Project Management

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Project Management is the organization and maintenance of the ongoing strategical direction/vision for a given project, and for communication of status of that project to its stakeholders (management, executives, owners, board of directors, possibly even shareholders, customers, the general public, etc).

Project Manager

A Project Manager (sometimes also abbreviated as PM or possibly as PMP for Project Management Professional) is a member of a company, department, team or workforce consultant whose role is to take responsibility for a project's fulfillment from beginning to end (or possibly part way through to end, in the case of troubled/re-hashed projects), all the while ensuring the project is completed to all specifications/requirements, including as many of the "nice-to-haves", well-tested, reliable, and turned in on time and on budget.


Having a Project Management Office (PMO) is a model whereby a specific company will separate Project Managers (PMs) from the rest of the company, such that any given PM in the PMO is "leased out" to a specific team only for a period of time while they work towards delivering one or more (but preferring to focus on one at a time) specific project(s), after which time, the PM will be returned to the PMO for a new assignment with a new team. This differs greatly from the residency model where each department of a company and/or team within the department has their own dedicated PM(s) for day-to-day operations and/or project they may work on.

Centralizing the PMs in the manner of a PMO makes it much easier to have a single-view of projects across the company, however comes with the downside of PMs potentially being seen as "strangers" (if not tyrannical overlords, aka. Micro-Managers) to the team they are assigned to manage or work with.

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Product Life-cycle Management (PLM) is the succession of strategies used by business management as a product goes through its life-cycle. The conditions in which a product is sold (advertising, saturation) changes over time and must be managed as it moves through its succession of stages.

The life of PLM is typically an entire product/service's lifetime.


A similar concept called "Program/Project Development Life-Cycle" (in that case abbreviated PDLC) is concerned with enhancing or changing a product or service in a manner which reflects specific customer, business, and organizational needs.

The life of PDLC is typically an specific project's lifetime within a larger product/service (such as a feature build).


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  1. Responsible
  2. Accountable
  3. Consulted
  4. Informed


After Action Review (AAR) is a protocol used by the US Military as a formal post-mortem.

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Blameless Post-Mortem

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The goal of any Project Management task, plan or framework, is typically to improve Productivity (whether of processes, people/workers, applications, products, services, etc). According to Wikipedia: "Productivity is an average measure of the efficiency of production. It can be expressed as the ratio of output to inputs used in the production process, i.e. output per unit of input.

When all outputs and inputs are included in the productivity measure it is called total productivity. Outputs and inputs are defined in the total productivity measure as their economic values. The value of outputs minus the value of inputs is a measure of the income generated in a production process. It is a measure of total efficiency of a production process and as such the objective to be maximized in production process.

Productivity measures that use one or more inputs or factors, but not all factors, are called partial productivities. A common example in economics is labor productivity, usually expressed as output per hour. At the company level, typical partial productivity measures are such things as worker hours, materials or energy per unit of production.

In macroeconomics the approach is different. In macroeconomics one wants to examine an entity of many production processes and the output is obtained by summing up the value-added created in the single processes. This is done in order to avoid the double accounting of intermediate inputs. Value-added is obtained by subtracting the intermediate inputs from the outputs. The most well-known and used measure of value-added is the GDP (Gross Domestic Product). It is widely used as a measure of the economic growth of nations and industries. GDP is the income available for paying capital costs, labor compensation, taxes and profits." [41]

Workforce Productivity is the amount of goods and services that a worker produces in a given amount of time. It is one of several types of productivity that economists measure. Workforce productivity can be measured for a firm, a process, an industry, or a country. It is often referred to as labor productivity.

The OECD defines it as "the ratio of a volume measure of output to a volume measure of input"[42] Volume measures of output are normally gross domestic product (GDP) or gross value added (GVA), expressed at constant prices i.e. adjusted for inflation. The three most commonly used measures of input are:

  1. hours worked;
  2. workforce jobs; and
  3. number of people in employment.


Other than these generic metrics, management may seek to establish and measure a number of other more specialized Key Performance Metrics (or KPIs) of their industry, business performance, product/service performance and employee workplace performance, such as in IT for a Programmer or a Software Development team:

  1. number of lines of code written per day
  2. estimates coming in on-time/budget .vs. delays (or total hours delayed)
  3. Bugs/Issues fixed per day
  4. ratio of bugs introduced in new code
  5. test case statuses (in TDD, % of code passing pre-tests at given point in project timeline)
  6. number of re-tests required (pass/fail ratio)
  7. Code Coverage (test cases created per line of code)
  8. major errors introduced (which prevent Builds/Deploys or completion of SLAs)
  9. minor errors/side-effects introduced (which don't prevent Builds/Deploys/SLAs but may negatively impact end-user satisfaction in some way, bounce rates, etc)
  10. application performance (uptime/downtime, query execution time, UI responsiveness, etc)
  11. adherence to Coding Styles (organizational or department/team/app-specific)

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Time Audit

If you find yourself saying "I just don't have time to X" (i.e. take a night time class, ) it would be useful to fill out a time audit. Copy the following down on a sheet of paper or Excel spreadsheet and write in your numbers.

