.asp
  144. Selecting the Right Grain Mill for Emergencies and Everyday Use:
  145. Grain Mill Reviews - Manual Grain Mill Comparison:
  146. Serious Eats - How to Pick the Best Mortar and Pestle:
  147. Almond Milk Old School - made with a mortar and pestle:
  148. SHOCKING! Home Made Peanut Butter, No Electricity (made in mortar & pestle):
  149. How to make Walnut Butter using a large Mortar & Pestle:
  150. Conditioning Granite Mortar and Pestle:
  151. Jamie Oliver talks you through using a pestle and mortar:
  152. Restaurant and Food Service Inspection in Canada:
  153. A Food Site That Aims to Quantify Healthy Eating:
  154. Canada's Food Guide throughout the years (GALLERY):
  155. Health Canada -- Food Guide - Guiding Principles:
  156. Healthy Eating Strategy-Dietary Guidance Transformation–Focus Groups on Healthy Eating Messages,Visuals and BrandsResearch Report (2019):
  157. EWG - "Good Food" Guide:
  158. What font is used for Nutrition Facts labels?:
  159. USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference -- Release 18:
  160. Not all salts are equal -- 20 Ways to use Himalayan salt – the purest salt on Earth:
  161. What Everybody Ought to Know About Drinking Apple Juice: (compares to "Apple Cider" / "Apple Cider Vinegar")
  162. 4 Benefits of Apple Juice (And 5 Downsides):
  163. Dr. Oz Finds Arsenic in Many Top Brands of Apple Juice :
  164. Why '100% Orange Juice' Is Still Artificial:
  165. What Does '100% Juice' Mean?:
  166. RUN FROM THE CURE - The Rick Simpson Story:
  167. Rick Simpson Oil .vs. CBD Oil – Differences Explained:
  168. Can Rick Simpson Oil (RSO) Treat Cancer?:
  169. Explore the Diverse World of Cannabis Oil and Concentrates:
  170. How to make Cannabis Cure Oil without alerting the neighbors:
  171. Rick Simpson Oil (RSO) – How to Make Cannabis Oil That Saves Lives:
  172. Lower-Risk Cannabis Use Guidelines:A Comprehensive Update of Evidenceand Recommendations:
  173. Blanching Veggies with the Lid On or Off - Does It Make a Difference?: (answer: NO, as long as cook times/temperatures are the same)
  174. The Cost of Getting Lean (INFOGRAPHIC):
  175. How to eat right for your age:
  176. A shopping list for eating across the rainbow:
  177. NB Food Safety & Training certification:
  178. Existing Organic/Eco-Food Labels worldwide:
  179. Organic food — what is an ‘organic’ label really worth?:
  180. wikipedia: Rocket (vegetable) (aka. Arugula)
  181. Metronidazole - Drug facts:
  182. Metronidazole, Flagyl:
  183. DASH Diet:
  184. Natural treatments for the most common medical problems:
  185. wikipedia: Gluten-free diet
  186. wikipedia: Non-celiac gluten sensitivity (commonly abbreviated NCGS; aka. wheat allergy/sensitivity)
  187. wikipedia: William Davis (cardiologist) (author of "Wheat Belly" series)
  188. What Is the Wheat Belly Diet Plan?:
  189. Wheat Belly diet review:
  190. Wheat Belly Diet - Is Wheat Dangerous?:
  191. Wheat Belly summary:
  192. The Smoke and Mirrors Behind Wheat Belly and Grain Brain:
  193. We Decoded the Wheat Belly Diet — Here's What You Need to Know:
  194. Whole Grains Whole Grain vs Refined Grain Diagram Choose whole grains instead of refined grains:
  195. 10 Reasons to grow and stockpile red winter wheat:
  196. 13 Essential non-electric kitchen tools for your off-grid homestead:
  197. Emulsifiers in Food Raise Concerns - Part 1:
  198. The Problem with Emulsifiers - Part 2:
  199. Lectins and Leaky Gut Syndrome - Good Reason To Give Up Grains and Legumes or Just Another Exaggerated Food Fear?:
  200. Two Brains? The Answer to Treating My Depression May Be in my Gut:
  201. 14 (particularly) High Lectin Food Sources:
  202. These 50 Foods Are High In Lectins: - Avoidance or Not?:
  203. ​50 Foods Low In Lectins:
  204. List of Foods that Contain Lectin:
  205. Harmful or Harmless - Soy Lecithin:
  206. Mycotoxins, Candida and Leaky Gut Syndrome:

See Also

Health | Agriculture | Environment | Energy | Permaculture