Work: ______ Weekly Hours
Sleep: ______ Weekly Hours
Commute: ______ Weekly Hours
Errands: ______ Weekly Hours
Family Time: ______ Weekly Hours
Add the above numbers. That’s your “Total Hours”

Now do this equation: 168 - (Total Hours) = Weekly hours you have for fitness. Now stop making excuses. [65]






Burnout is a scenario where an employee or member of a group either emotionally or physically crashes, disconnects or encounters an ailment that prevents their continued productive participation in the group, organization or initiative that caused the Burnout.

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"Resiliency" is the ability to deal with and recover from (if not thrive as a result of) challenges of all types. Relevant topics include Sustainability, Human Resources and Security.

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Getting Things Done (GTD).

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See KPP (Key Performance Indicator)


See KPM (Key Performance Metric/Measure)


See KRI (Key Risk Indicator)



See OKR (Objectives and Key Results)




Time/Task Tracking

Defect Tracking

See: Defect Management

Document Publishing/Editing




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External Links

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  1. The PMO is dead; long live the PMO! by Jonathan Smart, Head of Working Ways (Barclays' presentation at DevOps Enterprise):
  2. The PMO is dead; long live the PMO!:
  3. History of the Software Development Life Cycle:
  5. Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC): (nice linear diagram, unfortunately it doesn't always work that way or "flow smoothly")
  6. What Is SDLC:
  7. PMI - Project managing the SDLC:
  8. PMI - Integration of the project management life cycle (PMLC) and the systems development life cycle (SDLC) in accelerated project efforts:
  9. SDLC (Software Development Life Cycle) Phases, Methodologies, Process, and Models:
  10. Phases & Models of Software Development Life Cycle:
  11. What Is DSDM?:
  12. DSDM -- A Step-by-Step-Guide:
  13. DSDM is an Agile method that focuses on the full project lifecycle:
  14. What Is DSDM (Dynamic Systems Development Method)?:
  15. Dynamic Systems Development Method (DSDM):
  16. Preventing Scope Creep, Scope Grope & Scope Leap from Killing Your Projects!:
  17. Automating the International Council On Systems Engineering (INCOSE) Guide for Writing Requirements:
  18. 5 Requirements Lessons from a Robot:
  19. Anticipate more project "Requirements", meet more "Deadlines": (3 main types of requirements: Known, Overlooked & Emergent)
  20. Software Development Time Estimation - Best Ways of Calculation (depending on Requirement type):
  21. Product requirements documents, downsized (with JIRA):
  22. The 6 Most Important Requirements Practices:
  23. US Navy -- Program Evaluation Research Task (PERT) - summary report. Phase 2.:
  24. What Is a PERT Chart?:
  25. What Is a PERT Chart?:
  26. Collaboration Overload:
  29. US Military AAR process -- Chapter 1 - The After-Action Review:
  31. Etsy’s Debriefing Facilitation Guide for Blameless Postmortems:
  32. "Blameless" postmortems don't work -- Here's what does.:
  33. Blameless PostMortems and a Just Culture:
  34. Etsy's Winning Secret -- Don't Play The Blame Game!:
  35. Morgue -- Etsy's Post-Morten tracker (PHP):
  36. Blameless Post Mortems -- How do you respond when things go wrong?:
  37. 5 Whys – how we conduct blameless post-mortems after something goes wrong:
  38. Why Blameless Post-Mortems are Essential:
  39. How to Conduct a Blameless Security Post-Mortem:
  40. Blameless Post-Mortem Meeting Template:
  41. wikipedia: Productivity
  42. OECD Manual on Measuring Productivity in the Workforce:
  43. wikipedia: Workforce productivity
  45. Julie Wright & Russ King -- “We all fall down”:
  46. Book Notes - It's Not Luck:
  47. Examples of core problems in Theory of Constraints:
  48. Working hours at this shrimp processing and packaging plant are outlined as: “Whenever the heck you feel like it.":
  49. Top 12 Things That Destroy Developer Productivity:
  50. Forget About the 10x Developer, Focus on 3x Instead:
  51. How To Be Productive According To Ancient Philosophy: development-how-to-choose-between-incremental-and-fundamental-change/
  52. How to Spend The First Hour of Your Work Day on High-Value Tasks:
  53. Pat Lencioni -- The Five Dysfunctions of a Team (AUDIOBOOK):
  54. Defining Productivity:
  55. Work Less, Get More Done -- Analytics For Maximizing Productivity:
  56. Silicon Valley Ruined Work Culture Everywhere:
  57. How Eventbrite prioritizes developer productivity:
  58. Maximizing Developer Effectiveness:
  59. Drive Alignment -- 5 Strategies for Burning Down Silos and Building Bridges:
  60. Maker's Schedule, Manager's Schedule:
  61. One Thing Steve Jobs Did at Apple That Will Instantly Improve Your Productivity:
  62. These 6 Types of Music Are Known to Dramatically Improve Productivity:
  63. The SPACE of Developer Productivity:
  64. How To Be More Productive by Working Less:
  65. 6 tools that are more powerful than to-do lists for productivity:
  66. Do you work on multiple side projects or one at a time?:
  67. Human Task Switches Considered Harmful:
  68. wikipedia: Burnout
  69. How Great Leaders Avoid Burnout:
  70. Daily time spent with media worldwide from 2011 to 2021 (in minutes): (as of 2018-2019, daily screen time has exceeded 7.7hrs)
  71. I quit the tech industry:
  72. When the CEO Burns Out:
  73. The "Set-Up-To-Fail" Syndrome:
  74. Workism Is Making Americans Miserable:
  75. Beating Burnout:
  76. Stuck In A Rut? How Passion Projects Can Reignite Your Motivation:
  77. 'Job Crafting' -- The Great Opportunity In The Job You Already Have:
  78. Crafting a Job -- Revisioning Employees as Active Crafters of Their Work:
  79. We Teach Who We Are -- Creativity in the Lives and Practices of Accomplished Teachers:
  80. How The Most Successful People Conquer Burnout:
  81. Overwhelmed by your to-do lists? Try this simple solution -- Daily WIP limit of 3 items:
  82. "fika" -- Boost Your Team’s Productivity With This Swedish Coffee Break:
  83. Why Restorative Rest Makes You More Productive And How To Achieve It:
  84. How Millennials Became The Burnout Generation:
  85. Young People Are Going to Save Us All From Office Life:
  86. Embracing, Passing, Revealing, and the Ideal Worker Image -- How People Navigate Expected and Experienced Professional Identities:
  87. The American Working Conditions Survey Finds That More Than Half of Retirees Would Return to Work:
  88. Tips From Job Burnout Survivors -- How To Heal From An Overachiever Attitude:
  89. Your Realistic Guide To Beating Burnout (Because A Vacation Isn’t The Answer):
  90. When A Psychologist Succumbed To Stress, He Coined The Term 'Burnout':
  91. 6 Causes of Employee Burnout and How to Prevent Them :
  92. "Burnout" Crisis at Work Threatens Post-Pandemic Workplaces:
  93. Use the Science of Ultradian Rhythms To Boost Productivity, Energy, and Willpower:
  94. Manage Your Energy, Not Your Time:
  95. Burnout and How to Avoid It:
  96. Developer Burnout Fueling Great Resignation Staff Migration:
  97. Howatt HR consulting -- Free book & white paper resources:
  98. Howatt HR consulting -- Articles & Podcasts on "resiliency":
  99. wikipedia: Getting Things Done
  100. The Art of Stress-Free Productivity -- David Allen at TEDxClaremontColleges:
  101. GTD 101 -- The Beginner’s Guide To Getting Things Done:
  102. The GTD Approach To Maximizing Productivity With Trello:
  103. Productivity 101 -- A Primer to the Getting Things Done (GTD) Philosophy:
  104. Getting Things Done® -- A Complete Guide for Beginners and How To Implement GTD in Paymo:
  105. Atul Gawande's 'Checklist' For Surgery Success:
  106. Can a simple, safe childbirth checklist save lives in developing countries?:
  107. A Surgical Safety Checklist to Reduce Morbidity and Mortality in a Global Population:
  108. Atul Gawande’s surgical checklist fails in one real world study: (proves training and rewards/penalties play role in adherence or use of checklist)
  109. How To Prioritize Tasks As A Team When Everything Seems Important:
  110. Meeting report: (visual breakdown of the waste inherent in excessive or poorly planned/executed meetings)
  111. PomoDone:
  112. ToMighty:
  113. Pomodoro Timers:
  114. Pomodoro Tracker:
  115. Moosti:
  116. The Best Pomodoro Timer Apps & Online Tools:
  117. Productivity 101 -- A Primer to The Pomodoro Technique:
  118. How to use a Pomodoro Timer -- The quick start guide to using the Pomodoro technique:
  119. Pomodairo Is a Pomodoro-Based Timer and Task Tracking Tool:
  120. How the Pomodoro technique works (with Kanbanflow):
  121. DIY Pomodoro Timer on MAc:
  122. How I built my Pomodoro Clock app (in ES6), and the lessons I learned along the way: | DEMO
  123. Make Time Your Friend with the Pomodoro Technique on TODOist:
  124. How to estimate a UX project:
  125. Time Tracking - Hassle or Help? Freckle Enlightens:
  126. The Optimism Bias:,8599,2074067,00.html
  127. Schedule Your Day With the Pomodoro Technique:
  128. Why I Killed My Standing Desk:
  129. We Tested Standing Desks—Here’s Proof They Make You More Productive:
  130. The standing desk -- I am a convert:
  131. Why are stand-up desks so expensive?: (answers indicate: THEY DON'T HAVE TO BE)
  132. Become a Stand-Up Guy -- The History, Benefits, and Use of Standing Desks:
  133. The Programmer's Price:
  134. wikipedia: Henry Gantt
  135. wikipedia: Karol Adamiecki
  136. How Do Gantt Charts Make Project Managers’ Lives Easier?:
  137. RASCI Responsibility Matrix:
  138. How To Improve Your Team By Playing One Of These 4 “D.A.C.I.” Roles:
  139. How the Peter Principle Works:
  140. Incompetence Rains, Er, Reigns - What The Peter Principle Means Today:
  141. Deliberate Practice and Performance in Music, Games, Sports, Education, and Professions:
  142. Scientific Speed Reading - How to Read 300% Faster in 20 Minutes:
  143. Myth -- If You Can’t Measure It, You Can’t Manage It:
  144. The Two Most Important Quotes In Business:
  145. You Can’t Improve What you Don’t Measure:
  146. Wofklex & Manufacturing Guide:
  147. Guide to Flexible Work Arrangements For leaders and employees:
  148. JETRO - Japans' Legislation on working hours, breaks and days off:
  149. Tech company Verve lets employees choose their hours, where they work:
  150. The Real Reason They Won't Let You Work Flexible Hours:
  151. How to get flexible work hours:
  152. CANADA -- Federal Government - Flexible work arrangements, What was heard:
  153. Why Flexible Working Hours Make Employees More Productive:
  154. WANT TO MAXIMIZE YOUR PRODUCTIVITY? WORK WEEKENDS (but reduce weekday in-office hours):
  155. 4 Reasons to Offer Employees Flexible Schedules:
  156. Flexible work arrangements -- 7 benefits your business is missing out on:
  157. Most Canadian businesses offer flexible work hours — at least to the boss: study:
  158. How Companies Can Implement Flexible Work Arrangements:
  159. Flexible Hours Aren't Working As Well As Companies Say:
  160. Do you work more than 39 hours a week? Your job could be killing you (slowly but surely):
  161. Get the work/life balance you need:
  162. 8-to-4 is a more popular work schedule than 9-to-5:
  163. Want Your Employees to Work More? Let Them Set Their Own Schedules:
  164. Why Americans and Britons work such long hours:
  165. Your Employees' Tech Addiction Is Your Problem:
  166. Flexible Work Schedules:
  167. The Death of the 8-Hour Shift:
  168. Japan needs a working hours overhaul:
  169. Long hours, no extra pay -- what it’s like to work in Japan:
  170. Job perks on rise in Japan as labor crunch reshapes how companies attract workers:
  171. Japanese firms encourage their dozy workers to sleep on the job :
  172. Why Japanese Factories Work (1981):
  173. Working at Osaka shrimp company has only one rule: Don’t do any work that you don’t want to do
  174. Clocking off -- Japan calls time on long-hours work culture:
  175. wikipedia: Japanese work environment
  176. Alibaba's Jack Ma 'to step down and focus on philanthropy':
  177. China's punishing"996"work culture:
  178. OECD -- Future of Work & Skills:
  179. OECD stats on Job quality: (earnings-focused)
  180. OECD stats -- Hours worked (GLOBAL):
  181. Where is China headed? Five key insights from the 2019 OECD Economic Survey of China:
  182. Burnout Research -- Emergence and Scientific Investigation of a Contested DiagnosisLinda V. Heinemann, Torsten Heinemann:
  183. New French Law Bars Work Email After Hours:
  184. These countries work the hardest:
  185. Who works the longest hours?:
  186. Americans work longest hours among industrialized countries:
  187. China needs further reforms to make growth sustainable, greener and more inclusive:
  188. OECD -- Average annual hours actually worked per worker :
  189. Project Management Jokes:
  190. A Humorous Look at Project Management - Jokes We Can All Enjoy:
  191. Just for a Laugh - The Lighter Side of Project Management:
  192. The Best Project Management Jokes Shared By Project Managers:
  193. How Projects Are Born — 12 Hilarious Project Management Jokes:

See Also

Business Plan | Startup | Agile | Collaboration | Optimization | SCM | Design | Programming | Testing | Scheduling | Telecommuting